89,857 research outputs found

    The reinforcing properties of ethanol are quantitatively enhanced in adulthood by peri-adolescent ethanol, but not saccharin, consumption in female alcohol-preferring (P) rats

    Get PDF
    Alcohol drinking during adolescence is associated in adulthood with heavier alcohol drinking and an increased rate of alcohol dependence. Past research in our laboratory has indicated that peri-adolescent ethanol consumption can enhance the acquisition and reduce the rate of extinction of ethanol self-administration in adulthood. Caveats of the past research include reinforcer specificity, increased oral consumption during peri-adolescence, and a lack of quantitative assessment of the reinforcing properties of ethanol. The current experiments were designed to determine the effects of peri-adolescent ethanol or saccharin drinking on acquisition and extinction of oral ethanol self-administration and ethanol seeking, and to quantitatively assess the reinforcing properties of ethanol (progressive ratio). Ethanol or saccharin access by alcohol-preferring (P) rats occurred during postnatal day (PND) 30-60. Animals began operant self-administration of ethanol or saccharin after PND 85. After 10 weeks of daily operant self-administration, rats were tested in a progressive ratio paradigm. Two weeks later, self-administration was extinguished in all rats. Peri-adolescent ethanol consumption specifically enhanced the acquisition of ethanol self-administration, reduced the rate of extinction for ethanol self-administration, and quantitatively increased the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. Peri-adolescent saccharin consumption was without effect. The data indicate that ethanol consumption during peri-adolescence results in neuroadaptations that may specifically enhance the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. This increase in the reinforcing properties of ethanol could be a part of biological sequelae that are the basis for the effects of adolescent alcohol consumption on the increase in the rate of alcoholism during adulthood

    Deletion of the gabra2 gene results in hypersensitivity to the acute effects of ethanol but does not alter ethanol self administration

    Get PDF
    Human genetic studies have suggested that polymorphisms of the GABRA2 gene encoding the GABA(A) α2-subunit are associated with ethanol dependence. Variations in this gene also convey sensitivity to the subjective effects of ethanol, indicating a role in mediating ethanol-related behaviours. We therefore investigated the consequences of deleting the α2-subunit on the ataxic and rewarding properties of ethanol in mice. Ataxic and sedative effects of ethanol were explored in GABA(A) α2-subunit wildtype (WT) and knockout (KO) mice using a Rotarod apparatus, wire hang and the duration of loss of righting reflex. Following training, KO mice showed shorter latencies to fall than WT littermates under ethanol (2 g/kg i.p.) in both Rotarod and wire hang tests. After administration of ethanol (3.5 g/kg i.p.), KO mice took longer to regain the righting reflex than WT mice. To ensure the acute effects are not due to the gabra2 deletion affecting pharmacokinetics, blood ethanol concentrations were measured at 20 minute intervals after acute administration (2 g/kg i.p.), and did not differ between genotypes. To investigate ethanol's rewarding properties, WT and KO mice were trained to lever press to receive increasing concentrations of ethanol on an FR4 schedule of reinforcement. Both WT and KO mice self-administered ethanol at similar rates, with no differences in the numbers of reinforcers earned. These data indicate a protective role for α2-subunits, against the acute sedative and ataxic effects of ethanol. However, no change was observed in ethanol self administration, suggesting the rewarding effects of ethanol remain unchange

    Serotonin-3 Receptors in the Posterior Ventral Tegmental Area Regulate Ethanol Self-Administration of Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    Get PDF
    Several studies indicated the involvement of serotonin-3 (5-HT 3 ) receptors in regulating alcohol- drinking behavior. The objective of this study was to determine the involvement of 5-HT 3 receptors within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in regulating ethanol self-administration by alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Standard two-lever operant chambers were used to examine the effects of 7 consecutive bilateral micro-infusions of ICS205-930 (ICS), a 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist, directly into the posterior VTA on the acquisition and maintenance of 15% (v/v) ethanol self- administration. P rats readily acquired ethanol self-administration by the 4 th session. The three highest doses (0.125, 0.25 and 1.25 ug) of ICS prevented acquisition of ethanol self- administration. During the acquisition post-injection period, all rats treated with ICS demonstrated higher responding on the ethanol lever, with the highest dose producing the greatest effect. In contrast, during the maintenance phase, the 3 highest doses (0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 ug) of ICS significantly increased responding on the ethanol lever; following the 7-day dosing regimen, responding on the ethanol lever returned to control levels. Micro-infusion of ICS into the posterior VTA did not alter the low responding on the water lever, and did not alter saccharin (0.0125% w/v) self-administration.. Micro-infusion of ICS into the anterior VTA did not alter ethanol self- administration. Overall, the results of this study suggest that 5-HT 3 receptors in the posterior VTA of the P rat may be involved in regulating ethanol self-administration. In addition, chronic operant ethanol self-administration, and/or repeated treatments with a 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist may alter neuronal circuitry within the posterior VTA

    Effects of naltrexone and LY255582 on ethanol maintenance, seeking, and relapse responding by alcohol-preferring (P) rats

