15,600 research outputs found

    Development and performance of a targeted whole exome sequencing enrichment kit for the dog (Canis Familiaris Build 3.1)

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    Whole exome sequencing is a technique that aims to selectively sequence all exons of protein-coding genes. A canine whole exome sequencing enrichment kit was designed based on the latest canine reference genome (build 3.1.72). Its performance was tested by sequencing 2 exome captures, each consisting of 4 pre-capture pooled, barcoded Illumina libraries on an Illumina HiSeq 2500. At an average sequencing depth of 102x, 83 to 86% of the target regions were completely sequenced with a minimum coverage of five and 90% of the reads mapped on the target regions. Additionally, it is shown that the reproducibility within and between captures is high and that pooling four samples per capture is a valid option. Overall, we have demonstrated the strong performance of this WES enrichment kit and are confident it will be a valuable tool in future disease association studies

    A comparative analysis of exome capture

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Human exome resequencing using commercial target capture kits has been and is being used for sequencing large numbers of individuals to search for variants associated with various human diseases. We rigorously evaluated the capabilities of two solution exome capture kits. These analyses help clarify the strengths and limitations of those data as well as systematically identify variables that should be considered in the use of those data. RESULTS: Each exome kit performed well at capturing the targets they were designed to capture, which mainly corresponds to the consensus coding sequences (CCDS) annotations of the human genome. In addition, based on their respective targets, each capture kit coupled with high coverage Illumina sequencing produced highly accurate nucleotide calls. However, other databases, such as the Reference Sequence collection (RefSeq), define the exome more broadly, and so not surprisingly, the exome kits did not capture these additional regions. CONCLUSIONS: Commercial exome capture kits provide a very efficient way to sequence select areas of the genome at very high accuracy. Here we provide the data to help guide critical analyses of sequencing data derived from these products

    Exome sequencing: the sweet spot before whole genomes

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    The development of massively parallel sequencing technologies, coupled with new massively parallel DNA enrichment technologies (genomic capture), has allowed the sequencing of targeted regions of the human genome in rapidly increasing numbers of samples. Genomic capture can target specific areas in the genome, including genes of interest and linkage regions, but this limits the study to what is already known. Exome capture allows an unbiased investigation of the complete protein-coding regions in the genome. Researchers can use exome capture to focus on a critical part of the human genome, allowing larger numbers of samples than are currently practical with whole-genome sequencing. In this review, we briefly describe some of the methodologies currently used for genomic and exome capture and highlight recent applications of this technology

    Quantifying single nucleotide variant detection sensitivity in exome sequencing

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    BACKGROUND: The targeted capture and sequencing of genomic regions has rapidly demonstrated its utility in genetic studies. Inherent in this technology is considerable heterogeneity of target coverage and this is expected to systematically impact our sensitivity to detect genuine polymorphisms. To fully interpret the polymorphisms identified in a genetic study it is often essential to both detect polymorphisms and to understand where and with what probability real polymorphisms may have been missed. RESULTS: Using down-sampling of 30 deeply sequenced exomes and a set of gold-standard single nucleotide variant (SNV) genotype calls for each sample, we developed an empirical model relating the read depth at a polymorphic site to the probability of calling the correct genotype at that site. We find that measured sensitivity in SNV detection is substantially worse than that predicted from the naive expectation of sampling from a binomial. This calibrated model allows us to produce single nucleotide resolution SNV sensitivity estimates which can be merged to give summary sensitivity measures for any arbitrary partition of the target sequences (nucleotide, exon, gene, pathway, exome). These metrics are directly comparable between platforms and can be combined between samples to give “power estimates” for an entire study. We estimate a local read depth of 13X is required to detect the alleles and genotype of a heterozygous SNV 95% of the time, but only 3X for a homozygous SNV. At a mean on-target read depth of 20X, commonly used for rare disease exome sequencing studies, we predict 5–15% of heterozygous and 1–4% of homozygous SNVs in the targeted regions will be missed. CONCLUSIONS: Non-reference alleles in the heterozygote state have a high chance of being missed when commonly applied read coverage thresholds are used despite the widely held assumption that there is good polymorphism detection at these coverage levels. Such alleles are likely to be of functional importance in population based studies of rare diseases, somatic mutations in cancer and explaining the “missing heritability” of quantitative traits

    Clinical exome performance for reporting secondary genetic findings.

