541,204 research outputs found

    Biomass estimations of invasives Yaupon, Chinese Privet and Chinese Tallow in east Texas Hardwood and Pine Ecosystems

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    Forest understory fuels can have profound effects on fire behavior and crown fire initiation. Accurate fire behavior prediction in understory fuels is an essential component for estimating fire intensity and severity during wildfire and prescribed fire events. This study focused on estimating temporal and seasonal changes in fuel loading parameters associated with the expansion of invasive yaupon (Ilex vomitoria), Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense), and Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) in East Texas pine and hardwood ecosystems. Fuel loading data of invasive species infested sites indicated significant increases in understory biomass when compared to 1988 estimates, suggesting a clear need to revise regional fuel models. Multiple and simple regression biomass prediction equations were developed for all three-invasive species to facilitate fuel load estimates. These improved prediction equations will enhance fire management efforts as well as invasive species mitigation efforts in east Texas

    Space station internal environmental and safety concerns

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    Space station environmental and safety concerns, especially those involving fires, are discussed. Several types of space station modules and the particular hazards associated with each are briefly surveyed. A brief history of fire detection and suppression aboard spacecraft is given. Microgravity fire behavior, spacecraft fire detector systems, space station fire suppression equipment and procedures, and fire safety in hyperbaric chambers are discussed

    Gaussian process modeling for stochastic multi-fidelity simulators, with application to fire safety

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    To assess the possibility of evacuating a building in case of a fire, a standard method consists in simulating the propagation of fire, using finite difference methods and takes into account the random behavior of the fire, so that the result of a simulation is non-deterministic. The mesh fineness tunes the quality of the numerical model, and its computational cost. Depending on the mesh fineness, one simulation can last anywhere from a few minutes to several weeks. In this article, we focus on predicting the behavior of the fire simulator at fine meshes, using cheaper results, at coarser meshes. In the literature of the design and analysis of computer experiments, such a problem is referred to as multi-fidelity prediction. Our contribution is to extend to the case of stochastic simulators the Bayesian multi-fidelity model proposed by Picheny and Ginsbourger (2013) and Tuo et al. (2014)

    Phase Transitions in a Forest-Fire Model

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    We investigate a forest-fire model with the density of empty sites as control parameter. The model exhibits three phases, separated by one first-order phase transition and one 'mixed' phase transition which shows critical behavior on only one side and hysteresis. The critical behavior is found to be that of the self-organized critical forest-fire model [B. Drossel and F. Schwabl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1629 (1992)], whereas in the adjacent phase one finds the spiral waves of the Bak et al. forest-fire model [P. Bak, K. Chen and C. Tang, Phys. Lett. A 147, 297 (1990)]. In the third phase one observes clustering of trees with the fire burning at the edges of the clusters. The relation between the density distribution in the spiral state and the percolation threshold is explained and the implications for stationary states with spiral waves in arbitrary excitable systems are discussed. Furthermore, we comment on the possibility of mapping self-organized critical systems onto 'ordinary' critical systems.Comment: 30 pages RevTeX, 9 PostScript figures (Figs. 1,2,4 are of reduced quality), to appear in Phys. Rev.

    The Fire and Smoke Model Evaluation Experiment—A Plan for Integrated, Large Fire–Atmosphere Field Campaigns

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    The Fire and Smoke Model Evaluation Experiment (FASMEE) is designed to collect integrated observations from large wildland fires and provide evaluation datasets for new models and operational systems. Wildland fire, smoke dispersion, and atmospheric chemistry models have become more sophisticated, and next-generation operational models will require evaluation datasets that are coordinated and comprehensive for their evaluation and advancement. Integrated measurements are required, including ground-based observations of fuels and fire behavior, estimates of fire-emitted heat and emissions fluxes, and observations of near-source micrometeorology, plume properties, smoke dispersion, and atmospheric chemistry. To address these requirements the FASMEE campaign design includes a study plan to guide the suite of required measurements in forested sites representative of many prescribed burning programs in the southeastern United States and increasingly common high-intensity fires in the western United States. Here we provide an overview of the proposed experiment and recommendations for key measurements. The FASMEE study provides a template for additional large-scale experimental campaigns to advance fire science and operational fire and smoke models

    TESTING FOR DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF FOREST FIRES ON HIKING AND MOUNTAIN BIKING DEMAND AND BENEFITS

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    Surveys of visitors to National Forests in Colorado were conducted to determine whether different fire ages and presence of crown fires have different effects on hiking and mountain biking recreation visits and benefits. Actual and intended behavior data were combined using a count-data travel cost model. The intended behavior trip questions asked about changes in number of trips due to the presence of a high-intensity crown fire, prescribed fire, and a 20-year-old high-intensity fire at the area respondents were visiting. Using the estimated recreation demand function, years since a non-crown fire had statistically significant positive effect on the trip demand of hikers. In contrast, presence of crown fires had no statistically significant effect on the quantity of hiker trips, but had a significant and negative effect on mountain biking trips. Crown fires also had a large effect on the value per trip, with crown fires increasing the value per hiking trip but lowering the value per mountain biking trip.Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,

    Evaluation of WRF-Sfire Performance with Field Observations from the FireFlux experiment

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    This study uses in-situ measurements collected during the FireFlux field experiment to evaluate and improve the performance of coupled atmosphere-fire model WRF-Sfire. The simulation by WRF-Sfire of the experimental burn shows that WRF-Sfire is capable of providing realistic head fire rate-of-spread and the vertical temperature structure of the fire plume, and, up to 10 m above ground level, fire-induced surface flow and vertical velocities within the plume. The model captured the changes in wind speed and direction before, during, and after fire front passage, along with arrival times of wind speed, temperature, and updraft maximae, at the two instrumented flux towers used in FireFlux. The model overestimated vertical velocities and underestimated horizontal wind speeds measured at tower heights above the 10 m, and it is hypothesized that the limited model resolution over estimated the fire front depth, leading to too high a heat release and, subsequently, too strong an updraft. However, on the whole, WRF-Sfire fire plume behavior is consistent with the interpretation of FireFlux observations. The study suggests optimal experimental pre-planning, design, and execution of future field campaigns that are needed for further coupled atmosphere-fire model development and evaluation

    Spatial Endogenous Fire Risk and Efficient Fuel Management and Timber Harvest

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    This paper integrates a spatial fire behavior model and a stochastic dynamic optimization model to determine the optimal spatial pattern of fuel management and timber harvest. Each years fire season causes the loss of forest values and lives in the western US. This paper uses a multi-plot analysis and incorporates uncertainty about fire ignition locations and weather conditions to inform policy by examining the role of spatial endogenous risk - where management actions on one stand affect fire risk in that and adjacent stands. The results support two current strategies, but question two other strategies, for managing forests with fire risk.Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
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