31,419 research outputs found

    Dyeing studies and fastness properties of brown naphtoquinone colorant extracted from Juglans regia L on natural protein fiber using different metal salt mordants

    Get PDF
    In this study, wool fibers are dyed with a natural colorant extracted from walnut bark in presence and absence of mordants. The effect of aluminum sulfate, ferrous sulfate, and stannous chloride mordants on colorimetric and fastness properties of wool fibers was investigated. Juglone was identified as the main coloring component in walnut bark extract by UV visible and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The results showed that pretreatment with metallic mordants substantially improved the colorimetric and fastness properties of wool fibers dyed with walnut bark extract. Ferrous sulfate and stannous chloride mordanted wool fibers shows best results than potassium aluminum sulfate mordanted and unmordanted wool fibers. This is ascribed due to strong chelating power of ferrous sulfate and stannous chloride mordants

    Are any oral iron formulations better tolerated than ferrous sulfate?

    Get PDF
    Ferrous salt preparations (ferrous sulfate, ferrous gluconate, and ferrous fumarate) are equally tolerable. (Grade of recommendation: A, based on randomized controlled trial.) Controlled-release iron preparations cause less nausea and epigastric pain than conventional ferrous sulfate (grade of recommendation: A, based on randomized controlled trials), although the discontinuation rates between the 2 iron formulations were similar. Ferrous sulfate remains the standard first-line treatment of iron-deficiency anemia given its general tolerability, effectiveness, and low cost

    Pengolahan Logam Berat Khrom (Cr) Pada Limbah Cair Industri Penyamakan Kulit Dengan Proses Koagulasi Flokulasi Dan Presipitasi

    Full text link
    Leather tannery industry waste water treatment research by coagulation flocculation and precipitation process has been carried out. The study aims to determine the treatment process with coagulant what is most optimum in removing the heavy metal content in leather tannery waste water, which includes coagulant lime, aluminum sulfate, and ferrous sulfate, and barium chloride, coagulant concentration, and pH optimum. Jar test result available optimum pH for coagulant lime at pH 8, for aluminum sulfate at pH 6, and for ferrous sulfate at pH 8. The optimum ratio of lime is 6,4; aluminum sulfate is 0,8; and ferrous sulfate is 0,48. The optimum concentration of barium chloride after treatment with lime, aluminum sulfate, and ferrous sulfate are 0,005; 0,043; and 0,005

    Pemisahan Krom Pada Limbah Cair Industri Penyamakan Kulit Menggunakan Gelatin Dan Flokulan Anorganik

    Full text link
    The aim of the study was to determine the ability of gelatin, ferrous sulfate, aluminium sulfate, and combination of gelatin with ferrous sulfate or aluminium sulfate for total chromium content (trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium) separation from tannery wastewater. Reduction of total chromium content in the wastewater was conducted using combination of gelatin and ferrous sulfate or gelatin and aluminium sulfate with a ratio of 4:0; 3:1; 2:2; 1:3; and 0:4 (w/w). The results showed that gelatin, ferrous sulfate, and aluminium sulfate, were able to reduce total chromium content in the wastewater. Combination of gelatin/ferrous sulfate or gelatin/aluminium sulfate as flocculants provide synergistic work in reducing the total chromium content. A 94.75% removal of total chromium content was achieved by combining gelatine and aluminium sulfate with a ratio of 3:1, clearer wastewater, and followed by reduction of degree of turbidity up to 74.47%. The total chromium content after treatment was 0.61 ppm, which met the requirements of wastewater for business and or daily activities especially for tanning industry

    Phosphorus Immobilization in Poultry Litter and Litter-amended soils with Aluminum, Calcium and Iron amendments

    Get PDF
    Arkansas produces approximately one billion broilers each year. Phosphorous (P) runoff from fields receiving poultry litter is believed to be one of the primary factors affecting water quality in Northwest Arkansas. Poultry litter contains approximately 20 g P kg-1, of which about 2 g P kg-1 is water soluble. Soils that have received repeated heavy applications of litter may have water soluble P contents of as high as 10 mg P Kg-1 soil. The objective of this study was to determine if soluble P levels could be reduced in poultry litter and litter-amended soils with Al,Ca, and/or Fe amendments. Poultry litter was amended with alum, sodium aluminate, quick lime, slaked lime, calcitic limestone, dolomitic limestone, gypsum, ferrous chloride, ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate and ferric sulfate, and incubated in the dark at 25°C for one week. Three soils which had been excessively fertilized with poultry litter were amended with alum, ferrous sulfate, calcitic limestone, gypsum and slaked lime and incubated for 4 weeks at 25 °C. In the litter studies, the Ca treatments were tested with and without CaF2 additions in an attempt to precipitate fluorapatite. At the end of the incubation period, the litter and soils were extracted with deionized water and soluble reactive P (SRP) was determined. SRP levels in the poultry litter were reduced from over 2,000 mg P kg-1 litter to less than 1 mg P kg-1 litter with the addition of alum, quick lime, slaked lime, ferrous chloride, ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate and ferric sulfate under favorable pH conditions. S.RP levels in the soils were reduced from approximately 5 mg P Kg-1 soil to less than 0.05 mg P Kg-1 soil with the addition of alum and ferrous sulfate under favorable pH conditions. Gypsum and sodium aluminate reduced SRP levels in litter by 50 to 60 percent while calcitic and dolomitic limestone were even less effective. In soils, the Ca amendments were less effective than the Al and Fe amendments, although slaked lime was effective at high pH. The results of these studies suggest that treating litter and excessively fertilized soils with some of these compounds, particularly alum, could significantly reduce the amount of SRP in runoff from littered pastures. Therefore, chemical additions to reduce SRP in litter and soil may be a best management practice in situations where eutrophication of adjacent water bodies due to P runoff has been identified. Preliminary calculations indicate that this .p ractice may be economically feasible. However, more research is needed to determine any beneficial and/or detrimental aspects of this practice

