1,543 research outputs found

    Role of microRNAs in the age-associated decline of pancreatic beta cell function in rat islets

    Get PDF
    This is a freely-available open access publication. Please cite the published version which is available via the DOI link in this record.AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Ageing can lead to reduced insulin sensitivity and loss of pancreatic beta cell function, predisposing individuals to the development of diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of microRNAs (miRNAs) to age-associated beta cell dysfunction. METHODS: The global mRNA and miRNA profiles of 3- and 12-month-old rat islets were collected by microarray. The functional impact of age-associated differences in miRNA expression was investigated by mimicking the observed changes in primary beta cells from young animals. RESULTS: Beta cells from 12-month-old rats retained normal insulin content and secretion, but failed to proliferate in response to mitotic stimuli. The islets of these animals displayed modifications at the level of several miRNAs, including upregulation of miR-34a, miR-124a and miR-383, and downregulation of miR-130b and miR-181a. Computational analysis of the transcriptomic modifications observed in the islets of 12-month-old rats revealed that the differentially expressed genes were enriched for miR-34a and miR-181a targets. Indeed, the induction of miR-34a and reduction of miR-181a in the islets of young animals mimicked the impaired beta cell proliferation observed in old animals. mRNA coding for alpha-type platelet-derived growth factor receptor, which is critical for compensatory beta cell mass expansion, is directly inhibited by miR34a and is likely to be at least partly responsible for the effects of this miRNA. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Changes in the level of specific miRNAs that occur during ageing affect the proliferative capacity of beta cells. This might reduce their ability to expand under conditions of increased insulin demand, favouring the development of type 2 diabetes.Swiss National Science FoundationFondation Francophone pour la Recherche sur le DiabèteWellcome Trust Senior Investigator AwardMRC Programme GrantRoyal Society Wolfson Research Merit AwardWellcome Trust project gran

    (Epi)genomic heterogeneity of pancreatic islet function and failure in type 2 diabetes.

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans are heterogeneous tissues consisting of multiple endocrine cell types that carry out distinct yet coordinated roles to regulate blood glucose homeostasis. Islet dysfunction and specifically failure of the beta cells to secrete adequate insulin are known precursors to type 2 diabetes (T2D) onset. However, the exact genetic, (epi)genomic, and environmental mechanisms that contribute to islet failure, and ultimately to T2D pathogenesis, require further elucidation. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes efforts and advances in dissection of the complex genetic underpinnings of islet function and resilience in T2D pathogenesis. In this review, we will highlight results of the latest T2D genome-wide association study (GWAS) and discuss how these data are being combined with clinical measures in patients to uncover putative T2D subtypes and with functional (epi)genomic studies in islets to understand the genetic programming of islet cell identity, function, and adaptation. Finally, we discuss new and important opportunities to address major knowledge gaps in our understanding of islet (dys)function in T2D risk and progression. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation exerts clear effects on the islet epigenome, regulatory element usage, and gene expression. Future (epi)genomic comparative analyses between T2D and normal islets should incorporate genetics to distinguish patient-specific from disease-specific differences. Incorporating genotype information into future analyses and studies will also enable more precise insights into the molecular genetics of islet deficiency and failure in T2D risk, and should ultimately contribute to a stratified view of T2D and more precise treatment strategies. Islet cellular heterogeneity continues to remain a challenge for understanding the associations between islet failure and T2D development. Further efforts to obtain purified islet cell type populations and determine the specific genetic and environmental effects on each will help address this. Beyond observation of islets at steady state conditions, more research of islet stress and stimulation responses are needed to understand the transition of these tissues from a healthy to diseased state. Together, focusing on these objectives will provide more opportunities to prevent, treat, and manage T2D

