23,038 research outputs found

    Managing Extractive Resource Wealth for Sustainability: Lessons from Alaska Seen Through the Lens of Maximum Sustainable Yield

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    Presented at the Western Regional Science Association Annual Meeting Kauai, HawaiiAlaska has enjoyed a generation of unprecedented economic growth and prosperity driven by crude oil production primarily from one giant field, Prudhoe Bay, on the North Slope. Through a number of financial savings accounts, including the Alaska Permanent Fund, the Statutory Budget Reserve, and the Constitutional Budget Reserve, the state has successfully converted a share of petroleum wealth into $55 billion in financial assets. It has been less successful in diversifying the economic base away from dominance by oil and gas production. Now oil production has fallen to less than 1/3 of its peak and this decline is projected to continue—reducing public revenues and private economic activity. This paper will explore whether the state of Alaska has the resources to be able to transition successfully to a Post-Prudhoe Bay economy, how that transition could take place, and what impediments might prevent a successful transition. This analysis will be of interest to other natural resource dependent economies that are trying to manage the cycles that resource extraction generate.Northrim Bank

    The Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve: trajectories of agro-extractive development in Amazonia

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    The Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve (CMER) located in Acre, Brazil in the southwest Amazon is a powerful symbol of the rubber tapper social movement. Created in 1990, the Reserve is named after rubber tapper and union leader Francisco “Chico” Mendes, who was assassinated by ranchers in 1988. The concept of the extractive reserve, a type of sustainable-use protected area, was conceived by rubber tappers to secure land rights and to protect the forests from which they derived their livelihoods. Thirty years since its creation, non-timber forest product (NTFP) extraction maintains a critical role in CMER resident livelihoods, but it is now one of multiple and dynamic trajectories of income generating activities in the CMER. The state government has promoted sustainable development policies aimed at productive and multiple use of forests, including community-based timber management (CBTM). Concomitantly, the scale and scope of small-scale cattle ranching reflecting a growing “cowboy culture” pervasive in Eastern Acre is growing. These forces have brought sociocultural changes to the reserve as CMER residents engage these intertwined trajectories to improve their livelihoods. This article explores the trajectories of multiple development strategies in the CMER. We do this by revisiting and expanding on the principal themes of research of the co-authors – NTFP extraction, cattle ranching, and CBTM.  Increasingly diverse CMER households demand multiple pathways to improve livelihoods, and these trajectories have created new economic opportunities for reserve residents. Although the NTFP sector has experienced some success in market development and valued-added initiatives, investments have not produced a sustainable and diversified extractive sector. Cattle ranching and CBTM have provided economic benefits to reserve residents’ livelihoods, but they have also created internal tensions across the social movement and governments agencies. A strategic vision is required that brings diverse government, non-government and reserve residents together and articulates how these dynamic, linked, and sometimes conflicting trajectories can synergize within a balanced, diversified livelihood framework to ensure long-term sustainability of the CMER

    Property Rights Conservation and Development: An Analysis of Extractive Reserves in the Brazilian Amazon

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    The economic literature of property rights has been assessing the impact of different community based arrangements on the efficiency of natural resource management of specific areas. Differently, other strands of development economics and policy-oriented research have been concerned with issues such as poverty alleviation, technological progress and the capability to compete in market economies, which go beyond the local areas where traditional communities live and include the wider economy. The extractive reserves in the Brazilian Amazon offer perhaps one of the most interesting cases for investigating the connections between these two approaches in the context of tropical forests. It is based on the idea that the combination of public property with collective use in particular forest areas can generate competitive and, at the same time, sustainable exploitation of its natural resources. This paper aims to analyse whether the existing property rights support the joint objective of conservation and development. Our main result is that current property rights systems are efficient only with respect to competition in markets for existing extractive products. This finding points out to a fundamental contradiction between the static structure of the property rights systems and the dynamic nature of two most promising development paths, namely the discovery of new products and the supply of biological inputs for plantations. The current model of extractive reserves based on the design of internal property rights fails to taken into account the broader economic context where the reserves must generate a viable revenue stream. We conclude therefore that under the current set of institutions, the development objectives inherent in the extractive reserves model are likely to face probably considerable challenges to be accomplished in the future.Property rights, Extractive reserves, Environment and Development

    Extractive Reserves: Building Natural Assets in the Brazilian Amazon

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    In the Amazon rainforest, Brazil's rubber tappers were the first social group to challenge the predatory development model that is threatening ecological disaster there. Their strategy to set up “extractive reserves”—conservation areas where the local population can harvest non-timber forest products—is examined in “Extractive Reserves: Building Natural Assets in the Brazilian Amazon,” by Anthony Hall.

