530,566 research outputs found

    A Quantitative Comparison of SMC, LMC, and Milky Way UV to NIR Extinction Curves

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    We present an exhaustive, quantitative comparison of all of the known extinction curves in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC and LMC) with our understanding of the general behavior of Milky Way extinction curves. The R_V dependent CCM relationship and the sample of extinction curves used to derive this relationship is used to describe the general behavior of Milky Way extinction curves. The ultraviolet portion of the SMC and LMC extinction curves are derived from archival IUE data, except for one new SMC extinction curve which was measured using HST/STIS observations. The optical extinction curves are derived from new (for the SMC) and literature UBVRI photometry (for the LMC). The near-infrared extinction curves are calculated mainly from 2MASS photometry supplemented with DENIS and new JHK photometry. For each extinction curve, we give R_V = A(V)/E(B-V) and N(HI) values which probe the same dust column as the extinction curve. We compare the properties of the SMC and LMC extinction curves with the CCM relationship three different ways: each curve by itself, the behavior of extinction at different wavelengths with R_V, and behavior of the extinction curve FM fit parameters with R_V. As has been found previously, we find that a small number of LMC extinction curves are consistent with the CCM relationship, but majority of the LMC and all of the SMC curves do not follow the CCM relationship. For the first time, we find that the CCM relationship seems to form a bound on the properties of all of the LMC and SMC extinction curves. This result strengthens the picture of dust extinction curves exhibit a continuum of properties between those found in the Milky Way and the SMC Bar. (abridged)Comment: 18 pages, 10 figures, ApJ in pres

    Rules of thumb for conservation of metapopulations based on a stochastic winking-patch model

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    From a theoretical viewpoint, nature management basically has two options to prolong metapopulation persistence: decreasing local extinction probabilities and increasing colonization probabilities. This article focuses on those options with a stochastic, single-species metapopulation model. We found that for most combinations of local extinction probabilities and colonization probabilities, decreasing the former increases metapopulation extinction time more than does increasing the latter by the same amount. Only for relatively low colonization probabilities is an effort to increase these probabilities more beneficial, but even then, decreasing extinction probabilities does not seem much less effective. Furthermore, we found the following rules of thumb. First, if one focuses on extinction, one should preferably decrease the lowest local extinction probability. Only if the extinction probabilities are (almost) equal should one prioritize decreases in the local extinction probability of the patch with the best direct connections to and from other patches. Second, if one focuses on colonization, one should preferably increase the colonization probability between the patches with the lowest local extinction probability. Only if the local extinction probabilities are (almost) equal should one instead prioritize increases in the highest colonization probability (unless extinction probabilities and colonization probabilities are very low). The rules of thumb have an important common denominator: the local extinction process has a greater bearing on metapopulation extinction time than colonization

    Partial extinction did not diminish spontaneous recovery after 24-hour retention interval

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    Fear extinction is not permanent but it may suffer from different forms of relapse. One strategy potentially useful to diminish relapse is the partial extinction treatment, according to which, extinction may be potentiated if a gradual and sparse number of CS-US pairings are introduced within the extinction treatment. The present study, using a differential fear conditioning paradigm, tries to evaluate the efficacy of partial extinction to reduce a specific form of relapse, spontaneous recovery, after a 24 h. retention interval. The results showed that partial extinction did not diminish spontaneous recovery when compared with standard extinction. From a theoretical point of view, the pattern of results found was more consistent with the idea that extinction entails the acquisition of new knowledge than with the idea that there are conditions in which extinction entails the erasure of the original acquisitionUniversidad de MĂĄlaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional AndalucĂ­a Tech

    Distinct fos-expressing neuronal ensembles in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex mediate food reward and extinction memories

