23,082 research outputs found

    Financial inclusion and women participation in gainful employment: an empirical analysis of Nigeria

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    The paper examines the effect of financial inclusion on women participation in gainful employment in Nigeria for the period 1980 – 2018, employing the ARDL method. Both in the short run, and long-run the results obtained indicated a positive relationship between financial inclusion and women participation in gainful employment. Thus, the paper recommends that the government should ensure that the barriers to financial inclusion is reduced or removed. This will increase women participation in economic activities, since measures regarding financial inclusion is adjudged as convenient, safety and prompt. Measures that will enhance private deposit and expansion of more commercials banks branch in rural areas to enhance women’s access to financial services which discourage the use of informal financial services should be encouraged

    Vereinbarkeit von Erwerbsarbeit und Familienarbeit als aktuelle und zentrale Zielsetzung der Familienpolitik

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    Gainful employment of women, especially of married women as well as of mothers has increased in Germany to a remarkable extent during the last decades. At the same time the number of births has strongly diminished. The author analyses the reasons underlying this development and the consequences and problems of the changed role of women within family, economy and society. Having described the instruments used to make the fulfilment of family duties compatible with employment he answers the question how this catalogue of instruments should be completed and improved.Familienpolitik; Geburtenentwicklung; Gleichberechtigung; Erwerbstaetigkeit der Frau, Rolle der Frau in Familie, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft; Humanvermoegensbildung

    Child Care, Work, and the Federal Income Tax

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    This article explores the federal income tax treatment of employment-related child care expenses. It takes both a theoretical and historical approach, examining the various ways in which the Code has dealt with child care in relation to conventional tax notions and values at play in the community at large. Part II outlines the history of the Code\u27s various childcare provisions. It is a critical analysis whose purpose is to decide whether any of the provisions, which have existed, can be explained by a particular tax theory. Part III asks whether employment-related childcare expenses can be characterized as business or personal expenses. This question is asked in the hope that it can reveal what the proper tax treatment of employment-related childcare expenses should be. Would the exclusion of such costs be a refinement of the taxpayer\u27s income or just another loophole? The issue of the imputed income of home production is taken up in part IV. Should a deduction for childcare and household services be allowed so as to provide tax neutrality between wage work and housework? Part V takes a second run through the history developed in part II. This time, however, the emphasis is sociological. I explore whether our reasons for preferring one child care provision over another, or over none at all, are more a product of underlying values regarding work and family than adherence to tax theory. Finally, in part VI, the author discusses what type of childcare provision he thinks the Code should have in light of what he has presented in the paper

    Zur Geschlechtsspezifik der Arbeitszeitformen, der Arbeitszeitwünsche und der Zeitverwendung bei den abhängig Beschäftigten (On the gender-specific features of types of working hours, wishes regarding working hours and on the utilisation of time among employees in dependent employment)

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    "Within the framework of the survey of working hours which has been supported financially by the Ministry for Labour, Health and Social Affairs in Nord-Rhein Westphalen since 1987, the ISO has so far carried out four representative employment surveys. The most recent of these surveys, carried out in 1995, included for the first time workers in the new federal states. 4,085 people in dependent employment aged between 18 and 65 were asked questions about the structure of their working hours, their desires regarding working hours and on the way they spent their time outside work. The study verifies a strong growth of different types of flexible working hours in western and eastern Germany. In western Germany only 17% of people in dependent employment still work under the conditions of normal standard working hours; in eastern Germany it is still 25%. In the area of so-called 'traditional' forms of flexibilisation of working hours, such as shift work, night work, weekend work and overtime, there are hardly any differences between western and eastern Germany. The differences only appear in the 'new' types of flexibilisation such as flexi-time and part-time work. Patterns of labour force participation and wishes regarding working hours show clear gender- specific differences, in particular among employed people living in two-person households. The results regarding utilisation of time show that the allocation of social work continues to follow the traditional division of roles, according to which women undertake the bulk of the informal work (housework, care of children etc.) and men work more intensively in the area of formal work (gainful employment). If there are children in the household, this usually leads to a reduction in the number of hours in gainful employment for women, but for men on the other hand sometimes to an extension of their full-time work (overtime). In this respect, however, differences can be determined between western and eastern Germany: whereas for western German women part-time employment seems to be accepted to a great extent as a means of combining work and family, this form of employment is seen by eastern German women to be at best a temporary solution, as they still orientate themselves towards continuous full-time employment. In spite of this stronger orientation towards employment and the higher ratio of full-time workers among eastern German women, there are also clear gender-specific features in eastern Germany with regard to the allocation of social work: men do more formal work, women more informal work. The doubtful nature of traditional gender-specific features lies in the fact that as a result of these features, women are permanently at a disadvantage with regard to their interests in gainful employment when they have a child. Women's attempts to compensate for these disadvantages individually by remaining in the employment system for the greatest possible amount of time lead to double burdens and a lack of time. The present situation can best be described as anomic: the traditional gender-specific features show numerous functional deficits and gender-specific disadvantages; however new forms of division of work which open up the same opportunities on the labour market for women and men with children are not yet in sight, let alone seriously established." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))Arbeitszeitentwicklung, Arbeitszeitgestaltung, Arbeitszeitflexibilität, Zeitverwendung, Erwerbsbeteiligung, Arbeitszeitwunsch, Beruf und Familie, geschlechtsspezifische Faktoren, Westdeutschland, Ostdeutschland, Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Historical roots of the dual-earner model: Women’s labour force participation in Sweden, 1870–1960