    PAX4 preserves endoplasmic reticulum integrity preventing beta cell degeneration in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Get PDF
    [Aims/hypothesis]: A strategy to enhance pancreatic islet functional beta cell mass (BCM) while restraining inflammation, through the manipulation of molecular and cellular targets, would provide a means to counteract the deteriorating glycaemic control associated with diabetes mellitus. The aims of the current study were to investigate the therapeutic potential of such a target, the islet-enriched and diabetes-linked transcription factor paired box 4 (PAX4), to restrain experimental autoimmune diabetes (EAD) in the RIP-B7.1 mouse model background and to characterise putative cellular mechanisms associated with preserved BCM. [Methods]: Two groups of RIP-B7.1 mice were genetically engineered to: (1) conditionally express either PAX4 (BPTL) or its diabetes-linked mutant variant R129W (mutBPTL) using doxycycline (DOX); and (2) constitutively express luciferase in beta cells through the use of RIP. Mice were treated or not with DOX, and EAD was induced by immunisation with a murine preproinsulin II cDNA expression plasmid. The development of hyperglycaemia was monitored for up to 4 weeks following immunisation and alterations in the BCM were assessed weekly by non-invasive in vivo bioluminescence intensity (BLI). In parallel, BCM, islet cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by immunocytochemistry. Alterations in PAX4- and PAX4R129W-mediated islet gene expression were investigated by microarray profiling. PAX4 preservation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis was assessed using thapsigargin, electron microscopy and intracellular calcium measurements. [Results]: PAX4 overexpression blunted EAD, whereas the diabetes-linked mutant variant PAX4R129W did not convey protection. PAX4-expressing islets exhibited reduced insulitis and decreased beta cell apoptosis, correlating with diminished DNA damage and increased islet cell proliferation. Microarray profiling revealed that PAX4 but not PAX4R129W targeted expression of genes implicated in cell cycle and ER homeostasis. Consistent with the latter, islets overexpressing PAX4 were protected against thapsigargin-mediated ER-stress-related apoptosis. Luminal swelling associated with ER stress induced by thapsigargin was rescued in PAX4-overexpressing beta cells, correlating with preserved cytosolic calcium oscillations in response to glucose. In contrast, RNA interference mediated repression of PAX4-sensitised MIN6 cells to thapsigargin cell death. [Conclusions/interpretation]: The coordinated regulation of distinct cellular pathways particularly related to ER homeostasis by PAX4 not achieved by the mutant variant PAX4R129W alleviates beta cell degeneration and protects against diabetes mellitus. The raw data for the RNA microarray described herein are accessible in the Gene Expression Omnibus database under accession number GSE62846

    Differential cell autonomous responses determine the outcome of coxsackievirus infections in murine pancreatic α and β cells

    Get PDF
    This is the final version of the article. Available from eLife Sciences Publications via the DOI in this record.Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease caused by loss of pancreatic β cells via apoptosis while neighboring α cells are preserved. Viral infections by coxsackieviruses (CVB) may contribute to trigger autoimmunity in T1D. Cellular permissiveness to viral infection is modulated by innate antiviral responses, which vary among different cell types. We presently describe that global gene expression is similar in cytokine-treated and virus-infected human islet cells, with up-regulation of gene networks involved in cell autonomous immune responses. Comparison between the responses of rat pancreatic α and β cells to infection by CVB5 and 4 indicate that α cells trigger a more efficient antiviral response than β cells, including higher basal and induced expression of STAT1-regulated genes, and are thus better able to clear viral infections than β cells. These differences may explain why pancreatic β cells, but not α cells, are targeted by an autoimmune response during T1D.Fonds De La Recherche Scientifique – FNRS: FNRS- F 5/4/5.MCF/KP. Project de secherche (PDR) T.0036.13; European Commission (EC): Projects Naimit and BetaBat, in the Framework Programme 7 of the European Community; Federation Wallonie- Bruxelles: the Communaute Franc¸ aise de BelgiqueActions de Recherche Concertees (ARC); Fonds De La Recherche Scientifique – FNRS: FNRS post-doctoral fellowship; Governo Brasil: PDE/CSF Pos-Doutorado no Exterior; Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International (JDRF): JDRF Career Development Award; European Commission (EC): European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement 261441 PEVNE

