14,778 research outputs found

    Comedians without a Cause: The Politics and Aesthetics of Humour in Dutch Cabaret (1966-2020)

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    Comedians play an important role in society and public debate. While comedians have been considered important cultural critics for quite some time, comedy has acquired a new social and political significance in recent years, with humour taking centre stage in political and social debates around issues of identity, social justice, and freedom of speech. To understand the shifting meanings and political implications of humour within a Dutch context, this PhD thesis examines the political and aesthetic workings of humour in the highly popular Dutch cabaret genre, focusing on cabaret performances from the 1960s to the present. The central questions of the thesis are: how do comedians use humour to deliver social critique, and how does their humour resonate with political ideologies? These questions are answered by adopting a cultural studies approach to humour, which is used to analyse Dutch cabaret performances, and by studying related materials such as reviews and media interviews with comedians. This thesis shows that, from the 1960s onwards, Dutch comedians have been considered ‘progressive rebels’ – politically engaged, subversive, and carrying a left-wing political agenda – but that this image is in need of correction. While we tend to look for progressive political messages in the work of comedians who present themselves as being anti-establishment rebels – such as Youp van ‘t Hek, Hans Teeuwen, and Theo Maassen – this thesis demonstrates that their transgressive and provocative humour tends to protect social hierarchies and relationships of power. Moreover, it shows that, paradoxically, both the deliberately moderate and nuanced humour of Wim Kan and Claudia de Breij, and the seemingly past-oriented nostalgia of Alex Klaasen, are more radical and progressive than the transgressive humour of van ‘t Hek, Teeuwen and Maassen. Finally, comedians who present absurdist or deconstructionist forms of humour, such as the early student cabarets, Freek de Jonge, and Micha Wertheim, tend to disassociate themselves from an explicit political engagement. By challenging the dominant image of the Dutch comedian as a ‘progressive rebel,’ this thesis contributes to a better understanding of humour in the present cultural moment, in which humour is often either not taken seriously, or one-sidedly celebrated as being merely pleasurable, innocent, or progressively liberating. In so doing, this thesis concludes, the ‘dark’ and more conservative sides of humour tend to get obscured

    Das kolonisierte Heiligtum: Diskriminierungskritische Perspektiven auf das Verfahren der Musealisierung

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    WĂ€hrend der Zeit des historischen Kolonialismus wurden in Völkerkundemuseen komplexe Formen rassistischer und religiöser Diskriminierung institutionalisiert, z.B. in den dort gĂŒltigen Ästhetik- und Kunstbegriffen. Viele der heutigen Museumsangestellten erklĂ€ren sich deswegen zu Reformen bereit. Doch können sie sich tatsĂ€chlich vom Kolonialismus trennen? Ist eine Dekolonisation ethnologischer Museen mit kolonialer Beute je abschließend möglich? Am Beispiel umstrittener HeiligtĂŒmer lebender Kulturen untersucht der Autor das Verfahren der Musealisierung durch die Linse der Diskriminierungskritik. Im Fokus stehen dabei die Sammlungen der "Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin"

    Neuroanatomical and gene expression features of the rabbit accessory olfactory system. Implications of pheromone communication in reproductive behaviour and animal physiology

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    Mainly driven by the vomeronasal system (VNS), pheromone communication is involved in many species-specific fundamental innate socio-sexual behaviors such as mating and fighting, which are essential for animal reproduction and survival. Rabbits are a unique model for studying chemocommunication due to the discovery of the rabbit mammary pheromone, but paradoxically there has been a lack of knowledge regarding its VNS pathway. In this work, we aim at filling this gap by approaching the system from an integrative point of view, providing extensive anatomical and genomic data of the rabbit VNS, as well as pheromone-mediated reproductive and behavioural studies. Our results build strong foundation for further translational studies which aim at implementing the use of pheromones to improve animal production and welfare

    Chikungunya Virus Transmission

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    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borneAlphavirus that causes Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in humans. In 1952, the CHIKV was found in East Africa in a sylvatic and urban cycle between Aedes mosquitoes, and human and nonhuman primates in tropical regions. Since 2004, CHIKF has spread rapidly in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas. Both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are known to be arboviral mosquito vectors of CHIKV. Ae. aegypti is mostly found within the tropics, whereby Ae. albopictus also occurs in temperate and cold temperate regions. Host-seeking female mosquitoes are infected after feeding on a viremic animal. The replication of CHIKV happens in the midgut and then enters the hemocoel before disseminating to the salivary glands of the mosquito. The disseminated virus can be transmitted by injecting infectious saliva into the host skin during blood feeding. In the naĂŻve host body, CHIKV replicates in the dermal fibroblasts through blood circulation, and disseminates to other parts of the body such as brain cells, kidney, heart, lymphoid tissues, liver, and joints. Symptoms of CHIKV infection include high fever, rigors, headache, photophobia, and maculopapular rash. It is advised to avoid mosquito bites; also, larvae management systems should be applied in endemic environments

    Towards a sociology of conspiracy theories: An investigation into conspiratorial thinking on Dönmes

