40,126 research outputs found

    Optimising DNA binding to carbon nanotubes by non-covalent methods

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    The use of carbon nanotubes as a gene delivery system has been extensively studied in recent years owing to its potential advantages over viral vectors. To achieve this goal, carbon nanotubes have to be functionalized to become compatible with aqueous media and to bind the genetic material. To establish the best conditions for plasmid DNA binding, we compare the dispersion properties of single-, double- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, DWCNTs and MWCNTs, respectively) functionalized with a variety of surfactants by non-covalent attachment. The DNA binding properties of the functionalized carbon nanotubes were studied and compared by electrophoresis. Furthermore, a bilayer functionalization method for DNA binding on SWCNTs was developed that utilized RNA-wrapping to solubilize the nanotubes and cationic polymers as a bridge between nanotubes and DNA

    Mapping of functionalized regions on carbon nanotubes by scanning tunneling microscopy

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    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) gives us the opportunity to map the surface of functionalized carbon nanotubes in an energy resolved manner and with atomic precision. But this potential is largely untapped, mainly due to sample stability issues which inhibit reliable measurements. Here we present a simple and straightforward solution that makes away with this difficulty, by incorporating the functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) into a few layer graphene - nanotube composite. This enabled us to measure energy resolved tunneling conductance maps on the nanotubes, which shed light on the level of doping, charge transfer between tube and functional groups and the dependence of defect creation or functionalization on crystallographic orientation.Comment: Keywords: functionalization, carbon nanotubes, few layer graphene, STM, CITS, ST

    Urea functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes as efficient nitrogen delivery system for rice

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    This paper utilized urea functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes fertilizer as plant nutrition for rice to understand fully their mechanism of interaction. Surface modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes was treated by nitric acid at different reflux times. The individual and interaction effects between the design factors of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube amount and functionalization reflux time with the corresponding responses of nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency were structured via the Response Surface Methodology based on five-level central composite design. The urea functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes fertilizer with optimized 0.5 weight% functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes treated at 21 h of reflux time achieve tremendous nitrogen uptake at 1180 mg/pot and NUE up to 96%. The FT-IR results confirm the formation of acidic functional groups of functionalized MWCNTs and UF-MWCNTs. The morphological observation of transmission electron microscopy shows extracellular regions to be the preferred localization of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes in fresh plant root cells independent of their size and geometry. Penetration into the plant cell results in breaching of graphitic tubular structure of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes with their length being shortened until 鈭50 nm and diameters becoming thinner until less than 10 nm. The capability to agglomerate after translocation into the plant cells alarms potential cytotoxicity effect of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes in agriculture. These work findings have suggested using urea functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes for effective nutrient delivery systems in rice plant. 漏 2019 Vietnam Academy of Science & Technology

    Urea Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes As Efficient Nitrogen Delivery System For Rice

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    This paper utilized urea functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes fertilizer as plant nutrition for rice to understand fully their mechanism of interaction. Surface modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes was treated by nitric acid at different reflux times. The individual and interaction effects between the design factors of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube amount and functionalization reflux time with the corresponding responses of nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency were structured via the Response Surface Methodology based on five-level central composite design. The urea functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes fertilizer with optimized 0.5 weight% functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes treated at 21 h of reflux time achieve tremendous nitrogen uptake at 1180 mg/pot and NUE up to 96%. The FT-IR results confirm the formation of acidic functional groups of functionalized MWCNTs and UF-MWCNTs. The morphological observation of transmission electron microscopy shows extracellular regions to be the preferred localization of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes in fresh plant root cells independent of their size and geometry. Penetration into the plant cell results in breaching of graphitic tubular structure of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes with their length being shortened until 鈭50 nm and diameters becoming thinner until less than 10 nm. The capability to agglomerate after translocation into the plant cells alarms potential cytotoxicity effect of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes in agriculture. These work findings have suggested using urea functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes for effective nutrient delivery systems in rice plant

    Field-effect transistors assembled from functionalized carbon nanotubes

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    We have fabricated field effect transistors from carbon nanotubes using a novel selective placement scheme. We use carbon nanotubes that are covalently bound to molecules containing hydroxamic acid functionality. The functionalized nanotubes bind strongly to basic metal oxide surfaces, but not to silicon dioxide. Upon annealing, the functionalization is removed, restoring the electronic properties of the nanotubes. The devices we have fabricated show excellent electrical characteristics.Comment: 5 pages, 6 figure

