12,468 research outputs found

    Identities in the Algebra of Partial Maps

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    We consider the identities of a variety of semigroup-related algebras modelling the algebra of partial maps. We show that the identities are intimately related to a weak semigroup deductive system and we show that the equational theory is decidable. We do this by giving a term rewriting system for the variety. We then show that this variety has many subvarieties whose equational theory interprets the full uniform word problem for semigroups and consequently are undecidable. As a corollary it is shown that the equational theory of Clifford semigroups whose natural order is a semilattice is undecidable

    On the mathematical synthesis of equational logics

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    We provide a mathematical theory and methodology for synthesising equational logics from algebraic metatheories. We illustrate our methodology by means of two applications: a rational reconstruction of Birkhoff's Equational Logic and a new equational logic for reasoning about algebraic structure with name-binding operators.Comment: Final version for publication in Logical Methods in Computer Scienc

    Second-Order Algebraic Theories

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    Fiore and Hur recently introduced a conservative extension of universal algebra and equational logic from first to second order. Second-order universal algebra and second-order equational logic respectively provide a model theory and a formal deductive system for languages with variable binding and parameterised metavariables. This work completes the foundations of the subject from the viewpoint of categorical algebra. Specifically, the paper introduces the notion of second-order algebraic theory and develops its basic theory. Two categorical equivalences are established: at the syntactic level, that of second-order equational presentations and second-order algebraic theories; at the semantic level, that of second-order algebras and second-order functorial models. Our development includes a mathematical definition of syntactic translation between second-order equational presentations. This gives the first formalisation of notions such as encodings and transforms in the context of languages with variable binding

    Effective lambda-models vs recursively enumerable lambda-theories

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    A longstanding open problem is whether there exists a non syntactical model of the untyped lambda-calculus whose theory is exactly the least lambda-theory (l-beta). In this paper we investigate the more general question of whether the equational/order theory of a model of the (untyped) lambda-calculus can be recursively enumerable (r.e. for brevity). We introduce a notion of effective model of lambda-calculus calculus, which covers in particular all the models individually introduced in the literature. We prove that the order theory of an effective model is never r.e.; from this it follows that its equational theory cannot be l-beta or l-beta-eta. We then show that no effective model living in the stable or strongly stable semantics has an r.e. equational theory. Concerning Scott's semantics, we investigate the class of graph models and prove that no order theory of a graph model can be r.e., and that there exists an effective graph model whose equational/order theory is minimum among all theories of graph models. Finally, we show that the class of graph models enjoys a kind of downwards Lowenheim-Skolem theorem.Comment: 34

    Partial Horn logic and cartesian categories

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    A logic is developed in which function symbols are allowed to represent partial functions. It has the usual rules of logic (in the form of a sequent calculus) except that the substitution rule has to be modified. It is developed here in its minimal form, with equality and conjunction, as “partial Horn logic”. Various kinds of logical theory are equivalent: partial Horn theories, “quasi-equational” theories (partial Horn theories without predicate symbols), cartesian theories and essentially algebraic theories. The logic is sound and complete with respect to models in , and sound with respect to models in any cartesian (finite limit) category. The simplicity of the quasi-equational form allows an easy predicative constructive proof of the free partial model theorem for cartesian theories: that if a theory morphism is given from one cartesian theory to another, then the forgetful (reduct) functor from one model category to the other has a left adjoint. Various examples of quasi-equational theory are studied, including those of cartesian categories and of other classes of categories. For each quasi-equational theory another, , is constructed, whose models are cartesian categories equipped with models of . Its initial model, the “classifying category” for , has properties similar to those of the syntactic category, but more precise with respect to strict cartesian functors