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    This thesis investigates the social and political significance of conspiracy theories, which has been an academically neglected topic despite its historical relevance. The academic literature focuses on the methodology, social significance and political impacts of these theories in a secluded manner and lacks empirical analyses. In response, this research provides a comprehensive theoretical framework for conspiracy theories by considering their methodology, political impacts and social significance in the light of empirical data. Theoretically, the thesis uses Adorno's semi-erudition theory along with Girardian approach. It proposes that conspiracy theories are methodologically semi-erudite narratives, i.e. they are biased in favour of a belief and use reason only to prove it. It suggests that conspiracy theories appear in times of power vacuum and provide semi-erudite cognitive maps that relieve alienation and ontological insecurities of people and groups. In so doing, they enforce social control over their audience due to their essentialist, closed-to-interpretation narratives. In order to verify the theory, the study analyses empirically the social and political significance of conspiracy theories about the Dönme community in Turkey. The analysis comprises interviews with conspiracy theorists, conspiracy theory readers and political parties, alongside a frame analysis of the popular conspiracy theory books on Dönmes. These confirm the theoretical framework by showing that the conspiracy theories are fed by the ontological insecurities of Turkish society. Hence, conspiracy theorists, most readers and some political parties respond to their own ontological insecurities and political frustrations through scapegoating Dönmes. Consequently, this work shows that conspiracy theories are important symptoms of society, which, while relieving ontological insecurities, do not provide politically prolific narratives

    TOWARDS AN UNDERSTANDING OF EFFORTFUL FUNDRAISING EXPERIENCES: USING INTERPRETATIVE PHENOMENOLOGICAL ANALYSIS IN FUNDRAISING RESEARCH

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    Physical-activity oriented community fundraising has experienced an exponential growth in popularity over the past 15 years. The aim of this study was to explore the value of effortful fundraising experiences, from the point of view of participants, and explore the impact that these experiences have on people’s lives. This study used an IPA approach to interview 23 individuals, recognising the role of participants as proxy (nonprofessional) fundraisers for charitable organisations, and the unique organisation donor dynamic that this creates. It also bought together relevant psychological theory related to physical activity fundraising experiences (through a narrative literature review) and used primary interview data to substantiate these. Effortful fundraising experiences are examined in detail to understand their significance to participants, and how such experiences influence their connection with a charity or cause. This was done with an idiographic focus at first, before examining convergences and divergences across the sample. This study found that effortful fundraising experiences can have a profound positive impact upon community fundraisers in both the short and the long term. Additionally, it found that these experiences can be opportunities for charitable organisations to create lasting meaningful relationships with participants, and foster mutually beneficial lifetime relationships with them. Further research is needed to test specific psychological theory in this context, including self-esteem theory, self determination theory, and the martyrdom effect (among others)

    Arrangement of dermal chromatophore units in a polymorphic species, Ranitomeya imitator

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    In the 1980s, Rainer Schulte became the first to describe a species of poison frog living in the Amazon rainforest: Ranitomeya imitator. Schulteñ€ℱs classification of R. imitator as a single species sparked immediate controversy , since the species is composed of several dispersed populations, each exhibiting a unique color pattern (Caldwell 1990). The phenotypic differences apparent to even a casual observer of the R. imitator complex beg the question: how different are these frogs beneath their colorful skin? The present study attempts to quantify histological differences between the four color morphs of R. imitator and to demonstrate that the most closely related morphs have the most similar histology. Two types of chromatophoresñ€”melanophores and xanthophoresñ€”were measured in over 2,000 images of integumentary tissue taken under a brightfield microscope. One-way ANOVA tests were used to compare the abundance of chromatophores in skin tissue of different colors and from different morphs. Black tissue was found to exclusively contain melanophores, and melanophore abundance varied little between color morphs. Yellow and orange tissue contained a combination of xanthophores and melanophores. Xanthophores were most abundant in orange tissue from the banded morph, followed by the varadero morph, then the striped morph. Melanophore abundance followed the opposite trend. Green skin tissue (from the striped and spotted morphs) contained fewer xanthophores and more melanophores than orange tissue. Histological differences observed in this study correspond with the timing of mimetic divergence events proposed by Twomey et al. 2016, suggesting that differences have accumulated in the morphs since their divergence (Twomey 2016). Additionally, poison glands were measured to determine whether any color morph might have greater capacity for sequestering alkaloid toxins than another. Significant statistical differences in poison gland abundance existed between three of the four color morphs. The varadero morph exhibited the greatest abundance of poison glands, in contrast to findings from previous field studies in which the varadero morph exhibited relatively low alkaloid content. This discrepancy suggests that alkaloid defenses may be influenced more by dietary availability of alkaloids than poison gland storage capacity. Furthermore, the banded morph, which exhibits the brightest aposematic colors, and the spotted morph, which exhibits the least bright colors, showed no significant differences in poison gland abundance, suggesting that variation in aposematic signal intensity across color morphs may not be quantitatively honest. Together, the histological differences found in this study provide another piece of evidence to support the hypothesis that persistent color polymorphism may indicate an early stage of speciation in the mimic poison frog, Ranitomeya imitator

    Earth’s Energy Budget Impact on Grassland Diseases

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    The change in climate have caused different biotic and abiotic factors to be more prominent when management plan is executed. The increase in temperature have then cause frequent drought that may attract alien species of vectors to spread novel diseases among the native plants. However, the change in climate varies in different countries. Thus, common diseases that threatens food security such as Xanthomonas spp., Pseudomonas spp are in limelight of research. Vectors lifecycle may cause plant diseases to by cyclative. Therefore, to find the break in the vector’s lifecycle will be a method to eradicate harmful population in grassland. Modern days will then call for innovative method and limitations should be considered. Climate change have also impacted pathogens migration and mating pattern. The need for innovative management is constantly on the rise
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