    The diabetes-linked transcription factor PAX4: from gene to functional consequences

    Get PDF
    Paired box 4 (PAX4) is a key factor in the generation of insulin producing β-cells during embryonic development. In adult islets, PAX4 expression is sequestered to a subset of β-cells that are prone to proliferation and more resistant to stress-induced apoptosis. The importance of this transcription factor for adequate pancreatic islets functionality has been manifested by the association of mutations in PAX4 with the development of diabetes, independently of its etiology. Overexpression of this factor in adult islets stimulates β-cell proliferation and increases their resistance to apoptosis. Additionally, in an experimental model of autoimmune diabetes, a novel immunomodulatory function for this factor has been suggested. Altogether these data pinpoint at PAX4 as an important target for novel regenerative therapies for diabetes treatment, aiming at the preservation of the remaining β-cells in parallel to the stimulation of their proliferation to replenish the β-cell mass lost during the progression of the disease. However, the adequate development of such therapies requires the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms controlling the expression of PAX4 as well as the downstream effectors that could account for PAX4 action.Junta de Andalucía PI-0727-2010 to B.R.G.Junta de Andalucía PI-0085-2013 to P.I.L.Junta de Andalucía Consejería de Economía, Innovación y Ciencia P10-CTS-6359 to B.R.G.Junta de Andalucía Consejería de Economía, Innovación y Ciencia P12-CTS-2064 to M.G.-

    Positional Cloning of “Lisch-like”, a Candidate Modifier of Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes in Mice

    Get PDF
    In 404 Lepob/ob F2 progeny of a C57BL/6J (B6) x DBA/2J (DBA) intercross, we mapped a DBA-related quantitative trait locus (QTL) to distal Chr1 at 169.6 Mb, centered about D1Mit110, for diabetes-related phenotypes that included blood glucose, HbA1c, and pancreatic islet histology. The interval was refined to 1.8 Mb in a series of B6.DBA congenic/subcongenic lines also segregating for Lepob. The phenotypes of B6.DBA congenic mice include reduced β-cell replication rates accompanied by reduced β-cell mass, reduced insulin/glucose ratio in blood, reduced glucose tolerance, and persistent mild hypoinsulinemic hyperglycemia. Nucleotide sequence and expression analysis of 14 genes in this interval identified a predicted gene that we have designated “Lisch-like” (Ll) as the most likely candidate. The gene spans 62.7 kb on Chr1qH2.3, encoding a 10-exon, 646–amino acid polypeptide, homologous to Lsr on Chr7qB1 and to Ildr1 on Chr16qB3. The largest isoform of Ll is predicted to be a transmembrane molecule with an immunoglobulin-like extracellular domain and a serine/threonine-rich intracellular domain that contains a 14-3-3 binding domain. Morpholino knockdown of the zebrafish paralog of Ll resulted in a generalized delay in endodermal development in the gut region and dispersion of insulin-positive cells. Mice segregating for an ENU-induced null allele of Ll have phenotypes comparable to the B.D congenic lines. The human ortholog, C1orf32, is in the middle of a 30-Mb region of Chr1q23-25 that has been repeatedly associated with type 2 diabetes

    Proteome Analysis—A Novel Approach to Understand the Pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Get PDF

    GW8510 Increases Insulin Expression in Pancreatic Alpha Cells through Activation of p53 Transcriptional Activity