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    BACKGROUND : Reporting clinically actionable incidental genetic findings in the course of clinical exome testing is recommended by the American College of Medical Genet- ics and Genomics (ACMG). However, the performance of clinical exome methods for reporting small subsets of genes has not been previously reported. METHODS : In this study, 57 exome data sets performed as clinical (n ! 12) or research (n ! 45) tests were retrospec- tively analyzed. Exome sequencing data was examined for adequacy in the detection of potentially pathogenic variant locations in the 56 genes described in the ACMG incidental findings recommendation. All exons of the 56 genes were examined for adequacy of sequencing coverage. In addition, nucleotide positions annotated in HGMD (Human Gene Mutation Database) were examined. RESULTS : The 56 ACMG genes have 18336 nucleotide variants annotated in HGMD. None of the 57 exome data sets possessed a HGMD variant. The clinical exome test had inadequate coverage for " 50% of HGMD vari- ant locations in 7 genes. Six exons from 6 different genes had consistent failure across all 3 test methods; these exons had high GC content (76%–84%). CONCLUSIONS : The use of clinical exome sequencing for the interpretation and reporting of subsets of genes requires recognition of the substantial possibility of inadequate depth and breadth of sequencing coverage at clinically relevant locations. Inadequate depth of coverage may contribute to false-negative clinical ex- ome results

    Analysis of Archived Residual Newborn Screening Blood Spots After Whole Genome Amplification

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    Deidentified newborn screening bloodspot samples (NBS) represent a valuable potential resource for genomic research if impediments to whole exome sequencing of NBS deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), including the small amount of genomic DNA in NBS material, can be overcome. For instance, genomic analysis of NBS could be used to define allele frequencies of disease-associated variants in local populations, or to conduct prospective or retrospective studies relating genomic variation to disease emergence in pediatric populations over time. In this study, we compared the recovery of variant calls from exome sequences of amplified NBS genomic DNA to variant calls from exome sequencing of non-amplified NBS DNA from the same individuals. Results: Using a standard alignment-based Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK), we find 62,000-76,000 additional variants in amplified samples. After application of a unique kmer enumeration and variant detection method (RUFUS), only 38,000-47,000 additional variants are observed in amplified gDNA. This result suggests that roughly half of the amplification-introduced variants identified using GATK may be the result of mapping errors and read misalignment. Conclusions: Our results show that it is possible to obtain informative, high-quality data from exome analysis of whole genome amplified NBS with the important caveat that different data generation and analysis methods can affect variant detection accuracy, and the concordance of variant calls in whole-genome amplified and non-amplified exomes.National Institute of Health P01HD067244, NS076465, R01ES021006Nutritional Science

    Development and Validation of Clinical Whole-Exome and Whole-Genome Sequencing for Detection of Germline Variants in Inherited Disease

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    Context.-With the decrease in the cost of sequencing, the clinical testing paradigm has shifted from single gene to gene panel and now whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing. Clinical laboratories are rapidly implementing next-generation sequencing-based whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing. Because a large number of targets are covered by whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing, it is critical that a laboratory perform appropriate validation studies, develop a quality assurance and quality control program, and participate in proficiency testing. Objective.-To provide recommendations for wholeexome and whole-genome sequencing assay design, validation, and implementation for the detection of germline variants associated in inherited disorders. Data Sources.-An example of trio sequencing, filtration and annotation of variants, and phenotypic consideration to arrive at clinical diagnosis is discussed. Conclusions.-It is critical that clinical laboratories planning to implement whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing design and validate the assay to specifications and ensure adequate performance prior to implementation. Test design specifications, including variant filtering and annotation, phenotypic consideration, guidance on consenting options, and reporting of incidental findings, are provided. These are important steps a laboratory must take to validate and implement whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing in a clinical setting for germline variants in inherited disorders

    A systematic evaluation of hybridization-based mouse exome capture system

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    BACKGROUND: Exome sequencing is increasingly used to search for phenotypically-relevant sequence variants in the mouse genome. All of the current hybridization-based mouse exome capture systems are designed based on the genome reference sequences of the C57BL/6 J strain. Given that the substantial sequence divergence exists between C57BL/6 J and other distantly-related strains, the impact of sequence divergence on the efficiency of such capture systems needs to be systematically evaluated before they can be widely applied to the study of those strains. RESULTS: Using the Agilent SureSelect mouse exome capture system, we performed exome sequencing on F1 generation hybrid mice that were derived by crossing two divergent strains, C57BL/6 J and SPRET/EiJ. Our results showed that the C57BL/6 J-based probes captured the sequences derived from C57BL/6 J alleles more efficiently and that the bias was higher for the target regions with greater sequence divergence. At low sequencing depths, the bias also affected the efficiency of variant detection. However, the effects became negligible when sufficient sequencing depth was achieved. CONCLUSION: Sufficient sequence depth needs to be planned to match the sequence divergence between C57BL/6 J and the strain to be studied, when the C57BL/6 J --based Agilent SureSelect exome capture system is to be used
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