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    Today, Sweden has one of the highest female labour force participation rates in the developed world, but how deep are the roots of women’s involvement in gainful employment? In this article, I present new estimates of women’s labour force participation rate between 1870 and 1960, the time when the country shifted from a predominantly agrarian economy to an industrial and services-based society. The revised data give a very different pattern from existing series; I find that female participation displays a clear U-shape: falling from the late nineteenth century,reaching a trough in the 1940s, and then starting to rise from the 1960s. Falling employment in agriculture was not balanced out by expanding opportunities in manufacturing, but women’s gainful employment started expanding as the white-collar services sector grew and women’s education increased - following the pattern set out by Goldin’s theory of the U-curve. The male breadwinner period was short and less pronounced in Sweden than in most other countrieshowever. Participation among adult women in the late nineteenth century was above 55 percent, and never fell below 40 percent at the lowest point. My findings lend support to the idea that the dual-earner model of present-day Sweden could be the outcome of a longer historical trajectory

    Die Vermögensverteilung und die Reform der gesetzlichen Rentenversicherung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

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    The structure of the compulsory pension system (CPS) in the Federal Republic of Germany has been changed fundamentally. The federal government has decided to introduce a private pension system on a voluntary basis. The payments to this voluntary system are to constitute a capital stock to supplement the payments of the compulsory pension system. Comprehensive fiscal subsidies will be introduced to support this change to the pension system. This paper discusses the special situation of families with children. The second section investigates the extent to which families with children were able to accumulate private wealth in the last ten years in Germany. In the third section the main features of the intended changes to the compulsory pension system are described, and an overview of the planned fiscal subsidies is provided. In the fourth and final section we attempt to evaluate the changes with particular attention to the situation of families.Die Struktur der Gesetzlichen Rentenversicherung (GRV) in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland ist grundsätzlich geändert worden. Die Bundesregierung hat die Einführung einer zusätzlichen privaten Alterssicherung auf freiwilliger Basis beschlossen. Hierdurch soll ein Kapitalstock gebildet werden, der die Leistungen der GRV ergänzt. Zur Förderung dieser Systemänderung der Alterssicherung werden umfangreiche fiskalische Unterstützungsmaßnahmen eingeführt. Im Rahmen des hier vorliegenden Beitrags wird auf die besondere Situation der Familien mit Kindern eingegangen. Im zweiten Abschnitt wird untersucht, inwieweit Familien mit Kindern in den letzten zehn Jahren in Deutschland in der Lage waren, privates Vermögen aufzubauen. Im dritten Abschnitt werden die beabsichtigten Änderungen des Systems der gesetzlichen Rentenversicherung in den Grundzügen dargestellt, und es wird ein Überblick über die geplanten fiskalischen Fördermaßnahmen gegeben. Im abschließenden vierten Abschnitt wird eine Bewertung der Änderungen vor allem in Bezug auf die Situation von Familien versucht

