10,045 research outputs found

    Urbanised forested landscape: Urbanisation, timber extraction and forest care on the Vișeu Valley, northern Romania

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    By looking at urbanisation processes from the vantage point of the forest, and the ways in which it both constitutes our living space while having been separated from the bounded space of the urban in modern history, the thesis asks: How can we (re)imagine urbanisation beyond the limits of the urban? How can a feminine line of thinking engage with the forest beyond the capitalist-colonial paradigm and its extractive project? and How can we “think with care” (Puig de la Bellacasa 2017) towards the forest as an inhabitant of our common world, instead of perpetuating the image of the forest as a space outside the delimited boundaries of the city? Through a case study research, introducing the Vișeu Valley in northern Romania as both a site engaged in the circulation of the global timber flow, a part of what Brenner and Schmid (2014) name “planetary urbanisation”, where the extractive logging operations beginning in the late XVIIIth century have constructed it as an extractive landscape, and a more than human landscape inhabited by a multitude of beings (animal, plant, and human) the thesis argues towards the importance of forest care and indigenous knowledge in landscape management understood as a trans-generational transmission of knowledge, that is interdependent with the persistence of the landscape as such. Having a trans-scalar approach, the thesis investigates the ways in which the extractive projects of the capitalist-colonial paradigm have and still are shaping forested landscapes across the globe in order to situate the case as part of a planetary forest landscape and the contemporary debates it is engaged in. By engaging with emerging paradigms within the fields of plant communication, forestry, legal scholarship and landscape urbanism that present trees and forests as intelligent beings, and look at urbanisation as a way of inhabiting the landscape in both indigenous and modern cultures, the thesis argues towards viewing forested landscapes as more than human living spaces. Thinking urbanisation through the case of the Vișeu Valley’s urbanised forested landscape, the thesis aligns with alternate ways of viewing urbanisation as co-habitation with more than human beings, particularly those emerging from interdisciplinary research in the Amazon river basin (Tavares 2017, Heckenberger 2012) and, in light of emerging discourses on the rights of nature, proposes an expanded concept of planetary citizenship, to include non-human personhood

    Pea breeding for resistance to rhizospheric pathogens

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    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a grain legume widely cultivated in temperate climates. It is important in the race for food security owing to its multipurpose low-input requirement and environmental promoting traits. Pea is key in nitrogen fixation, biodiversity preservation, and nutritional functions as food and feed. Unfortunately, like most crops, pea production is constrained by several pests and diseases, of which rhizosphere disease dwellers are the most critical due to their long-term persistence in the soil and difficulty to manage. Understanding the rhizosphere environment can improve host plant root microbial association to increase yield stability and facilitate improved crop performance through breeding. Thus, the use of various germplasm and genomic resources combined with scientific collaborative efforts has contributed to improving pea resistance/cultivation against rhizospheric diseases. This improvement has been achieved through robust phenotyping, genotyping, agronomic practices, and resistance breeding. Nonetheless, resistance to rhizospheric diseases is still limited, while biological and chemical-based control strategies are unrealistic and unfavourable to the environment, respectively. Hence, there is a need to consistently scout for host plant resistance to resolve these bottlenecks. Herein, in view of these challenges, we reflect on pea breeding for resistance to diseases caused by rhizospheric pathogens, including fusarium wilt, root rots, nematode complex, and parasitic broomrape. Here, we will attempt to appraise and harmonise historical and contemporary knowledge that contributes to pea resistance breeding for soilborne disease management and discuss the way forward

    Playing with (my)self: Reconfiguring 21st century performance art as an emerging encounter amongst the becoming-stage, the becoming-actor, and the becoming-audience

