20,443 research outputs found

    KAJIAN PEWARISAN PENGETAHUAN ETNOBOTANI PADA ANAK-ANAK KAMPUNG ADAT BADUY

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    This study aims to determine the inheritance of children’s ethnobotany knowledge of ethnobotany in children Indigenous Baduy village and to know ethnobotany knowledge possessed children Indigenous Baduy village. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative. Subjects in this study were children of Indigenous Baduy village who have aged between 7-15 years old and their parents. Data obtained from semi-structured interviews, direct observation and documentation during the study. Data from the survey results revealed that the inheritance of knowledge is done vertically through learning dialukan by parents to their children and are harizontal through dialkukan learning with children who have the same age. Children of Indigenous Village Inner Baduy have knowledge of ethnobotany higher with an average value of 42% and Children’s of Indigenous Village Outer Baduy average value of 24%. Factors affecting children's knowledge of ethnobotany Indigenous Baduy village dwellings and daily activities

    The use of phylogeny to interpret cross-cultural patterns in plant use and guide medicinal plant discovery: an example from Pterocarpus (Leguminosae)

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    The study of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants has led to discoveries that have helped combat diseases and improve healthcare. However, the development of quantitative measures that can assist our quest for new medicinal plants has not greatly advanced in recent years. Phylogenetic tools have entered many scientific fields in the last two decades to provide explanatory power, but have been overlooked in ethnomedicinal studies. Several studies show that medicinal properties are not randomly distributed in plant phylogenies, suggesting that phylogeny shapes ethnobotanical use. Nevertheless, empirical studies that explicitly combine ethnobotanical and phylogenetic information are scarce.In this study, we borrowed tools from community ecology phylogenetics to quantify significance of phylogenetic signal in medicinal properties in plants and identify nodes on phylogenies with high bioscreening potential. To do this, we produced an ethnomedicinal review from extensive literature research and a multi-locus phylogenetic hypothesis for the pantropical genus Pterocarpus (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae). We demonstrate that species used to treat a certain conditions, such as malaria, are significantly phylogenetically clumped and we highlight nodes in the phylogeny that are significantly overabundant in species used to treat certain conditions. These cross-cultural patterns in ethnomedicinal usage in Pterocarpus are interpreted in the light of phylogenetic relationships.This study provides techniques that enable the application of phylogenies in bioscreening, but also sheds light on the processes that shape cross-cultural ethnomedicinal patterns. This community phylogenetic approach demonstrates that similar ethnobotanical uses can arise in parallel in different areas where related plants are available. With a vast amount of ethnomedicinal and phylogenetic information available, we predict that this field, after further refinement of the techniques, will expand into similar research areas, such as pest management or the search for bioactive plant-based compounds

    Dormant Ethnobotany: A Case Study of Decline in Regional Plant Knowledge in the Bull Run Mountains of Virginia

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    This dissertation introduces and applies the concept of dormant ethnobotany, a concept that helps explain the socio-economic, cultural and ecological aspects and implications of the transition away from active use of ethnobotanical knowledge and the factors that may lead to its re-emergence. Dormant ethnobotany is the study of relationships between people and plants that are inactive, but nonetheless still alive in memories, the historic record, and folklore and thereby capable of reemergence in support of the transition to a more sustainable society. The dissertation extends the field of ethnobotany from its current roots in the dynamic ethnobotany of indigenous peoples. I studied dormant ethnobotany from three significant perspectives – socio-economic, cultural, and ecological – using a multiple methods approach and in the context of a case study of the Bull Run Mountains of northern Virginia’s Piedmont Region. The research is further refined by focusing on the mid-1940s to the mid-1950s as the key transition period from dynamic to dormant ethnobotany in this geographic area. Each perspective helps shape the concept of dormant ethnobotany and explains its causes and consequences. In this abstract I state key findings about the significance of dormant ethnobotanical research, how it should be conducted, and its relevance to sustainable development. Understanding the causes and consequences of dormant ethnobotany in turn sheds light on the pathways for ethnobotany to reemerge and the benefits of this reemergence as the world turns towards more localized, sustainable production systems consistent with the preservation of traditional ways of interacting with the land

    Herbal folk remedies for animal health in the Netherlands

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    As a part of their training in herbalism 85 students of the two private schools for natural animal care that exist in the Netherlands were given the assignment to ask farmers, pet owners and animal pension keepers about their traditional remedies. This led to 168 case reports in the period 1998-2004. A few reports from IEZ workers were added and all the results have been put in a database to make follow up analyses possible. The animals that were involved were often horses. The plant species involved consisted of 63 genera in 33 families of which 92% were indigenous to, or have been grown in the Netherlands for many years. The most frequently reported plant was Linum usitatissimum, flax seeds. Next in line were Urtica urens/dioica (nettles) and Allium sativum (garlic). All three were used for several different health conditions in several species of animals. Besides traditional internal and external herbal remedies there was use of beer, gin, tobacco, vinegar, and the hanging of branches in stables