    Whose Lands? Which Public? Trump\u27s National Monument Proclamations and the Shape of Public-Lands Law

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    President Trump issued a proclamation in December 2017 purporting to remove two million acres in southern Utah from national monument status, radically shrinking the Grand-Staircase Escalante National Monument and splitting the Bears Ears National Monument into two residual protected areas. Whether the President has the power to revise or revoke existing monuments under the Antiquities Act, which creates the national monument system, is a new question of law for a 112-year-old statute that has been used by Presidents from Theodore Roosevelt to Barack Obama to protect roughly fifteen million acres of federal land and hundreds of millions of marine acres. If President Trump’s shrinkages stand, they will be the largest removal of public lands from protected status in U.S. history, and will put the remaining national monuments on the chopping block. This article advances a novel theory showing that the President lacks the power to revise or revoke monuments. The Antiquities Act gives a power only to protect public lands, not to remove them from protection. Arguments developed so far in litigation and scholarship fail to recognize a general feature of public-lands law: It consistently denies the President the power unilaterally to remove lands from statutorily protected categories once they are placed within those categories. The Antiquities Act should be read to be consistent with this field-wide pattern. The article explicates the reasons for this pattern. Generally speaking, public-lands law has been very little theorized; but it needs a theory now. Public-lands law is a field defined by structured normative pluralism. It integrates a range of deeply conflicting public-lands purposes, from mining and drilling to wilderness preservation, across a range of statutes and agencies and acreage totaling nearly a third of the land area of the United States. The asymmetric premise against any Presidential power remove lands from protection is rooted in this structure, specifically the President’s obligation to preserve for Congress the option of protecting lands, and the dangers of hasty or corrupt Presidential action. The article traces these rationales across the history of statutory, executive, and judicial articulations of public-lands law and shows that they apply to the present Antiquities Act dispute. The article also highlights the political and cultural dimension of the dispute: a series of three-way conflicts among “public-lands populists” who seek increased use of and access to public lands (whose agenda the Trump Administration has incorporated into its economic and ethno-national populism), recreationists and environmentalists, and indigenous communities in the Bears Ears region. Conflicts among these groups amount to fights over collective identity--the nature of the “public” that public lands should serve. This dimension of the conflict does not fall outside the doctrinal analysis of the Antiquities Act. Rather, with a clear theoretical view of public-lands law, it is possible to see that these agendas are already integral to the field itself. They are central threads of its pluralism, and their competing claims fit within its structure. An account of the larger field of cultural conflict both enriches the theory of public-lands law and helps to show how the field should resolve the present fight

    Marine Managed Areas: What, Why, and Where

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    This paper, which focuses on ocean and coastal areas, explores the challenge of public participation by discussing the role of communities in IM. It draws on a decade of collaboration between academics and community partners to outline the community perspective on both the limiting factors and the opportunities, and a state-of-the-art survey of community involvement in IM, parti-cularly in the Canadian Maritimes. The paper highlights the importance of linking communities and governments, and the need to overcome the growing disconnect between the two. It also illustrates the varied experiences of local coastal communities with IM through three concrete examples. These practical examples lead to two specific out-puts: a set of fundamental IM values and attributes from a community perspective, and a four-step process for facilitating and enabling community-focused IM.The conclusion summarizes key outcomes in terms of inclusivity and active involvement of communities

    Whose Lands? Which Public? Trump\u27s National Monument Proclamations and the Shape of Public-Lands Law

