290,181 research outputs found

    Free Radicals

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    Commissioned article looking back at London's printmaking workshops of the 1960s and 70s, DIY sites of political and community activism that rejected the role of the artist to participate in a network of campaign groups, radical publishers and distributors

    Assay of the antioxidant capacity of foods using an iron(II)-catalysed lipid peroxidation model for greater nutritional relevance

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    The formation of free radicals by the iron-catalysed Fenton reaction is a major cause of oxidative damage in the body. Here a common assay of antioxidant capacity, inhibition of the β-carotene-linoleic acid model of lipid peroxidation, has been modified by the addition of ferrous iron (final concentration 36 μmol/l), which makes the rate of oxidation of the lipids occur twenty-five times faster. Such an assay can simulate the oxidative damage to membrane lipids and low density lipoproteins occurring in the body in the presence of free iron. It thus may be nutritionally more relevant than traditional chemical assays of antioxidant capacity, as it measures pre-emptive antioxidant activity, i.e. activity which prevents free radicals being formed in the first place. Pre-empting their formation is likely to be more protective than scavenging of free radicals. The relative antioxidant activity of some food products found using this new assay was very different from that found using a radical-scavenging assay. Vitamin C, at 280 mg/l, was found to be sixty times better than blackcurrant puree in scavenging free radicals, but only one eighth as good as the blackcurrant puree in preventing iron-catalysed lipid peroxidation

    Spectroscopy of free radicals and radical containing entrance-channel complexes in superfluid helium nano-droplets

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    The spectroscopy of free radicals and radical containing entrance-channel complexes embedded in superfluid helium nano-droplets is reviewed. The collection of dopants inside individual droplets in the beam represents a micro-canonical ensemble, and as such each droplet may be considered an isolated cryo-reactor. The unique properties of the droplets, namely their low temperature (0.4 K) and fast cooling rates (1016\sim10^{16} K s1^{-1}) provides novel opportunities for the formation and high-resolution studies of molecular complexes containing one or more free radicals. The production methods of radicals are discussed in light of their applicability for embedding the radicals in helium droplets. The spectroscopic studies performed to date on molecular radicals and on entrance / exit-channel complexes of radicals with stable molecules are detailed. The observed complexes provide new information on the potential energy surfaces of several fundamental chemical reactions and on the intermolecular interactions present in open-shell systems. Prospects of further experiments of radicals embedded in helium droplets are discussed, especially the possibilities to prepare and study high-energy structures and their controlled manipulation, as well as the possibility of fundamental physics experiments.Comment: 25 pages, 12 figures, 4 tables (RevTeX

    AAD-2004, a potent spin trapping molecule and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 inhibitor, shows safety and efficacy in a mouse model of ALS

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    While free radicals and inflammation constitute major routes of neuronal injury occurring in neurodegenerative diseases, neither antioxidants nor nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have shown significant efficacy in human clinical trials. To explore the possibility that concurrent blockade of free radicals and PGE2-mediated inflammation might constitute a safe and effective therapeutic approach to certain neurodegenerative diseases, we have developed 2-hydroxy-5-[2-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-ethylaminobezoic acid (AAD-2004) as a derivative of aspirin. AAD-2004 completely removed free radicals at 50 nM as a potent spin trapping molecule and inhibited microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) with an IC50 of 230 nM. Oral administration of AAD-2004 blocked free radical formation, PGE2 formation, and microglial activation in the spinal motor neurons of SOD1G93A mice. As a consequence, AAD-2004 reduced autophagosome formation, axonopathy, and motor neuron degeneration, improving motor function and increasing life span. In these assays, AAD-2004 was superior to ibuprofen or riluzole. Gastric bleeding was not induced by AAD-2004 even at a dose 400-fold higher than that required to obtain maximal therapeutic efficacy in SOD1G93A mice. Targeting both mPGES-1 and free radicals may be a promising approach to reduce neurodegeneration in ALS and possibly other neurodegenerative diseases

    Process for synthesizing a new series of fluorocarbon polymers

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    Two-step process for preparing fluorocarbon materials includes - /1/ adding gaseous fluorine to a polyperfluoropolyene to create fluorocarbon radicals, with reactive sites at unsaturated carbon atoms, and /2/ introducing a monomer, after evacuation of fluorine gas, and allowing copolymerization with the free radicals

