55,166 research outputs found

    Assessing performance of artificial neural networks and re-sampling techniques for healthcare datasets.

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    Re-sampling methods to solve class imbalance problems have shown to improve classification accuracy by mitigating the bias introduced by differences in class size. However, it is possible that a model which uses a specific re-sampling technique prior to Artificial neural networks (ANN) training may not be suitable for aid in classifying varied datasets from the healthcare industry. Five healthcare-related datasets were used across three re-sampling conditions: under-sampling, over-sampling and combi-sampling. Within each condition, different algorithmic approaches were applied to the dataset and the results were statistically analysed for a significant difference in ANN performance. The combi-sampling condition showed that four out of the five datasets did not show significant consistency for the optimal re-sampling technique between the f1-score and Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve performance evaluation methods. Contrarily, the over-sampling and under-sampling condition showed all five datasets put forward the same optimal algorithmic approach across performance evaluation methods. Furthermore, the optimal combi-sampling technique (under-, over-sampling and convergence point), were found to be consistent across evaluation measures in only two of the five datasets. This study exemplifies how discrete ANN performances on datasets from the same industry can occur in two ways: how the same re-sampling technique can generate varying ANN performance on different datasets, and how different re-sampling techniques can generate varying ANN performance on the same dataset

    Using Contactless Mobile Payment in the Vietnamese Restaurant Industry

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    This study develops a critical understanding of Contactless Mobile Payment (CMP) in the context of consumer behaviour and explores its use in the Vietnamese restaurant industry. An online survey was used to collect the data (n=153) from Vietnamese consumers. Data analysis was conducted with the use of SPSS and AMOS software. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) in conjunction with Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) were employed to explore consumer perceptions regarding the use of CMP. The findings indicate that consumers find CMP a fast and convenient way to make transactions in Vietnamese restaurants. The findings also indicate the importance of ease of use and security. The study contributes to the understanding of consumer behaviour in regard to technology in the service industries context

    Dise帽o Instruccional y Aplicaci贸n de una Intervenci贸n Virtual Preventiva de la Violencia en el Noviazgo en Estudiantes Universitarios de Lima, Per煤

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    Al menos un tercio del estudiantado universitario ha experimentado o perpetrado violencia en una relaci贸n de noviazgo (Vara-Horna & L贸pez Hodar, 2018), lo cual atenta contra el bienestar psicol贸gico y aumenta el riesgo de repetir las din谩micas en relaciones posteriores (De la Villa, Garc铆a, Cuetos & Sirvent, 2017). A nivel mundial, se han planteado intervenciones de prevenci贸n; sin embargo, a煤n son escasas en contexto Latinoamericano. En la presente investigaci贸n se dise帽贸 una intervenci贸n virtual para prevenir la violencia en el noviazgo y se explor贸 la relaci贸n con las actitudes favorables hacia ella. Los objetivos del estudio consistieron en comparar las actitudes favorables hacia la violencia en el noviazgo antes y despu茅s de la intervenci贸n de manera general y segmentados por tipo de violencia. Adem谩s, se explor贸 la relaci贸n entre la intervenci贸n, las actitudes favorables hacia la violencia en el noviazgo y las caracter铆sticas de los participantes. Para tales fines, se aplic贸 el Cuestionario de Violencia entre Novios a 119 estudiantes de una universidad privada de Lima. Los resultados mostraron una reducci贸n significativa de las actitudes favorables hacia la violencia en el noviazgo, as铆 como hacia los subtipos de violencia sexual, por coerci贸n, de g茅nero, por castigo emocional e instrumental. Al segmentar por caracter铆sticas, las diferencias se mantuvieron para los grupos de mujeres y LGTBIQ+. En conjunto, los hallazgos sugieren las potencialidades de la intervenci贸n virtual para reducir las actitudes favorables hacia la violencia en el noviazgo, especialmente derivadas del uso de modelos de dise帽o instruccional.At least one third of university students have experienced or perpetrated dating violence (Vara-Horna & L贸pez Hodar, 2018), which threatens psychological well-being and increases the risk of repeating the dynamics in subsequent relationships (De la Villa, Garc铆a, Cuetos & Sirvent, 2017). Worldwide, preventive interventions have been proposed. However,they are still scarce in Latin American context. In this study, we designed an online intervention to prevent dating violence and explored the relationship with favorable attitudes towards it. The objectives of the study consisted of comparing favorable attitudes towards dating violence before and after the intervention in a general way and segmented by type of violence. In addition, we explored the relationship between the intervention, favorable attitudes towards dating violence, and the characteristics of the participants. We applied the Dating Violence Questionnaire to 119 students from a private university in Lima. The results showed a significant reduction in favorable attitudes towards dating violence, as well as towards the subtypes of sexual violence, by coercion, gender, by emotional and instrumental punishment. When segmenting by characteristics, such differences were maintained for the groups of women and LGTBIQ+. Together, the findings suggest the potential of the online intervention to reduce favorable attitudes towards dating violence, especially derived from the use of instructional design models

