515,899 research outputs found

    Electromagnetic flow rate meter

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    A liquid metal, whose flow rate is to be determined, is directed through a chamber made of electrically-insulating material on which there is impressed a magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of flow of the liquid metal. The magnetic field is made to increase in strength in a downstream direction of the flow of liquid metal. At least a pair of electrodes are disposed in the chamber traversely and perpendicular to the direction of flow and an ammeter is connected between the electrodes. Electrodes may be disposed in the top or the bottom of the chamber and each may be segmented. Oppositely disposed electrodes may be used with at least one dividing wall extending from each electrode to cause reversal of the direction of flow of the liquid metal. The magnetic field may be provided by electromagnets or permanent magnets such as shaded pole permanent magnets

    High pressure flow-rate switch

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    Flow-rate switch adjusts easily over a wide switching range and operates uniformly over many cycles. It adapts easily to control of various fluids and has the possibility of introducing multi-point switching. Novel design features include the tapered spool, balanced porting, capillary-bypass lubrication, and capillary-restriction damping

    Increasing granular flow rate with obstructions

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    We describe a simple experiment involving spheres rolling down an inclined plane towards a bottleneck and through a gap. Results of the experiment indicate that flow rate can be increased by placing an obstruction at optimal positions near the bottleneck. We use the experiment to develop a computer simulation using the PhysX physics engine. Simulations confirm the experimental results and we state several considerations necessary to obtain a model that agrees well with experiment. We demonstrate that the model exhibits clogging, intermittent and continuous flow, and that it can be used as a tool for further investigations in granular flow.Comment: 7 pages, 6 figure

    Flow rate of polygonal grains through a bottleneck: Interplay between shape and size

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    We report two-dimensional simulations of circular and polygonal grains passing through an aperture at the bottom of a silo. The mass flow rate for regular polygons is lower than for disks as observed by other authors. We show that both the exit velocity of the grains and the packing fraction are lower for polygons, which leads to the reduced flow rate. We point out the importance of the criteria used to define when two objects of different shape are considered to be of the same size. Depending on this criteria, the mass flow rate may vary significantly for some polygons. Moreover, the particle flow rate is non-trivially related to a combination of mass flow rate, particle shape and particle size. For some polygons, the particle flow rate may be lower or higher than that of the corresponding disks depending on the size comparison criteria.Comment: 9 pages, 8 figure

    Flow modifying device

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    A swirler for a gas turbine engine combustor is disclosed for simultaneously controlling combustor flow rate, swirl angle, residence time and fuel-air ratio to provide three regimes of operation. A first regime is provided in which fuel-air ratio is less than stoichiometric, NOx is produced at one level, and combustor flow rate is high. In a second regime, fuel-air ratio is nearly stoichiometric, NOx production is less than that of the first regime, and combustor flow rate is low. In a third regime, used for example at highoff, fuel-air ratio is greater than stoichiometric and the combustor flow rate is less than in either of the other regimes

    Variable Powder Flow Rate Control in Laser Metal Deposition Processes

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    This paper proposes a novel technique, called Variable Powder Flow Rate Control (VPFRC), for the regulation of powder flow rate in laser metal deposition processes. The idea of VPFRC is to adjust the powder flow rate to maintain a uniform powder deposition per unit length even when disturbances occur (e.g., the motion system accelerates and decelerates). Dynamic models of the powder delivery system motor and the powder transport system (i.e., five–meter pipe, powder dispenser, and cladding head) are first constructed. A general tracking controller is then designed to track variable powder flow rate references. Since the powder flow rate at the nozzle exit cannot be directly measured, it is estimated using the powder transport system model. The input to this model is the DC motor rotation speed, which is estimated on–line using a Kalman filter. Experiments are conducted to examine the performance of the proposed control methodology. The experimental results demonstrate that VPFRC is successful in maintaining a uniform track morphology, even when the motion control system accelerates and decelerates.Mechanical Engineerin

    Prototype Boiling Ketupat Type of Batch Study of Heat Transfer Coefficient Into Condensor

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    So far for producing ketupat done using boiling system open by using a regular steamer so much heat loss occurs due to his high consumption of fuel, to reduce the fuel consumption of the writers tried to make a prototype of a batch type boiling ketupat equipped with condenser.Purpose to condensation steam in boiling water so that it does not require the addition of water.Energy consumption in a way traditional ketupat boiling takes time for 4 hours for all processes with the same time as that of 285000 kJ/kg while using a prototype wave energy consumption i.e. batch type of 37341 kJ/kg for cooling fluid flow rate 5 lt/min, 37802 kJ/kg for cooling fluid flow rate 10 lt/min and 46100 Lt/min for the coolant flow rate 15 lt/min. Influence of flow rate of cooling fluid on the heat transfer coefficient is proportional, the greater the flow rate of cooling fluid then the greater the coefficient of heat transfer rates. This is due to the heat lost when still on the way to the condenser and heat lost due to contact between the condenser with outside air
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