    Demographic Ageing and Employment in India

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    [Excerpt] This study by Irudaya Rajan brings to light the current and emerging issues concerning the implications of demographic change on the labour market in India. While population ageing is a major achievement of our times it presents major challenges for the world of work that need to be addressed. With 90 million persons over 60 years of age, India has the second largest population of older people in the world. Furthermore, between now and 2050 the Indian population over 60 years of age will almost quadruple. The low level of benefits and their limited coverage push large numbers of older people (particularly older women) to continue working in the informal economy. The combination of old-age, lack of access to decent work, poverty and exclusion is therefore of great concern. This India study discusses the main economic and labour market issues and implications related to population ageing in India, and presents an overview of current policy responses. Section 1 of the study describes the main current and future demographic trends. Section 2 analyses overall employment and labour market situation of the older persons. Section 3 focuses on the poverty incidence in the old age in urban and rural areas. Section 4 deals with the main challenges of the social security system and provides an overview of the current pension reform. Section 5 presents the two main national policies targeting older people in India. The final section puts forward main policy suggestions towards ensuring a secure and decent old age for the Indian population

    Full-time Workers Want to Work Fewer Hours, Part-time Workers Want to Work Longer Hours

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    Since the reunification of Germany, average working times for men and women have followed different trends. There are various reasons for the difference. More and more women are gainfully employed; they engage in part-time and marginal employment, both of which are on the rise. The importance of full-time employment has declined. This accounts for most of the reduction in their average workweek, which decreased by 2.3 hours to 31.9 hours between 1993 and 2007. The full-time employment of men also declined, in both relative and absolute terms-unlike their average workweek, which, according to data provided by the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), totaled 43.3 hours per week in 2007. This is 0.8 hours more than in 1993. Overall, the working time of male and female wage and salary earners in West Germany and of such earners in East Germany have converged, though not the number of working hours preferred by women in the two regions. These numbers remain considerably higher in East Germany than in West Germany. The differences are most pronounced among women who work part-time. In East Germany, the women who this applies to often find that this form of employment provides too low a level of work. Long workweeks exceeding 40 hours are not very popular in either part of Germany-not even among men, at least half of whom work that long, though only 17 percent of them do so by preference.Working time, Working time preferences, Gender gap, East / West Germany

    Differences in US-German time-allocation: Why do Americans work longer hours than Germans?

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    The conventional view is that Americans work longer hours than Germans and other Europeans but when time in household production is included, overall working time is very similar on both sides of the Atlantic. Americans spend more time on market work but German invest more in household production. This paper examines whether these differences in the allocation of time can be explained by differences in the incentive structure, this is by the tax-wedge and differences in the wage differentials, as economic theory suggests. Its analysis of unique time-use data reveals that the differences in time-allocation patterns can indeed be explained by economic variables. -- Nach allgemeiner Auffassung arbeiten Amerikaner länger pro Jahr als Deutsche oder andere Europäer. Wenn jedoch die Arbeit im Haushalt einbezogen wird, ist die Gesamtarbeitszeit auf beiden Seiten des Atlantiks fast gleich. Amerikaner leisten mehr Arbeitsstunden in bezahlter Arbeit, Deutsche investieren mehr Arbeitsstunden in Hausarbeit. Dieser Beitrag untersucht, ob diese unterschiedliche Arbeitszeitverteilung durch unterschiedliche Anreizstrukturen erklärt werden kann; das heißt Steuerzwänge und Lohn-/Gehaltsunterschiede, wie dies wirtschaftstheoretische Überlegungen nahe legen. Die Analyse von zeitgleichen Daten ergibt, dass Arbeitszeitverteilungsmuster tatsächlich durch ökonomische Variablen erklärt werden können.

    India Country Profile

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    [From Introduction] This country study for India is part of the ILO project \u27Employment of People with Disabilities – the Impact of Legislation\u27 which aims to enhance the capacity of national governments in selected countries of Asia and East Africa to implement effective legislation concerning the employment of people with disabilities. Starting with a systematic examination of laws in place to promote employment and training opportunities for people with disabilities in selected countries of Asia and the Pacific (Australia, Cambodia, China, Fiji, Japan, India, Mongolia, Sri Lanka and Thailand), the project sets out to examine the operation of such legislation, identify the implementation mechanisms in place and suggest improvements Technical assistance is provided to selected national governments in implementing necessary improvements. The country study outlines the main provisions of the laws in place in India concerning the employment of people with disabilities. A brief review of the implementation of the legislation is also provided, insofar as this was possible, based on a survey of documentary sources, a study by an in-country consultant and feedback from Indian delegates to a Project Consultation held in Bangkok, 17 January 2003. It may be read in conjunction with the regional overview prepared for this Consultation \u27Employment of People with Disabilities – the Impact of Legislation (Asia and the Pacific). Project Consultation Report, Bangkok 17 January\u27, ILO 2003
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