    Efficacy, Tolerability, and Acceptability of Iron Hydroxide Polymaltose Complex versus Ferrous Sulfate: A Randomized Trial in Pediatric Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Get PDF
    Iron polymaltose complex (IPC) offers similar efficacy with superior tolerability to ferrous sulfate in adults, but randomized trials in children are rare. In a prospective, open-label, 4-month study, 103 children aged >6 months with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) were randomized to IPC once daily or ferrous sulfate twice daily, (both 5 mg iron/kg/day). Mean increases in Hb to months 1 and 4 with IPC were 1.2 ± 0.9 g/dL and 2.3 ± 1.3 g/dL, respectively, (both P = 0.001 versus baseline) and 1.8 ± 1.7 g/dL and 3.0 ± 2.3 g/dL with ferrous sulfate (both P = 0.001 versus baseline) (n.s. between groups). Gastrointestinal adverse events occurred in 26.9% and 50.9% of IPC and ferrous sulfate patients, respectively (P = 0.012). Mean acceptability score at month 4 was superior with IPC versus ferrous sulfate (1.63 ± 0.56 versus 2.14 ± 0.75, P = 0.001). Efficacy was comparable with IPC and ferrous sulfate over a four-month period in children with IDA, but IPC was associated with fewer gastrointestinal adverse events and better treatment acceptability

    PREPARATION OF FERROUS SULFATE MICROCAPSULES AS A SUSTAINED RELEASE DOSAGE FORMS

    Get PDF
    Objective: The main purpose of this study was to optimize the different methods for the preparation for the preparation sustained release microencapsulated ferrous sulfate as a solid dosage form. Methods: Ferrous sulfate was prepared as microcapsules using three microencapsulation methods. Complex coacervation, aqueous colloidal polymer dispersions, and solvent removal methods were used to prepare various formulas with different coating agents (acacia, gelatin, sodium alginate and ethylcellulose). The formation and texture characteristics, entrapment efficiency, release profiles, particle size and storage stability of ferrous microcapsules were evaluated in this study. Results: The encapsulation efficiency and hardening varied considerably among these three preparation methods. Encapsulation of ferrous sulfate by complex coacervation with a coating agent (gelatin and acacia) showed problems in hardening and poor encapsulation efficiency. However, ferrous sulfate when coated by sodium alginate at 1:1 (coat: core) ratio using aqueous colloidal polymer dispersion method showed acceptable encapsulation efficiency (67%±0.1). Moreover, ferrous sulfate/sodium alginate microcapsules hardened successively when dropping into CaCl2 solution (2% w/v). A same hardening features and values of encapsulation efficiency (68 %±0. 6) Were obtained by solvent removal methods. Especially, after tween 80 and carboxyl methyl cellulose were added to the aqueous phase in the process of coating with ethylcellulose. However, sustained release microcapsules were produced by aqueous colloidal polymer dispersion method. The sustained-release sodium alginate/ferrous sulfate was stable for 30 d in both refrigeration and room temperature. Conclusion: The aqueous polymer dispersion gave sustain release microcapsules which were uniform, hard and stable during storage at both room temperature and refrigeration. Keywords: Ferrous sulfate, Microcapsules, Complex coacervation, Aqueous colloidal, Polymer dispersion, Solvent remova

    Coagulation for treatment of swine slaughterhouse wastewater

    Get PDF
    In this study, wastewater taken from the Nam Phong swine slaughterhouse, Ho Chi Minh City, was used to evaluate the treatment efficiency of common coagulants, including Alum (Aluminum Sulfate - Al2(SO4)3.18H2O), Poly-Aluminum Chloride (PAC), and Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO4.7H2O), using a jar-test system. The experiments were conducted using the one-factor-at-a-time method to examine three variables which are pH, stirring speed, and coagulant dosage. The results showed that both Alum and PAC perform over 90% removal of colour, turbidity, COD, and total phosphorus (TP) from slaughterhouse wastewater at pH 7 with a stirring speed of 75 revolutions per minute (RPM) and average coagulant dosages of 450 mg/L for Alum and 550 mg/L for PAC. Meanwhile, under the appropriate conditions of pH equal to 10 and 75 RPM with a chemical dosage of 350 mg/L, COD and TP removal efficiencies by Ferrous Sulfate exceed 87%, but those of turbidity and colour only reach 25%. This finding could be a promising coagulation method as a pre-treatment for the swine slaughterhouse wastewater

    Ceric and ferrous dosimeters show precision for 50-5000 rad range

    Get PDF
    Ammonium thiocyanate, added to the usual ferrous sulfate dosimeter solution, yielded a very stable, precise and temperature-independent system eight times as sensitive as the classical Fricke system in the 50 to 5000 rad range. The ceric dosimeters, promising for use in mixed radiation fields, respond nearly independently of LET

    Decomposition of Azo Dye C.I. Direct Yellow 86 by the Fenton Process in the Presence of Nanoparticles of Iron Oxides

    Get PDF
    The aim of the study was to determine the efficiency of decomposition of azo dye C.I. Direct Yellow 86 by the Fenton method in the presence of nanoparticles of iron oxides and to compare it with the classical Fenton method. Water solutions of the dye were subjected to the classical purification method with the application of ferrous sulfate and – for comparison – to a process in which iron (II,III) oxide nanopowder was added to the ferrous sulfate. Analysis of the effect of the ferrous sulfate, iron (II,III) oxide nanopowder, hydrogen peroxide and the pH of the solution on the treatment efficiency showed that the process was optimised. The use of iron oxide nanopowder increased the efficiency of dye decomposition
    corecore