    Get PDF
    Background: Expression of insulin in terminally differentiated non-beta cell types in the pancreas could be important to treating type-1 diabetes. Previous findings led us to hypothesize involvement of kinase inhibition in induction of insulin expression in pancreatic alpha cells. Methodology/Principal Findings: Alpha (αTC1.6) cells and human islets were treated with GW8510 and other small-molecule inhibitors for up to 5 days. Alpha cells were assessed for gene- and protein-expression levels, cell-cycle status, promoter occupancy status by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and p53-dependent transcriptional activity. GW8510, a putative CDK2 inhibitor, up-regulated insulin expression in mouse alpha cells and enhanced insulin secretion in dissociated human islets. Gene-expression profiling and gene-set enrichment analysis of GW8510-treated alpha cells suggested up-regulation of the p53 pathway. Accordingly, the compound increased p53 transcriptional activity and expression levels of p53 transcriptional targets. A predicted p53 response element in the promoter region of the mouse Ins2 gene was verified by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Further, inhibition of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase activities suppressed insulin induction by GW8510. Conclusions/Significance: The induction of Ins2 by GW8510 occurred through p53 in a JNK- and p38-dependent manner. These results implicate p53 activity in modulation of Ins2 expression levels in pancreatic alpha cells, and point to a potential approach toward using small molecules to generate insulin in an alternative cell type.Chemistry and Chemical BiologyMolecular and Cellular Biolog

    Decreased STARD10 expression is associated with defective insulin secretion in humans and mice

    Get PDF
    Genetic variants near ARAP1 (CENTD2) and STARD10 influence type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. The risk alleles impair glucose-induced insulin secretion and, paradoxically but characteristically, are associated with decreased proinsulin:insulin ratios, indicating improved proinsulin conversion. Neither the identity of the causal variants nor the gene(s) through which risk is conferred have been firmly established. Whereas ARAP1 encodes a GTPase activating protein, STARD10 is a member of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)-related lipid transfer protein family. By integrating genetic fine-mapping and epigenomic annotation data and performing promoter-reporter and chromatin conformational capture (3C) studies in β cell lines, we localize the causal variant(s) at this locus to a 5 kb region that overlaps a stretch-enhancer active in islets. This region contains several highly correlated T2D-risk variants, including the rs140130268 indel. Expression QTL analysis of islet transcriptomes from three independent subject groups demonstrated that T2D-risk allele carriers displayed reduced levels of STARD10 mRNA, with no concomitant change in ARAP1 mRNA levels. Correspondingly, β-cell-selective deletion of StarD10 in mice led to impaired glucose-stimulated Ca2+ dynamics and insulin secretion and recapitulated the pattern of improved proinsulin processing observed at the human GWAS signal. Conversely, overexpression of StarD10 in the adult β cell improved glucose tolerance in high fat-fed animals. In contrast, manipulation of Arap1 in β cells had no impact on insulin secretion or proinsulin conversion in mice. This convergence of human and murine data provides compelling evidence that the T2D risk associated with variation at this locus is mediated through reduction in STARD10 expression in the β cell

    Nuclear factor κB-inducing kinase activation as a mechanism of pancreatic β cell failure in obesity

    Get PDF
    The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway is a master regulator of inflammatory processes and is implicated in insulin resistance and pancreatic β cell dysfunction in the metabolic syndrome. Whereas canonical NF-κB signaling is well studied, there is little information on the divergent noncanonical NF-κB pathway in the context of pancreatic islet dysfunction. Here, we demonstrate that pharmacological activation of the noncanonical NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) disrupts glucose homeostasis in zebrafish in vivo. We identify NIK as a critical negative regulator of β cell function, as pharmacological NIK activation results in impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mouse and human islets. NIK levels are elevated in pancreatic islets isolated from diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, which exhibit increased processing of noncanonical NF-κB components p100 to p52, and accumulation of RelB. TNF and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), two ligands associated with diabetes, induce NIK in islets. Mice with constitutive β cell-intrinsic NIK activation present impaired insulin secretion with DIO. NIK activation triggers the noncanonical NF-κB transcriptional network to induce genes identified in human type 2 diabetes genome-wide association studies linked to β cell failure. These studies reveal that NIK contributes a central mechanism for β cell failure in diet-induced obesity
    corecore