    Get PDF
    Research indicates opioid antagonists can reduce alcohol drinking in rodents. However, tests examining the effects of opioid antagonists on ethanol seeking and relapse behavior have been limited. The present study examined the effects of two opioid antagonists on ethanol maintenance, seeking, and relapse responding by alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Adult P rats were self-trained in two-lever operant chambers to self-administer 15% (vol/vol) ethanol on a fixed-ratio 5 (FR5) versus water on a FR1 concurrent schedule of reinforcement in daily 1-h sessions. After 10 weeks, rats underwent extinction training, followed by 2 weeks in their home cages. Rats were then returned to the operant chambers without ethanol or water to measure responses on the ethanol and water levers for four sessions. After a subsequent 2 weeks in the home cage, without access to ethanol, rats were returned to the operant chambers with ethanol and water available. Effects of antagonists on maintenance responding were tested after several weeks of daily 1-h sessions. Naltrexone (NAL; 1–10 mg/kg, subcutaneously [s.c.]; n = 8/dose), LY255582 (LY; 0.03–1 mg/kg, s.c.; n = 8/dose), or vehicle were injected 30 min before the first session (in the absence of ethanol), following 2 weeks in their home cages, and for four consecutive sessions of ethanol self-administration under maintenance and relapse conditions. Both NAL and LY reduced responses on the ethanol lever without any fluids present, and ethanol self-administration under relapse and on-going drinking conditions, with LY being more potent than NAL. Both NAL and LY were less effective in reducing responding in the absence of ethanol than in reducing ethanol self-administration. Overall, the results indicate that the opioid system is involved in mediating ethanol seeking, and ethanol self-administration under relapse and on-going alcohol drinking, but that different neurocircuits may underlie these behaviors

    Searching for new medications for the treatment of alcohol use disorder

    Get PDF
    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) affects more than 15 million people in the United States. Current pharmacotherapeutic treatments for AUD are only modestly effective, necessitating the identification of new targets for medications development. In this study, the effects of the D4 receptor antagonist, L-745,870, and the CB1 negative allosteric modulator, PSNCBAM-1, were both tested for effects in ethanol conditioned place preference (CPP) and oral ethanol self-administration. Food-restricted adult male mice were trained in operant chambers to nose poke for delivery of rewards, trained on ascending concentrations of alcohol with descending concentrations of Ensure and water, until the mixture self-administered was 8% w/v ethanol in water. L-745,870 did not significantly attenuate ethanol self-administration or ethanol CPP. These results suggest that D4R antagonism does not alter the rewarding value of ethanol. PSNCBAM-1 dose-dependently attenuated oral ethanol self-administration, significantly reducing ethanol rewards at a dose of 30 mg/kg but not at 10 or 18 mg/kg. However, 18 and 30 mg/kg PSNCBAM-1 also significantly reduced self-administration of a palatable food reward. These results suggest PSNCBAM-1 produces a non-specific anhedonic effect that may preclude its use in AUD or other neuropsychiatric conditions

    Intravenous Alcohol Self-Administration in the P Rat

    Get PDF
    Alcohol consumption produces a complex array of effects that can be divided into two types: the explicit pharmacological effects of ethanol (which can be temporally separate from time of intake) and the more temporally “relevant” effects (primarily olfactory and taste) that bridge the time from intake to onset of the pharmacological effects. Intravenous (IV) self-administration of ethanol limits the confounding “non-pharmacological” effects associated with oral consumption, allows for controlled and precise dosing, and bypasses first order absorption kinetics, allowing for more direct and better-controlled assessment of alcohol’s effect on the brain. IV ethanol self-administration has been reliably demonstrated in mouse and human experimental models; however, models of IV self-administration have been historically problematic in the rat. An operant multiple-schedule study design was used to elucidate the role of each component of a compound IV-ethanol plus oral-sucrose reinforcer. Male alcohol-preferring P rats had free access to both food and water during all IV self-administration sessions. Animals were trained to press a lever for orally delivered 1% sucrose (1S) on a fixed ratio 4 schedule, and then surgically implanted with an indwelling jugular catheter. Animals were then trained to respond on a multiple FR4-FR4 schedule composed of alternating 2.5-min components across 30-min sessions. For the multiple schedule, two components were used: an oral 1S only and an oral 1S plus IV 20% ethanol (25 mg/kg/injection). Average total ethanol intake was 0.47 ± 0.04 g/kg. We found significantly higher earning of sucrose-only reinforcers and greater sucrose-lever error responding relative to the compound oral-sucrose plus IV-ethanol reinforcer. These response patterns suggest that sucrose, not ethanol, was responsible for driving overall responding. The work with a compound IV ethanol-oral sucrose reinforcer presented here suggests that the existing intravenous ethanol self-administration methodology cannot overcome the aversive properties of ethanol via this route in the rat