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    “Playing with (my)Self: Reconfiguring 21st Century Performance Art as an Emerging Encounter amongst the Becoming-Stage, the Becoming-Actor, and the Becoming-Audience” This practice-based PhD revolves around the stage, the actor, and the audiences as three primary locations where performance emerges via an encounter between those entities: the interplay between the stage, the performer, and the audience feeds back on itself to create the conditions with which it is possible for these encounters to generate emerging performance. This PhD relocates the stage onto the surface and intensity of the performer; creates multiplicity within a single performer/space; and produces a new sense of aesthetics through techniques of improvisation, use of costume, props and constructed spaces, led by notions of becoming and immanence, as both object and action of performance itself. In the context of performance studies, theatre technique and theory are explored to contribute to new performance in its expanded field, including theatre, moving image, and live performance, and works through notions of archetype, humour, and staging to create several new works of art as research. Theatre theorists and practitioners researched include Konstantin Stanislavski, Lee Strasberg, Anne Bogart and Tina Landau, Bertolt Brecht, Richard Foreman, and Tim Etchells. The main contribution and intention of this PhD is to show how theatre theory and technique positively inform fine art performance practice,in that builds a new sense of self, in that the actor or performer becomes one part of many co-emergences amongst the stage, the actor, and the audience, and seeks to add knowledge in the field of performance studies by establishing a new condition for the stage as an encounter with the performer, who is positioned as a structure from which performance emanates, and includes practical research into the mechanics of acting including the work of Konstantin Stanislavsky along with Lee Strasberg’s ‘Method Acting’ technique, and examines the space between the audience and the performed event as a co-producers, with a particular emphasis on Bertolt Brecht’s ‘Alienation Effect’. By putting myself in the role of actor in this research, I am examining how such a role can be decoupled from the actor in question, and how it can be totally linked within the co-emergent space of stage/actor/audience; in this way performers within performance can be viewed as one element among many within the constellation of performance-making. This research situates itself among Jos de Gruyter and Harald Thys’ moving image work; Diane Torr’s “Man For a Day” workshops; Andy Kaufman’s “Foreign Man” persona; Liz Magic Laser’s “I Feel Your Pain”; Marcus Coates’ shaman practice; Keren Citter’s moving image work; Mike Kelly’s musical “Day is Done”; Tino Seghal’s performance “These Associations”; Lindsay Seers’s photographic and installation practice; Ryan Trecartin’s video “Center Jenny”; Anna Deveare Smith’s verbatim theatre; and Cindy Sherman’s character-based photographic practice, among others. Bruce Nauman and Paul McCarthy, whose physical and conceptual spaces have been important points of departure researching sculpture as stage, and thresholds as they relate to perception and audience engagement are also examined. This research is also indebted to the performance practices of New York-based theatre artists Mabou Mines, Richard Foreman, and The Wooster Group, all of whom worked towards an aesthetics in theatre which bumped into the conceptual and practical space of performance art since the 1970s. Important theoretical contributions include Lyotard’s Libidinal Economy; Sartre’s essay The Look, Bertolt Brecht’s A Short Organum for the Theatre and particularly the Alienation Effect; Deleuze and Guattari’s A Thousand Plateaus; Deleuze’s essay One Less Manifesto; Strasberg’s A Dream of Passion with particular reference to Method Acting; Stanislavski’s An Actor Prepares; Ranciere’s The Emancipated Spectator; Bogart and Landau’s Viewpoints; and Lyotard’s Libidinal Economy

    Antimicrobial Peptides Aka Host Defense Peptides – From Basic Research to Therapy

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    This Special Issue reprint will address the most current and innovative developments in the field of HDP research across a range of topics, such as structure and function analysis, modes of action, anti-microbial effects, cell and animal model systems, the discovery of novel host-defense peptides, and drug development

    Grasping nothing: a study of minimal ontologies and the sense of music

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    If music were to have a proper sense – one in which it is truly given – one might reasonably place this in sound and aurality. I contend, however, that no such sense exists; rather, the sense of music takes place, and it does so with the impossible. To this end, this thesis – which is a work of philosophy and music – advances an ontology of the impossible (i.e., it thinks the being of what, properly speaking, can have no being) and considers its implications for music, articulating how ontological aporias – of the event, of thinking the absolute, and of sovereignty’s dismemberment – imply senses of music that are anterior to sound. John Cage’s Silent Prayer, a nonwork he never composed, compels a rerethinking of silence on the basis of its contradictory status of existence; Florian Hecker et al.’s Speculative Solution offers a basis for thinking absolute music anew to the precise extent that it is a discourse of meaninglessness; and Manfred Werder’s [yearn] pieces exhibit exemplarily that music’s sense depends on the possibility of its counterfeiting. Inso-much as these accounts produce musical senses that take the place of sound, they are also understood to be performances of these pieces. Here, then, thought is music’s organon and its instrument

    Aflatoxins

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    The aflatoxin producing fungi Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. nomius, although they are also produced by other species of Aspergillus as well as by Emericella spp.(Telemorph). There are many types of aflatoxins, but the four main ones are aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2, while aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and M2 (AFM2) are the hydroxylated metabolites of AFB1 and AFB2. Aflatoxin B1, which is a genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, which presumptively causes cancer by inducing DNA, adducts leading to genetic changes in target liver cells. Cytochrome-P450 enzymes to the reactive intermediate AFB1–8, 9 epoxide (AFBO) which binds to liver cell DNA, resulting in DNA adducts, metabolize AFB1 Ingestion of contaminated food is the main source of exposure to aflatoxins, which adversely affect the health of both humans and animals. The compounds can cause acute or chronic toxic effects of a teratogenic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, immunotoxic or hepatotoxic character. You can reduce your aflatoxin exposure by buying only major commercial brands of food and by discarding that look moldy, discolored, or shriveled