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    In operant learning, initial reward-associated memories are thought to be distinct from subsequent extinction-associated memories. Memories formed during operant learning are thought to be stored in “neuronal ensembles.” Thus, we hypothesize that different neuronal ensembles encode reward- and extinction-associated memories. Here, we examined prefrontal cortex neuronal ensembles involved in the recall of reward and extinction memories of food self-administration.Wefirst trained rats to lever press for palatable food pellets for 7 d (1 h/d) and then exposed them to 0, 2, or 7 daily extinction sessions in which lever presses were not reinforced. Twenty-four hours after the last training or extinction session, we exposed the rats to either a short 15 min extinction test session or left them in their homecage (a control condition). We found maximal Fos (a neuronal activity marker) immunoreactivity in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex of rats that previously received 2 extinction sessions, suggesting that neuronal ensembles in this area encode extinction memories. We then used the Daun02 inactivation procedure to selectively disrupt ventral medial prefrontal cortex neuronal ensembles that were activated during the 15 min extinction session following 0 (no extinction) or 2 prior extinction sessions to determine the effects of inactivating the putative food reward and extinction ensembles, respectively, on subsequent nonreinforced food seeking 2 d later. Inactivation of the food reward ensembles decreased food seeking, whereas inactivation of the extinction ensembles increased food seeking. Our results indicate that distinct neuronal ensembles encoding operant reward and extinction memories intermingle within the same cortical area

    Correcting for the Effects of Interstellar Extinction

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    This paper addresses the issue of how best to correct astronomical data for the wavelength-dependent effects of Galactic interstellar extinction. The main general features of extinction from the IR through the UV are reviewed, along with the nature of observed spatial variations. The enormous range of extinction properties found in the Galaxy, particularly in the UV spectral region, is illustrated. Fortunately, there are some tight constraints on the wavelength dependence of extinction and some general correlations between extinction curve shape and interstellar environment. These relationships provide some guidance for correcting data for the effects of extinction. Several strategies for dereddening are discussed along with estimates of the uncertainties inherent in each method. In the Appendix, a new derivation of the wavelength dependence of an average Galactic extinction curve from the IR through the UV is presented, along with a new estimate of how this extinction law varies with the parameter R = A(V)/E(B-V). These curves represent the true monochromatic wavelength dependence of extinction and, as such, are suitable for dereddening IR--UV spectrophotometric data of any resolution, and can be used to derive extinction relations for any photometry system.Comment: To appear in PASP (January 1999) 14 pages including 4 pages of figures Uses emulateapj style. PASP, in press (January 1999

    On Dust Extinction of Gamma-ray Burst Host Galaxies

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    Although it is well recognized that gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows are obscured and reddened by dust in their host galaxies, the wavelength-dependence and quantity of dust extinction are still poorly known. Current studies on this mostly rely on fitting the afterglow spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with template extinction models. The inferred extinction (both quantity and wavelength-dependence) and dust-to-gas ratios are often in disagreement with that obtained from dust depletion and X-ray spectroscopy studies. We argue that this discrepancy could result from the prior assumption of a template extinction law. We propose an analytical formula to approximate the GRB host extinction law. With the template extinction laws self-contained, and the capability of revealing extinction laws differing from the conventional ones, it is shown that this is a powerful approach in modeling the afterglow SEDs to derive GRB host extinction.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figures; The Astrophysical Journal, in press (2008 Oct 1 issue

    The Galactic extinction and reddening from the South Galactic Cap U-band Sky Survey: u band galaxy number counts and u−ru-r color distribution

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    We study the integral Galactic extinction and reddening based on the galaxy catalog of the South Galactic Cap U-band Sky Survey (SCUSS), where uu band galaxy number counts and u−ru-r color distribution are used to derive the Galactic extinction and reddening respectively. We compare these independent statistical measurements with the reddening map of \citet{Schlegel1998}(SFD) and find that both the extinction and reddening from the number counts and color distribution are in good agreement with the SFD results at low extinction regions (E(B−V)SFD<0.12E(B-V)^{SFD}<0.12 mag). However, for high extinction regions (E(B−V)SFD>0.12E(B-V)^{SFD}>0.12 mag), the SFD map overestimates the Galactic reddening systematically, which can be approximated by a linear relation ΔE(B−V)=0.43[E(B−V)SFD−0.12\Delta E(B-V)= 0.43[E(B-V)^{SFD}-0.12]. By combing the results of galaxy number counts and color distribution together, we find that the shape of the Galactic extinction curve is in good agreement with the standard RV=3.1R_V=3.1 extinction law of \cite{ODonnell1994}