    Operant self-administration of ethanol in infant rats

    Get PDF
    The review focuses on operant self-administration of ethanol in immature, infant rats. Several methods for the analysis of ethanol intake in infants are available, yet only oral self-administration models the typical pattern of ethanol consumption found in humans. The study of ethanol intake in infants is important for our understanding of how early alcohol experiences facilitate subsequent engagement with alcohol. It seems that sensitivity to ethanol-induced operant reinforcement is found very early in life, a few hours after birth, and throughout the first three weeks of life. Most of the studies reviewed complied with most, albeit not all, of the criteria for operant behavior (e.g., greater responding than yoked controls and persistence of this difference after withholding the reinforcer). Operant self-administration of ethanol in infant rats seems to be, at least partially, mediated by endogenous opioid transmission and can be enhanced by prior exposure to ethanol. Furthermore, acquisition of ethanol-mediated operant learning seems to facilitate drug self-administration during adolescence. Relative to older subjects, infants exhibit lower sensitivity to ethanol's sedative, hypnotic and motor impairing effects. On the other hand, they exhibit increased sensitivity to the motor stimulant and rewarding effects of ethanol. We suggest that this pattern of response to ethanol may favor the rapid acquisition of operant self-administration in infant rats.Fil: Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Córdoba. Instituto de Investigación Médica Mercedes y Martín Ferreyra. Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Instituto de Investigación Médica Mercedes y Martín Ferreyra; ArgentinaFil: Miranda Morales, Roberto Sebastián. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Córdoba. Instituto de Investigación Médica Mercedes y Martín Ferreyra. Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Instituto de Investigación Médica Mercedes y Martín Ferreyra; ArgentinaFil: Nizhnikov, Michael. University of Binghamton; Estados Unido

    Overexpression of the Steroidogenic Enzyme Cytochrome P450 Side Chain Cleavage in the Ventral Tegmental Area Increases 3 ,5 -THP and Reduces Long-Term Operant Ethanol Self-Administration

    Get PDF
    Neuroactive steroids are endogenous neuromodulators capable of altering neuronal activity and behavior. In rodents, systemic administration of endogenous or synthetic neuroactive steroids reduces ethanol self-administration. We hypothesized this effect arises from actions within mesolimbic brain regions that we targeted by viral gene delivery. Cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc) converts cholesterol to pregnenolone, the rate-limiting enzymatic reaction in neurosteroidogenesis. Therefore, we constructed a recombinant adeno-associated serotype 2 viral vector (rAAV2), which drives P450scc expression and neuroactive steroid synthesis. The P450scc-expressing vector (rAAV2-P450scc) or control GFP-expressing vector (rAAV2-GFP) were injected bilaterally into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or nucleus accumbens (NAc) of alcohol preferring (P) rats trained to self-administer ethanol. P450scc overexpression in the VTA significantly reduced ethanol self-administration by 20% over the 3 week test period. P450scc overexpression in the NAc, however, did not alter ethanol self-administration. Locomotor activity was unaltered by vector administration to either region. P450scc overexpression produced a 36% increase in (3α,5α)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP, allopregnanolone)-positive cells in the VTA, but did not increase 3α,5α-THP immunoreactivity in NAc. These results suggest that P450scc overexpression and the resultant increase of 3α,5α-THP-positive cells in the VTA reduces ethanol reinforcement. 3α,5α-THP is localized to neurons in the VTA, including tyrosine hydroxylase neurons, but not astrocytes. Overall, the results demonstrate that using gene delivery to modulate neuroactive steroids shows promise for examining the neuronal mechanisms of moderate ethanol drinking, which could be extended to other behavioral paradigms and neuropsychiatric patholog

    Ethanol seeking triggered by environmental context is attenuated by blocking dopamine D1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens core and shell in rats

    Get PDF
    Conditioned behavioral responses to discrete drug-associated cues can be modulated by the environmental context in which those cues are experienced, a process that may facilitate relapse in humans. Rodent models of drug self-administration have been adapted to reveal the capacity of contexts to trigger drug seeking, thereby enabling neurobiological investigations of this effect. We tested the hypothesis that dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens, a neural structure that mediates reinforcement, is necessary for context-induced reinstatement of responding for ethanol-associated cues. Rats pressed one lever (active) for oral ethanol (0.1 ml; 10% v/v) in operant conditioning chambers distinguished by specific visual, olfactory, and tactile contextual stimuli. Ethanol delivery was paired with a discrete (4 s) light-noise stimulus. Responses on a second lever (inactive) were not reinforced. Behavior was then extinguished by withholding ethanol but not the discrete stimulus in a different context. Reinstatement, expressed as elevated responding for the discrete stimulus without ethanol delivery, was tested by placing rats into the prior self-administration context after administration of saline or the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH 23390 (0.006, 0.06, and 0.6 μg/side), into the nucleus accumbens core or shell. Compared with extinction responding, active lever pressing in saline-pretreated rats was enhanced by placement into the prior ethanol self-administration context. SCH 23390 dose-dependently reduced reinstatement after infusion into the core or shell. These findings suggest a critical role for dopamine acting via D1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens in the reinstatement of responding for ethanol cues triggered by placement into an ethanol-associated context
    corecore