92,248 research outputs found

    New Spectral Applications of the Fourier Transforms in Medicine, Biological and Biomedical Fields

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    This chapter reviews some recent spectral applications of the Fourier transform techniques as they are applied in spectroscopy. An overview about Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) used like a powerful and sensitive tool in medical, biological, and biomedical analysis is provided. The advanced spectroscopic techniques of FTS, such as Fourier transform visible spectroscopy (FTVS), Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR), Fourier transform infrared-photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS), Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (FTIR imaging), and their biomedical applications are described. A special attention has been paid to the description of the FTVS method of commercial quantum dots like an innovative and reliable technique used in the field of nanobiotechnology

    Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for typing of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium: performance analysis and outbreak investigation.

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    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci, mainly Enterococcus faecium (VREfm), are causing nosocomial infections and outbreaks. Bacterial typing methods are used to assist in outbreak investigations. Most of them, especially genotypic methods like multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), whole genome sequencing (WGS), or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, are quite expensive and time-consuming. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy assesses the biochemical composition of bacteria, such as carboxyl groups in polysaccharides. It is an affordable technique and has a faster turnaround time. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate FT-IR spectroscopy for VREfm outbreak investigations. Basic performance requirements like reproducibility and the effects of incubation time were assessed in distinct sample sets. After determining a FT-IR spectroscopy cut-off range, the clustering agreement between FT-IR and WGS within a retrospective (n: 92 isolates) and a prospective outbreak (n: 15 isolates) was investigated. For WGS an average nucleotide identity (ANI) cut-off score of 0.999 was used. Basic performance analysis showed reproducible results. Moreover, FT-IR spectroscopy readouts showed a high agreement with WGS-ANI analysis in clinical outbreak investigations (V-measure 0.772 for the retrospective and 1.000 for the prospective outbreak). FT-IR spectroscopy had a higher discriminatory power than MLST in the outbreak investigations. After determining cut-off values to achieve optimal resolution, FT-IR spectroscopy is a promising technique to assist in outbreak investigation as an affordable, easy-to-use tool with a turnaround time of less than one day. IMPORTANCE Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci, mainly Enterococcus faecium (VREfm), are a frequent cause of nosocomial outbreaks. Several bacterial typing methods are used to track transmissions and investigate outbreaks, whereby genome-based techniques are used as a gold standard. Current methods are either expensive, time-consuming, or both. Additionally, often, specifically trained staff needs to be available. This study provides insight into the use of Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, an affordable, easy-to-use tool with a short turnaround time as a typing method for VREfm. By assessing clinical samples, this work demonstrates promising results for species discrimination and reproducibility. FT-IR spectrosopy shows a high level of agreement in the analysis of VREfm outbreaks in comparison with whole genome sequencing-based methods

    A combined SNIFTIRS and XANES study of electrically polarised copper electrodes in DMSO and DMF solutions of cyanate (NCO⁻), thiocyanate (NCS⁻) and selenocyanate (NCSe⁻) ions

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    A SNIFTIRS (subtractively normalized interfacial Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) study of electrically polarized copper electrodes in six polar aprotic solvent-based systems is presented. In the systems investigated, i.e. dimethyl formamide (DMF) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions containing pseudohalide species of cyanate (NCO⁻), thiocyanate (NCS⁻) and selenocyanate (NCSe⁻) codissolved with tetrabutylammonium perchlorate (TBAP), Cu was found to dissolve over a wide range of potentials to produce the corresponding Cu(I) pseudohalide and/or Cu(II) pseudohalide complex ion species. Insoluble deposited films were also observed at higher anodic applied potentials, thought to be CuSCN in the Cu/NCS⁻/DMSO or DMF systems, and solid K(SeCN)₃ in the Cu/NCSe⁻/DMSO or DMF systems respectively. The presence of the Cu(II) and/or Cu(I) oxidation states in complexes formed by polarization in Cu/pseudohalide ion systems in DMSO was clearly proven using XAS of cell solutions sampled after SNIFTIRS/electrical polarization experiments. In addition, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) data obtained from model solutions prepared from mixing Cu(I) and/or Cu(II) salts with the respective pseudohalide ions in DMF and DMSO confirmed the speciation observed in the electrochemical experiments