    The Analysis of Existing Experience for the Ethnobotanical Information System

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    Ethnobotanical researches reflect the conventional learning of a region. Over the previous decade, medical plants which used for healing indigenous people has become a significant notion among the people and impacted improvement of scientific and ethnobotanical knowledge and investigations of eliminating health problems. A public database has been based on data assembled from various verifiable sources, including journals, travel records, and treatises on therapeutic plants, composed by explorers, botanists, doctors, researchers who went to the nations during the most recent three centuries. In addition, ethnobotanical data depicted in chronicled natural accumulations and in Ancient and Medieval writings from the inquired district have been incorporated into the database. The databases have to be sufficiently adaptable to illustrate a valuable tool for analysts who need to store and analyze present and past ethnobotanical data from the researched location. The ethnobotanical researches are improved in Azerbaijan day by day. The database is used for informing people about some national plants which are growing in the different region of Azerbaijan. The ethnobotanical databases from different countries are analyzed in this article.There are used some special methods for comparing the differences among these databases as data mining and text mining. As a first step the suitable databases are gathered for our investigation, then are defined the best information systems that are used in many countries\u27 biologists and scientists and the end is observed advantages and disadvantages of all existing ethnobotanical databases which we researched. The features of information systems are evaluated. The results demonstrated each of databases has its very own quality, but none has turned a standard form for universal research. The reason is very basic: none of these databases enable specialists to include their own information. There is also illustrated sample structure, main tables and key components of the ethnobotanical database.The obtained results, while a few ethnobotanical databases existing, none are satisfactory answers for worldwide work, and none enable analysts to include their very own information. There is a need brought together all essential properties of existing databases, and creating a free database that encourages ethnobotanical research. Due to the rise and quick improvement in the field of data advances, it has now turned out to be conceivable to digitize, oversee and make ethnobotanical information accessible to a more extensive gathering of people

    Traditionaly utilization of Selaginella; field research and literature review

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    Setyawan AD. 2009. Traditionaly utilization of Selaginella; field research and literature review. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 146-154. The aims of this research were to find out traditional usage of Selaginella in medication and its other usages, especially in Java and other Indonesian Archipelago. About 200 of 700-750 world species of Selaginella was found in Indonesian Archipelago. Field research and literature review indicated that Selaginella is used traditionally to heal wound, bloody stools, internal hemorrhoid bleeding, menstrual and uterine discomfiture, blood expediting, enhancing body endurance and longevity of live, headache, etc. Besides that some of Selaginellas are also used as raw dishes vegetable, ornamental pants, base materials and crafts. The utilization of Selaginella is very little against its amount of species and medicinal potency, so it is needed an advance study on ethnobotany and phytochemistry to improve its uses. Key word: traditional medicines, herbal, ethnobotany, Selaginella

    Perancangan Ethnobotany Book Sebagai Media Edukasi Pengenalan Tanaman Sayuran Lokal Di Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini

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    Pembelajaran di Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini (PAUD) menggunakan model pembelajaran terpadu  atau dikenal dengan pembelajaran tematik. Salah satu tema yang diajarkan pada anak yaitu pengenalan tanaman sayuran. Pengenalan sayuran hanya terbatas pada sayuran populer seperti wortel dan tomat, sedangkan sayuran lokal belum diperkenalkan pada anak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan secara umum perancangan ethnobotany book sebagai media edukasi pengenalan tanaman sayuran lokal berupa (1) menganalisis kebutuhan kepada guru dan orang tua, (2) merancang Ethnobotany book, (3) melakukan proses expert judgment kepada satu orang ahli media dan praktisi, dan (4) menghasilkan produk yang sudah layak pakai. Penelitian ini menggunakan model ADDIE dengan tahapan analisis kebutuhan perlunya perancangan media pengenalan tanaman sayuran lokal di PAUD, merancangan media ethnobotany book sesuai hasil analisis, dan pengembangan media ethnobotany book. Teknik pengumpulan data berupa wawancara kepada guru PAUD, orang tua dan expert judgment yang dilakukan kepada satu orang ahli dan praktisi media edukasi. Hasil expert judgment media ethnobotany book sebagai media pengenalan tanaman sayuran lokal berada pada kriteria layak untuk diimplementasikan. Capaian tersebut merupakan hasil penilaian dari aspek bahasa, gambar dan grafis media. Media ethnobotany book sudah disempurnakan sesuai masukan dan saran dari kedua validator sehingga bisa dipergunakan untuk pembelajaran pengenalan tanaman sayuran lokal di PAUD. Rekomendasi dari penelitian ini adalah media ethnobotany book dapat diimplementasikan dalam pembelajaran PAUD, orang tua perlu mendukung anak mengenal tanaman sayuran lokal dan dapat dijadikan referensi untuk penelitian selanjutnya