    Get PDF
    President Trump issued a proclamation in December 2017 purporting to remove two million acres in southern Utah from national monument status, radically shrinking the Grand-Staircase Escalante National Monument and splitting the Bears Ears National Monument into two residual protected areas. Whether the President has the power to revise or revoke existing monuments under the Antiquities Act, which creates the national monument system, is a new question of law for a 112-year-old statute that has been used by Presidents from Theodore Roosevelt to Barack Obama to protect roughly fifteen million acres of federal land and hundreds of millions of marine acres. If President Trump’s shrinkages stand, they will be the largest removal of public lands from protected status in U.S. history, and will put the remaining national monuments on the chopping block. This article advances a novel theory showing that the President lacks the power to revise or revoke monuments. The Antiquities Act gives a power only to protect public lands, not to remove them from protection. Arguments developed so far in litigation and scholarship fail to recognize a general feature of public-lands law: It consistently denies the President the power unilaterally to remove lands from statutorily protected categories once they are placed within those categories. The Antiquities Act should be read to be consistent with this field-wide pattern. The article explicates the reasons for this pattern. Generally speaking, public-lands law has been very little theorized; but it needs a theory now. Public-lands law is a field defined by structured normative pluralism. It integrates a range of deeply conflicting public-lands purposes, from mining and drilling to wilderness preservation, across a range of statutes and agencies and acreage totaling nearly a third of the land area of the United States. The asymmetric premise against any Presidential power remove lands from protection is rooted in this structure, specifically the President’s obligation to preserve for Congress the option of protecting lands, and the dangers of hasty or corrupt Presidential action. The article traces these rationales across the history of statutory, executive, and judicial articulations of public-lands law and shows that they apply to the present Antiquities Act dispute. The article also highlights the political and cultural dimension of the dispute: a series of three-way conflicts among “public-lands populists” who seek increased use of and access to public lands (whose agenda the Trump Administration has incorporated into its economic and ethno-national populism), recreationists and environmentalists, and indigenous communities in the Bears Ears region. Conflicts among these groups amount to fights over collective identity--the nature of the “public” that public lands should serve. This dimension of the conflict does not fall outside the doctrinal analysis of the Antiquities Act. Rather, with a clear theoretical view of public-lands law, it is possible to see that these agendas are already integral to the field itself. They are central threads of its pluralism, and their competing claims fit within its structure. An account of the larger field of cultural conflict both enriches the theory of public-lands law and helps to show how the field should resolve the present fight

    Traditional populations in environmentally protected areas: an ethnobotanical study in the Soure Marine Extractive Reserve of Brazil

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    In the Amazon, there are significant numbers of indigenous and non-indigenous populations who depend on natural resources for their subsistence. The objective of this study was to conduct an ethnobotanical inventory in three communities (Comunidade do Caju-Úna; Povoado do CĂ©u; and Vila do Pesqueiro) within the Soure Marine Extractive Reserve, located in the Archipelago of MarajĂł, in the state of ParĂĄ, Brazil. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and participant observation. We performed the sampling using non- probabilistic methods and feature selection. In a quantitative analysis, we evaluated the following indices: total species diversity; informant diversity of a species; use value of a species; consensus use value of a species; and use equitability value of a species. Of the 215 ethnobotanical species listed for the Soure Marine Extractive Reserve, 79 were cited as useful by respondents. We identified nine use categories, of which medicinal use was the most often cited. The indices calculated showed that the level of species diversity is high in the Soure Marine Extractive Reserve. Many of the species in the area are of great utility and cultural value to the local population

    Preserving New Caledonia's Marine Environment: The Benefits of a Large and Highly Protected Marine Reserve

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    The ocean plays a vital role in sustaining life on Earth. It covers almost 75 percent of the globe and contains nearly a quarter of the world's known species—with many yet to be discovered. These waters sustain billions of people and myriad wildlife. But today, the ocean faces many threats, including industrial fishing, plastic waste, climate change, overfishing, and illegal fishing. Globally, almost 90 percent of fish stocks are fully exploited or overexploited, and about 1 in 5 fish is caught illegally. In the Pacific Ocean, bigeye tuna populations have been decimated. These trends must be reversed in order to protect marine biodiversity in these waters and to continue to sustain those who depend on them. A few healthy marine environments remain. They benefit from a great diversity of marine life that warrants conservation. The establishment of large and highly protected marine reserves would safeguard these sites and ensure their protection for the long term
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