    Metaphors of London fog, smoke and mist in Victorian and Edwardian Art and Literature

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    Julian Wolfreys has argued that after 1850 writers employed stock images of the city without allowing them to transform their texts. This thesis argues, on the contrary, that metaphorical uses of London fog were complex and subtle during the Victorian and Edwardian periods, at least until 1914. Fog represented, in particular, formlessness and the dissolution of boundaries. Examining the idea of fog in literature, verse, newspaper accounts and journal articles, as well as in the visual arts, as part of a common discourse about London and the state of its inhabitants, this thesis charts how the metaphorical appropriation of this idea changed over time. Four of Dickens's novels are used to track his use of fog as part of a discourse of the natural and unnatural in individual and society, identifying it with London in progressively more negative terms. Visual representations of fog by Constable, Turner, Whistler, Monet, Markino, O'Connor, Roberts and Wyllie and Coburn showed an increasing readiness to engage with this discourse. Social tensions in the city in the 1880s were articulated in art as well as in fiction. Authors like Hay and Barr showed the destruction of London by its fog because of its inhabitants' supposed degeneracy. As the social threat receded, apocalyptic scenarios gave way to a more optimistic view in the work of Owen and others. Henry James used fog as a metaphorical representation of the boundaries of gendered behaviour in public, and the problems faced by women who crossed them. The dissertation also examines fog and individual transgression, in novels and short stories by Lowndes, Stevenson, Conan Doyle and Joseph Conrad. After 1914, fog was no more than a crude signifier of Victorian London in literature, film and, later, television, deployed as a cliche instead of the subtle metaphorical idea discussed in this thesis

    Building body identities - exploring the world of female bodybuilders

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    This thesis explores how female bodybuilders seek to develop and maintain a viable sense of self despite being stigmatized by the gendered foundations of what Erving Goffman (1983) refers to as the 'interaction order'; the unavoidable presentational context in which identities are forged during the course of social life. Placed in the context of an overview of the historical treatment of women's bodies, and a concern with the development of bodybuilding as a specific form of body modification, the research draws upon a unique two year ethnographic study based in the South of England, complemented by interviews with twenty-six female bodybuilders, all of whom live in the U.K. By mapping these extraordinary women's lives, the research illuminates the pivotal spaces and essential lived experiences that make up the female bodybuilder. Whilst the women appear to be embarking on an 'empowering' radical body project for themselves, the consequences of their activity remains culturally ambivalent. This research exposes the 'Janus-faced' nature of female bodybuilding, exploring the ways in which the women negotiate, accommodate and resist pressures to engage in more orthodox and feminine activities and appearances

    Exploring environmental concerns on digital platforms through big data: the effect of online consumers鈥 environmental discourse on online review ratings

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    By deploying big data analytical techniques to retrieve and analyze a large volume of more than 2.7 million reviews, this work sheds light on how environmental concerns expressed by tourists on digital platforms, in the guise of online reviews, influence their satisfaction with tourism and hospitality services. More specifically, we conduct a multi-platform study of Tripadvisor.com and Booking.com online reviews (ORs) pertaining to hotel services across eight leading tourism destination cities in America and Europe over the period 2017鈥2018. By adopting multivariate regression analyses, we show that OR ratings are positively influenced by both the presence and depth of environmental discourse on these platforms. Theoretical and managerial contributions, and implications for digital platforms, big data analytics (BDA), electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) and environmental research within the tourism and hospitality domain are examined, with a view to capturing, empirically, the effect of environmental discourse presence and depth on customer satisfaction proxied through online ratings

    The cultural center of the world : art, finance, and globalization in late twentieth-century New York

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    This article explores why New York City鈥檚 municipal government, together with private benefactors, poured an unprecedented amount of money into the arts during the 1980s, a time of broader austerity. While other public expenditures saw dramatic cuts, the arts were considered essential to the city鈥檚 future as a center for global capital鈥攁s a way to lure financial elites and young professionals to the city, create new forms of revenue-raising consumption, and cement New York鈥檚 reputation as the ultimate global city. New York had always had a vital arts scene. But in the 1980s, the arts were monetized in new ways to serve capital鈥攁nd capitalists. Arts and culture were central to the new urban lifestyle that helped produce the explosion of global finance. But as arts and culture increasingly came to be associated with a luxury lifestyle, the arts themselves became a luxury, inaccessible to most New Yorkers