    PERANCANGAN ETHNOBOTANY BOOK SEBAGAI MEDIA EDUKASI PENGENALAN TANAMAN SAYURAN LOKAL DI PENDIDIKAN ANAK USIA DINI

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    Pembelajaran di Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini (PAUD) menggunakan model pembelajaran terpadu atau dikenal dengan pembelajaran tematik. Salah satu tema yang diajarkan pada anak yaitu pengenalan tanaman sayuran. Pengenalan sayuran hanya terbatas pada sayuran populer seperti wortel dan tomat, sedangkan sayuran lokal belum diperkenalkan pada anak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan secara umum perancangan ethnobotany book sebagai media edukasi pengenalan tanaman sayuran lokal berupa (1) menganalisis kebutuhan kepada guru dan orang tua, (2) merancang Ethnobotany book, (3) melakukan proses expert judgment kepada satu orang ahli media dan praktisi, dan (4) menghasilkan produk yang sudah layak pakai. Penelitian ini menggunakan model ADDIE dengan tahapan analisis kebutuhan perlunya perancangan media pengenalan tanaman sayuran lokal di PAUD, merancangan media ethnobotany book sesuai hasil analisis, dan pengembangan media ethnobotany book. Teknik pengumpulan data berupa wawancara kepada guru PAUD, orang tua dan expert judgment yang dilakukan kepada satu orang ahli dan praktisi media edukasi. Hasil expert judgment media ethnobotany book sebagai media pengenalan tanaman sayuran lokal berada pada kriteria layak untuk diimplementasikan. Capaian tersebut merupakan hasil penilaian dari aspek bahasa, gambar dan grafis media. Media ethnobotany book sudah disempurnakan sesuai masukan dan saran dari kedua validator sehingga bisa dipergunakan untuk pembelajaran pengenalan tanaman sayuran lokal di PAUD. Rekomendasi dari penelitian ini adalah media ethnobotany book dapat diimplementasikan dalam pembelajaran PAUD, orang tua perlu mendukung anak mengenal tanaman sayuran lokal dan dapat dijadikan referensi untuk penelitian selanjutnya. -----Learning in Early Childhood Education (PAUD) uses an integrated learning model or known as thematic learning. One of the themes taught in children is the introduction of vegetable crops. The introduction of vegetables is limited to popular vegetables such as carrots and tomatoes, while local vegetables have not been introduced to children. The aim of this research is to describe in general the design of ethnobotany book as an educational medium for introducing local vegetable crops in the form of (1) analyzing the needs of teachers and parents, (2) designing Ethnobotany book, (3) conducting expert judgment process to one media expert and practitioner, and (4) produce a product that is suitable for use. This research uses ADDIE model with the requirement analysis phase of the necessity of designing media of introduction of local vegetable crops in early childhood, designing ethnobotany book media according to result of analysis, and development of ethnobotany book media. Data collection techniques such as interviews to PAUD teachers, parents and expert judgment conducted to one expert and educational media practitioners. The result of expert judgment of ethnobotany book media as a medium of introduction of local vegetable crops is on the criteria worthy to be implemented. This achievement is the result of assessment of aspects of language, image and graphics media. Media ethnobotany book has been perfected according to the input and suggestion of both validator so that can be used for learning introduction of local vegetable crops in early childhood. Recommendation from this research is media of ethnobotany book can be implemented in learning early childhood, parents need to support child know local vegetable and can be used as reference for further researc

    Xanthium strumarium - a potential cheap resource of plant substances for medicinal use

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    Xanthium strumarium L. (Asteraceae) is an annual herb which reproduces solely by seed. So far its centre of origin was considered Central or South America. Recent archeological research revealed that the burs of X. strumarium were used in Yuergou site (400-200 cal BC) in the Turpan Basin of northwestern China. This plant adventive to Europe reduces germination of various crops and behaves like and aggressive invasive species. X. strumarium is the most frequently recorded plant in the field borders between the crop land and adjacent territories the agricultural areas in Bulgaria. We aim of this study is to reveal the potential of X. strumarium as a cheap source of compounds with valuable pharmacological activities. Here we analyse: 1) the traditional ethnobotanical data from its native habitats; 2) the modern investigations of pharmacological activity and essential secondary compounds. Traditionally the plant is used as febrifuge drug and an immunostimulant, as a diaphoretic agent and against malaria, as well as dysentry cure, astringent, sedative, analgesic, diuretic, against leucorrhoea and urinary diseases, eczema and skin disease, bleeding, insect bite, to treat boils and pimples, against smallpox and stomach diseases, earache and strumous disease, leprosy, headache, fever, etc. X. strumarium contains sesquiterpene lactones, thiazinediones, phenolic acids etc. and posses anticancer, antitussive, antifungal, antiinflammatory, antinociceptive, hypoglycaemic, antioxidant, antitrypanosomal, and antidepressant-like activity, diuretic effects, insecticidal and herbicidal activities as well as antitrypanosomal effect. A pharmaceutical application of this plant in the future would reduce its populations and thus would contribute to the biodiversity conservation

    Book review of \u27Civilized Shamans: Buddhism in Tibetan Societies\u27 by Geoffrey Samuel

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