295 research outputs found

    Nitrate Paradigm Does Not Hold Up for Sugarcane

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    Modern agriculture is based on the notion that nitrate is the main source of nitrogen (N) for crops, but nitrate is also the most mobile form of N and easily lost from soil. Efficient acquisition of nitrate by crops is therefore a prerequisite for avoiding off-site N pollution. Sugarcane is considered the most suitable tropical crop for biofuel production, but surprisingly high N fertilizer applications in main producer countries raise doubt about the sustainability of production and are at odds with a carbon-based crop. Examining reasons for the inefficient use of N fertilizer, we hypothesized that sugarcane resembles other giant tropical grasses which inhibit the production of nitrate in soil and differ from related grain crops with a confirmed ability to use nitrate. The results of our study support the hypothesis that N-replete sugarcane and ancestral species in the Andropogoneae supertribe strongly prefer ammonium over nitrate. Sugarcane differs from grain crops, sorghum and maize, which acquired both N sources equally well, while giant grass, Erianthus, displayed an intermediate ability to use nitrate. We conclude that discrimination against nitrate and a low capacity to store nitrate in shoots prevents commercial sugarcane varieties from taking advantage of the high nitrate concentrations in fertilized soils in the first three months of the growing season, leaving nitrate vulnerable to loss. Our study addresses a major caveat of sugarcane production and affords a strong basis for improvement through breeding cultivars with enhanced capacity to use nitrate as well as through agronomic measures that reduce nitrification in soil

    Sugarcane Production in China

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    Sugarcane production in China has a prolonged history since fourth century BC. At present, China is the world’s third largest sugar producing country after Brazil and India. During the past decade, more than 90% of the sugar production was contributed by sugarcane. Guangxi is the dominant sugarcane and sugar producer, accounting for 65% of sugar production in China. China’s sugarcane production faced serious problems in the past several years, especially the rapid increase in the labor cost because of the manual harvest. Now, China requires changing their sugarcane practice from manual to mechanical in order to catch up with the international trends in worldwide industry. Many other challenges and constraints are becoming severe, including abiotic and biotic stress, cost escalation, over fertilization, poor ratooning, and single cultivar. New technologies will be applied to sugarcane production, including omics-based breeding, best management practices, and so on

    静岡県・愛知県・茨城県におけるエリアンサス等自生栄養系の探索・収集

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    熱帯起源のイネ科多年生草本エリアンサス(Erianthus arundinaceus)のバイオマス作物としての越冬性改良に向けた遺伝資源収集を目的として,2016年(予備調査)から2018年にかけて,我が国温帯域に属する静岡県・愛知県・千葉県・茨城県で自生栄養系の調査・収集を行った.このうち,静岡県ではエリアンサス8点(16栄養系)・その他4点(6栄養系),愛知県ではエリアンサス2点(4栄養系)・その他1点(1栄養系),茨城県ではエリアンサス23点(35栄養系)を収集した.千葉県では調査した限りにおいてエリアンサスを見出すことができなかった.エリアンサスを収集した地域は海岸沿いの砂質土壌地帯および内陸部の道路法面に2類型化でき,それぞれにおける侵入条件および残存条件を考察した

    The Effects of Restricting Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Fertilizers on Erianthus (\u3cem\u3eErianthus arundinaceus\u3c/em\u3e) Growth and Nutrient Contents

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    Low inputs and sustainability are the major concerns in bioenergy crop production (Reijnders 2006). Erianthus spp. is a relative of sugarcane and is a perennial crop with high dry matter production (Matsuo et al. 2003). It is expected to become a cellulosic bioenergy crop. However, its fertilizer requirements are still unknown because erianthus has a highly developed root system (Matsuo et al. 2003), and appears to absorb nutrients from the subsoil layer, which is hardly used by other crops. Therefore, it is necessary to experimentally restrict fertilizer application and maintain the rhizosphere to clarify the fertilizer requirements. In this study, we grew Erianthus (Erianthus arundinaceus) in pots and restricted nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilizer application to evaluate the fertilizer requirements

    Comparison of Biomass Productivity and Its Persistency among Four Perennial Grasses for Bioenergy Feedstock Production in Temperate Region of Japan

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    The present study was the first report of comparison of above ground biomass yield and its persistence among several bioenergy crops in a temperate zone of eastern Asia

    Trocas gasosas em acessos do Complexo Saccharum submetidas ao estresse salino.

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    A salinidade é um dos fatores que mais limitam a produtividade agrícola no semiárido brasileiro. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as trocas gasosas de acessos do Complexo Saccharum submetidas a estresse salino. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, instalada na sede da Empresa Brasileira de PesquisaAgropecuária, Unidade Semiárido, em Petrolina-PE, latitude: 9o09' S, longitude: 40o22' W, altitude: 365,5 m). O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos representados por dezenove acessos pertencentes diferentes gêneros (BGCN 6, BGCN 87, BGCN 88, BGCN 89, BGCN 90, BGCN 91, BGCN 94, BGCN 101, BGCN 102, BGCN 104, BGCN 114, BGCN 117, BGCN 118, BGCN 119, BGCN 120, BGCN 122, BGCN 123, BGCN 125 e BGCN 127), comtrês repetições. Aos 90 dias após o plantio foram avaliadas as trocas gasosas. Os acessos BGCN 120 e BGCN 123 de E. arundinaceuse os acessos de BCGN 6, BCGN 102 e BCGN 1 de S. officinarumapresentaram elevada taxa fotossintéticae alta taxa transpiratória indicando menor sensibilidade ao estresse salino e devem ser consideradas em trabalhos de melhoramento genético
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