    鈥淲e Really are Seeing Racism in the Hospitals鈥: Racism and Doula Care

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    Introduction: Poor birth outcomes are more prevalent for Black birthing people and their babies. Strong evidence shows that doula care, during labor and delivery, improves maternal and child health outcomes. Yet little is documented about racial differences, discrimination, and equity in doula care. Methods: Between November 2020 and January 2021, 17 surveys and in-depth interviews were conducted with doulas in Georgia as part of the community-based participatory Georgia Doula Study, co-led by Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition of Georgia and academic researchers. The study objective was to describe the challenges and facilitators of providing doula care in Georgia. In the fall of 2021, additional measures on racism and discrimination in doula care were added to the survey and interview guide and previous participants were re-contacted. Results: Doula participants were diverse in age (41% 25-35, 35% 36-45, and 24% 46+) and race/ethnicity (53% white, 41% Black, 6% Latinx). Six of the seven (86%) Black doulas reported that more than 85% of their clientele is Black, while all of the eight white doulas reported that 50% or less of their clientele is Black. Three (18%) of the doulas indicated more than 10% of their clientele is Latinx, while only two (12%) indicated more than 10% of their clientele is Asian-American or Pacific Islander. Discrimination scores were 51.5 for Black doulas (standard deviation 7.55) 46.7 for white doulas (standard deviation 7.48). Doulas noted that the alarming maternal mortality rate for Black women and not always being listened to causes Black clients to be less trusting of medical staff, leaving them in need of advocates. Black doulas were passionate about serving and advocating with Black clients. Doulas also described how language and cultural barriers, particularly for Asian and Latinx birthing people, reduce clients鈥 ability to advocate for themselves, increasing the need for doulas. Conclusion: Black doulas are an essential tool for improving birth outcomes for Black women. Increasing access to doula care for Asian and Latinx communities could address language and cultural barriers that can negatively impact their maternal and child health outcomes

    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY-SEAT INTERFACE PRESSURE AND DISCOMFORT DURING ROWING

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    Discomfort and pressure-related tissue injury to the buttocks are common complaints among rowers. The soft tissues of the buttocks are non-uniformly loaded during rowing. The current state of literature on seating discomfort is inconclusive as to a desirable body-seat interface pressure pattern. The purpose of this study was to determine whether localising pressure under bony protuberances or diffusing pressure over soft tissues would result in the least amount of discomfort. Force sensing arrays were used to measure body-seat interface pressures in 11 elite female rowers during rowing. Peak pressure measures were identified and pressure gradients were calculated. Discomfort was quantified using a questionnaire, and pressure data were then correlated with discomfort scores.Discomfort was weakly correlated with each of maximal pressure gradient (r=0.45) and peak pressure (r=0.43). The findings indicate pressure should be redistributed in order to avoid concentrating pressure under the bony protuberances o f the buttocks

    Exploring the effects of spinal cord stimulation for freezing of gait in parkinsonian patients

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    Dopaminergic replacement therapies (e.g. levodopa) provide limited to no response for axial motor symptoms including gait dysfunction and freezing of gait (FOG) in Parkinson鈥檚 disease (PD) and Richardson鈥檚 syndrome progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP-RS) patients. Dopaminergic-resistant FOG may be a sensorimotor processing issue that does not involve basal ganglia (nigrostriatal) impairment. Recent studies suggest that spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has positive yet variable effects for dopaminergic-resistant gait and FOG in parkinsonian patients. Further studies investigating the mechanism of SCS, optimal stimulation parameters, and longevity of effects for alleviating FOG are warranted. The hypothesis of the research described in this thesis is that mid-thoracic, dorsal SCS effectively reduces FOG by modulating the sensory processing system in gait and may have a dopaminergic effect in individuals with FOG. The primary objective was to understand the relationship between FOG reduction, improvements in upper limb visual-motor performance, modulation of cortical activity and striatal dopaminergic innervation in 7 PD participants. FOG reduction was associated with changes in upper limb reaction time, speed and accuracy measured using robotic target reaching choice tasks. Modulation of resting-state, sensorimotor cortical activity, recorded using electroencephalography, was significantly associated with FOG reduction while participants were OFF-levodopa. Thus, SCS may alleviate FOG by modulating cortical activity associated with motor planning and sensory perception. Changes to striatal dopaminergic innervation, measured using a dopamine transporter marker, were associated with visual-motor performance improvements. Axial and appendicular motor features may be mediated by non-dopaminergic and dopaminergic pathways, respectively. The secondary objective was to demonstrate the short- and long-term effects of SCS for alleviating dopaminergic-resistant FOG and gait dysfunction in 5 PD and 3 PSP-RS participants without back/leg pain. SCS programming was individualized based on which setting best improved gait and/or FOG responses per participant using objective gait analysis. Significant improvements in stride velocity, step length and reduced FOG frequency were observed in all PD participants with up to 3-years of SCS. Similar gait and FOG improvements were observed in all PSP-RS participants up to 6-months. SCS is a promising therapeutic option for parkinsonian patients with FOG by possibly influencing cortical and subcortical structures involved in locomotion physiology
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