    Double Rotating Wall Compression of Positron Clouds and Towards Resistive Cooling

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    Low energy positron clouds from a buer gas trap have been characterised and compressed by a novel double rotating wall (RW) electric field. A theoretical and experimental study comparing compression due to dipolar single and double RW electric fields is presented, with details of a custom-built function generator capable of operating on two sets of four, six, and eight-segment electrodes. The installation of a cylindrical Penning trap with two sets of six-segment RW elec-trodes has allowed the implementation of a double RW, which provides a better approximation to the electric potential in the model for independent charged par-ticle compression. A reduction in particle heating has been observed with the double RW, whilst obtaining at least equivalent compression as the single RW, which may in future allow a reduction in the minimum attainable cloud width.Without the use of RW electric fields, optimisations to positron ejection and recapture techniques led to positron clouds being held in a deep, harmonic poten-tial well for over 100 s, enabling time to study RW electric fields and to perform resistive cooling experiments

    Recent Advances in Single-Particle Tracking: Experiment and Analysis

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    This Special Issue of Entropy, titled “Recent Advances in Single-Particle Tracking: Experiment and Analysis”, contains a collection of 13 papers concerning different aspects of single-particle tracking, a popular experimental technique that has deeply penetrated molecular biology and statistical and chemical physics. Presenting original research, yet written in an accessible style, this collection will be useful for both newcomers to the field and more experienced researchers looking for some reference. Several papers are written by authorities in the field, and the topics cover aspects of experimental setups, analytical methods of tracking data analysis, a machine learning approach to data and, finally, some more general issues related to diffusion

    The Dynamics of Right-Wing Extremism within German Society

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    The Dynamics of Right-Wing Extremism within German Society explores the prevalence of right-wing extremist attitudes in Germany. The book provides a thorough psychosocial and sociological theory of general authoritarian dynamics to explain broader societal attitudes, particularly focusing on right-wing extremism. It provides a uniquely long-term perspective on the different dimensions of right-wing extremism—the affinity for dictatorial forms of government, chauvinist attitudes, the trivialisation or justification of National Socialism, anti-Semitism, xenophobia, and social Darwinism. The first chapter delineates the theoretical framework of authoritarian dynamics, while subsequent chapters provide an in-depth analysis of empirical findings and distinguish authoritarian and democratic typologies. The authors focus on recognition of authoritarian statehood and anti-Semitism; the relationship between religion and right-wing extremism; and support for the radical-right populist party, Alternative für Deutschland (AfD). The innovative theoretical approach of this book scrutinizes the theory of authoritarianism in the contemporary world. This book provides unique empirical data and will be of interest to scholars of German politics, anti-democratic attitudes and prejudices, sociology, political science, and social psychology

    Leukocyte Subsets in the Peripheral Blood and Spleen of Gastrointestinal Cancer Patients

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    In 2022, an estimated 62,210 people will be diagnosed with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and approximately 49,830 will die from the disease. Current treatment strategies for gastrointestinal (GI) cancer patients, such as PDAC, have shown limited benefit, suggesting the need to develop novel, multimodality therapeutic approaches. Adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) using autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) has shown efficacy in patients with melanoma; however, this approach is costly and requires extensive cell culture for sufficient numbers of T-cells for infusion. GI cancer patients with borderline resectable disease, whose primary tumor is adjacent to the splenic vasculature, can sometimes undergo a splenectomy as standard of care as the pancreas and spleen share the same blood supply, making the spleen a potential site for metastasis. The spleen provides an unutilized source of lymphocytes with potential utility for ACT, but few studies have examined the immune profile, or the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) on the immune profile, in the spleen and peripheral blood (PB) in cancer patients. To address these questions, we undertook flow cytometric and clustering analyses on leukocyte populations, and the impact of NCT on patient immunity, in the spleens and PB of cancer patients, and compared these to both normal donors and patients with benign GI tumors. These studies provided several novel observations: first that the spleen is a rich source of CD8+PD-1+ T-cells with low expression of checkpoint proteins and potential utility for ACT. Secondly, we observed significant differences in the frequency and phenotype of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the PB and spleen of GI cancer patients as compared to the PB of normal donors, some of which were specific to the tissue type or source analyzed. Third, we report that, ~6 weeks post NCT, the immune profile of NCT treated cancer patients has recovered; this suggests that post-surgical resection patients may be more responsive to immune intervention. In addition, we report preliminary peripheral studies during which we assessed the function of CD8+PD-1+ T-cells from the spleens of GI cancer patients
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