1,024,713 research outputs found

    An Analytical investigation of a failed 1120 Aluminium wire.

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    a.n alytical investigation was performed on an - 120 aluminum wire which failed under stress test. ~.canning electron microscopy (SEM) examination ''nd the energy depressive spectrometer (EDS) nalysis were the major analytical methods of 1m.vestigation used. The failure mode of the alloy was found to be that of brittle failure interspersed · with ductile failure. The brittle failure results from he second phase particles contained within the luminium matrix which rendered the structure in . J):l .. -/1' ~ . . hif(region -weak and hence susceptible to failure . ,~:~ ABSTRACT a.n analytical investigation was performed on an - 120 aluminum wire which failed under stress test. ~.canning electron microscopy (SEM) examination ''nd the energy depressive spectrometer (EDS) nalysis were the major analytical methods of 1m.vestigation used. The failure mode of the alloy was found to be that of brittle failure interspersed · ith ductile failure. The brittle failure results from he second phase particles contained within the luminum matrix which rendered the structure in . J):l .. -/1' ~ . . hif(region -weak and hence susceptible to failure . ,~:~ , ... . . nder stress tests., ... . . nder stress tests

    Fatigue damage mapping

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    Observations of fatigue crack nucleation and early growth are presented. The state of stress/strain was shown to play a significant role in this process. Early growth occurs on planes experiencing the largest range of shear strain (Mode 2) or normal strain (Mode 1) depending on the stress state, strain amplitude, and microstructure. These observations were summarized in a fatigue map for each material. These maps provide regions where one fatigue failure mode dominates the behavior. Each failure mechanism results in a different failure mode. Once the expected failure mode is identified, bulk deformation models based on the cyclic stresses and strains can be used to obtain reliable estimates of fatigue lives for complex loading situations

    Accelerated fatigue durability of a high performance composite

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    The fatigue behavior of multidirectional graphite-epoxy laminates was analyzed theoretically and experimentally in an effort to establish an accelerated testing methodology. Analysis of the failure mechanism in fatigue of the laminates led to the determination of the failure mode governing fracture. The nonlinear, cyclic-dependent shear modulus was used to calculate the changing stress field in the laminate during the fatigue loading. Fatigue tests were performed at three different temperatures: 25 C, 74 C, and 114 C. The prediction of the S-N curves was made based on the artificial static strength artificial static strength at a reference temperature and the fatigue functions associated with them. The prediction of an S-N curve at other temperatures was performed using shifting factors determined for the specific failure mode. For multidirectional laminates, different S-N curves at different temperatures could be predicted using these shifting factors. Different S-N curves at different temperatures occur only when the fatigue failure mode is matrix dominated. It was found that whenever the fatigue failure mode is fiber dominated, temperature, over the range investigated, had no influence on the fatigue life. These results permit the prediction of long-time, low temperature fatigue behavior from data obtained in short time, high temperature testing, for laminates governed by a matrix failure mode

    Application of Subset Simulation to Seismic Risk Analysis

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    This paper presents the application of a new reliability method called Subset Simulation to seismic risk analysis of a structure, where the exceedance of some performance quantity, such as the peak interstory drift, above a specified threshold level is considered for the case of uncertain seismic excitation. This involves analyzing the well-known but difficult first-passage failure problem. Failure analysis is also carried out using results from Subset Simulation which yields information about the probable scenarios that may occur in case of failure. The results show that for given magnitude and epicentral distance (which are related to the ‘intensity’ of shaking), the probable mode of failure is due to a ‘resonance effect.’ On the other hand, when the magnitude and epicentral distance are considered to be uncertain, the probable failure mode correspondsto the occurrence of ‘large-magnitude, small epicentral distance’ earthquakes

    Water saturation induced changer in the indirect (Brazilian) tensile strength and the failure mode of some igneous rock materials

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    The present study concentrates on water induced strength reduction and variation of the failure mode in indirect (Brazilian) tension tests of several igneous rock materials under three moisture cases of oven-dry, air-dry and fully saturated states. In this respect, two andesite and three tuff materials which contain no visible flaws were subjected to indirect tensile strength tests using the Brazilian disc method. Once the tension tests were carried out, photographs of the broken samples were taken to investigate the changes in the failure mode. As a result, it was found that tensile strengths of the samples were highly reduced with the presence of the water and the natural humidity. Additionally, it has been deduced that the failure mode of the samples mainly shifts to central fracturing with the presence of natural moisture and saturation. Although the central crack is the ideal type for the theory of Brazilian tensile strength determination, indefinite contact properties like contact angle and frictions are some notable issues to make only considering failure shapes for the validity of the test results misleading

    Microstructure-failure mode correlations in braided composites

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    Explication of the fracture processes of braided composites is needed for modeling their behavior. Described is a systematic exploration of the relationship between microstructure, loading mode, and micro-failure mechanisms in carbon/epoxy braided composites. The study involved compression and fracture toughness tests and optical and scanning electron fractography, including dynamic in-situ testing. Principal failure mechanisms of low sliding, buckling, and unstable crack growth are correlated to microstructural parameters and loading modes; these are used for defining those microstructural conditions which are strength limiting

    Failure-mode-hierarchy-based design for reinforced concrete structures

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    Innovations in concrete construction can be held back by the inability of codes of practice to accommodate new materials. The current design and safety philosophy (DSP) of reinforced concrete relies heavily on the properties of steel reinforcement. The need to embrace new materials, such as fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcement, led to an in-depth examination of the DSP of European concrete codes of practice and resulted in a new philosophy, presented in this paper. The basis of the new philosophy remains the limit-state design and achievement of target notional structural reliability levels, but aims at the attainment of a desired failure mode hierarchy. The implementation of the philosophy, through a proposed framework, utilises the concept of average measure of closeness for the determination of appropriate material partial safety factors. An example of the application of the proposed framework is presented for FRP reinforcement. © 2005 Thomas Telford and fib
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