    Magnetic fullerenes inside single-wall carbon nanotubes

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    C59N magnetic fullerenes were formed inside single-wall carbon nanotubes by vacuum annealing functionalized C59N molecules encapsulated inside the tubes. A hindered, anisotropic rotation of C59N was deduced from the temperature dependence of the electron spin resonance spectra near room temperature. Shortening of spin-lattice relaxation time, T_1, of C59N indicates a reversible charge transfer toward the host nanotubes above 350\sim 350 K. Bound C59N-C60 heterodimers are formed at lower temperatures when C60 is co-encapsulated with the functionalized C59N. In the 10-300 K range, T_1 of the heterodimer shows a relaxation dominated by the conduction electrons on the nanotubes

    Dispersion of carbon nanotubes in polyamide 6 for microinjection moulding

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    The focus of this study was to investigate the dispersion state of pure and functionalized carbon nanotubes in polyamide 6, on composites prepared by twin-screw extrusion and then processed by microinjection moulding. Nanocomposites were prepared with different carbonvnanotube compositions, with and without functionalization. The nanotubes were functionalized by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. The dispersion of the carbon nanotube agglomerates was quantified using optical microscopy and image analysis. The effect of functionalization on the polyamide 6/carbon nanotube interface, the nanocomposite morphology and the mechanical and electrical properties were studied. It was observed that the microinjected composites with functionalized carbon nanotubes presented improved dispersion, with smaller carbon nanotube agglomerate area ratio compared to the composites with pure nanotubes. The functionalized nanotubes showed better adhesion to polyamide 6 compared to pure nanotubes, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. The incorporation of carbon nanotubes considerably improved the mechanical properties. The effect of high polymer shear rate on carbon nanotube alignment during microinjection moulding was assessed by comparing the electrical resistivity of the composite after extrusion and after microinjection moulding, through the thickness and along the flow direction. The experiments showed that the mould design and processing conditions significantly affected electrical resistivity.Funda莽茫o para a Ci锚ncia e Tecnologia (project PEst-C/CTM/LA0025/2013

    Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes in the Brain: Cellular Internalization and Neuroinflammatory Responses

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    The potential use of functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) for drug and gene delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) and as neural substrates makes the understanding of their in vivo interactions with the neural tissue essential. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between chemically functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWNTs) and the neural tissue following cortical stereotactic administration. Two different f-MWNT constructs were used in these studies: shortened (by oxidation) amino-functionalized MWNT (oxMWNT-NH3+) and amino-functionalized MWNT (MWNT-NH3+). Parenchymal distribution of the stereotactically injected f-MWNTs was assessed by histological examination. Both f-MWNT were uptaken by different types of neural tissue cells (microglia, astrocytes and neurons), however different patterns of cellular internalization were observed between the nanotubes. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining for specific markers of glial cell activation (GFAP and CD11b) was performed and secretion of inflammatory cytokines was investigated using real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Injections of both f-MWNT constructs led to a local and transient induction of inflammatory cytokines at early time points. Oxidation of nanotubes seemed to induce significant levels of GFAP and CD11b over-expression in areas peripheral to the f-MWNT injection site. These results highlight the importance of nanotube functionalization on their interaction with brain tissue that is deemed critical for the development nanotube-based vector systems for CNS application

    Functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes as ultrasound contrast agents

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    Ultrasonography is a fundamental diagnostic imaging tool in everyday clinical practice. Here, we are unique in describing the use of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as hyperechogenic material, suggesting their potential application as ultrasound contrast agents. Initially, we carried out a thorough investigation to assess the echogenic property of the nanotubes in vitro. We demonstrated their long-lasting ultrasound contrast properties. We also showed that ultrasound signal of functionalized MWCNTs is higher than graphene oxide, pristine MWCNTs, and functionalized single-walled CNTs. Qualitatively, the ultrasound signal of CNTs was equal to that of sulfur hexafluoride (SonoVue), a commercially available contrast agent. Then, we found that MWCNTs were highly echogenic in liver and heart through ex vivo experiments using pig as an animal model. In contrast to the majority of ultrasound contrast agents, we observed in a phantom bladder that the tubes can be visualized within a wide variety of frequencies (i.e., 5.5鈥10 MHz) and 12.5 MHz using tissue harmonic imaging modality. Finally, we demonstrated in vivo in the pig bladder that MWCNTs can be observed at low frequencies, which are appropriate for abdominal organs. Importantly, we did not report any toxicity of CNTs after 7 d from the injection by animal autopsy, organ histology and immunostaining, blood count, and chemical profile. Our results reveal the enormous potential of CNTs as ultrasound contrast agents, giving support for their future applications as theranostic nanoparticles, combining diagnostic and therapeutic modalities
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