    Electron spin resonance study of thermal instability reactions in jet fuels

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    Free radicals were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) using model compounds that are representative of constituents of jet fuels. Radical formation was initiated with peroxides and hydroperoxides by using UV photolysis at and near room temperature and thermal initiation at higher temperatures. Both oxygen free and air saturated systems were studied. N-Dodecane was frequently used as a solvent, and a mixture of n-dodecyl radicals was made with a peroxide initiator in n-dodecane (free of oxygen) thermally at 212 C and photolytically at room temperature. Hydrogen abstraction from the 3,4,5 and 6-positions gives radicals that are sufficiently alike that their spectra are essentially superimposed. The radical formed by abstract of hydrogen from the 2-position gives a different spectrum. ESR parameters for these radicals were measured. The radical formed by abstraction of a primary hydrogen was not observed. Similar radicals are formed from n-decane. A variety of exploratory experiments were carried out with systems that give free radical spectra to which was added small amounts of 2,5-dimethylpyrrole

    Computational study of radicals derived from hydroxyurea and its methylated analogues.

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    Structural and electronic properties and chemical fate of free radicals generated from hydroxyurea (HU) and its methylated analogues N-methylhydroxyurea (NMHU) and O-methylhydroxyurea (OMHU) are of utmost importance for their biological and pharmacological effects. In this work the cis/trans conformational processes, tautomerizations, and intramolecular hydrogen and methyl migrations in hydroxyurea-derived radicals have been considered. Potential energy profiles for these reactions have been calculated using two DFT functionals (BP86 and B3LYP) and two composite models (G3(MP2)RAD and G3B3). Solvation effects have been included both implicitly (CPCM) and explicitly. It has been shown that calculated energy barriers for free radical rearrangements are significantly reduced when a single water molecule is included in calculations. In the case of HU-derived open-shell species, a number of oxygen-, nitrogen-, and carbon-centered radicals have been located, but only the O-centered radicals (e1 and z1) fit to experimental isomeric hyperfine coupling constants (hfccs) from EPR spectra. The reduction of NMHU and OMHU produces O-centered and N-centered radicals, respectively, with the former being more stable by ca. 60 kJ mol−1. The NMHU-derived radical e4 undergoes rearrangements, which can result in formation of several conceivable products. The calculated hfccs have been successfully used to interpret the experimental EPR spectra of the most probable rearranged product 10. Reduction potentials of hydroxyureas, radical stabilization energy (RSE) and bond disocciation energy (BDE) values have been calculated to compare stabilities and reactivities of different subclasses of free radicals. It has been concluded, in agreement with experiment, that reductions of biologically relevant tyrosyl radicals by HU and NMHU are thermochemically favorable processes, and that the order of reactivity of hydroxyureas follows the experimentally observed trend NMHU > HU > OMHU

    A novel profluorescent dinitroxide for imaging polypropylene degradation

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    Free-radical processes underpin the thermo-oxidative degradation of polyolefins. Thus, to extend the lifetime of these polymers, stabilizers are generally added during processing to scavenge the free radicals formed as the polymer degrades. Nitroxide radical precursors, such as hindered amine stabilizers (HAS),1,2 are common polypropylene additives as the nitroxide moiety is a potent scavenger of polymer alkyl radicals (R¥). Oxidation of HAS by radicals formed during polypropylene degradation yields nitroxide radicals (RRNO¥), which rapidly trap the polymer degradation species to produce alkoxyamines, thus retarding oxidative polymer degradation. This increase in polymer stability is demonstrated by a lengthening of the “induction period” of the polymer (the time prior to a sharp rise in the oxidation of the polymer). Instrumental techniques such as chemiluminescence or infrared spectroscopy are somewhat limited in detecting changes in the polymer during the initial stages of degradation. Therefore, other methods for observing polymer degradation have been sought as the useful life of a polymer does not extend far beyond its “induction period

    Free Radicals

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    Free radicals are complexes of abnormal valency, which possess additive properties, but do not carry an electrical charge and are not free ions. Since Lavoisier introduced his theory of radicals in 1785 there has been the conviction among chemists that the radicals of organic chemistry could be isolated in the free state
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