17,789 research outputs found

    Anuário científico da Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde de Lisboa - 2021

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    É com grande prazer que apresentamos a mais recente edição (a 11.ª) do Anuário Científico da Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde de Lisboa. Como instituição de ensino superior, temos o compromisso de promover e incentivar a pesquisa científica em todas as áreas do conhecimento que contemplam a nossa missão. Esta publicação tem como objetivo divulgar toda a produção científica desenvolvida pelos Professores, Investigadores, Estudantes e Pessoal não Docente da ESTeSL durante 2021. Este Anuário é, assim, o reflexo do trabalho árduo e dedicado da nossa comunidade, que se empenhou na produção de conteúdo científico de elevada qualidade e partilhada com a Sociedade na forma de livros, capítulos de livros, artigos publicados em revistas nacionais e internacionais, resumos de comunicações orais e pósteres, bem como resultado dos trabalhos de 1º e 2º ciclo. Com isto, o conteúdo desta publicação abrange uma ampla variedade de tópicos, desde temas mais fundamentais até estudos de aplicação prática em contextos específicos de Saúde, refletindo desta forma a pluralidade e diversidade de áreas que definem, e tornam única, a ESTeSL. Acreditamos que a investigação e pesquisa científica é um eixo fundamental para o desenvolvimento da sociedade e é por isso que incentivamos os nossos estudantes a envolverem-se em atividades de pesquisa e prática baseada na evidência desde o início dos seus estudos na ESTeSL. Esta publicação é um exemplo do sucesso desses esforços, sendo a maior de sempre, o que faz com que estejamos muito orgulhosos em partilhar os resultados e descobertas dos nossos investigadores com a comunidade científica e o público em geral. Esperamos que este Anuário inspire e motive outros estudantes, profissionais de saúde, professores e outros colaboradores a continuarem a explorar novas ideias e contribuir para o avanço da ciência e da tecnologia no corpo de conhecimento próprio das áreas que compõe a ESTeSL. Agradecemos a todos os envolvidos na produção deste anuário e desejamos uma leitura inspiradora e agradável.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Clarifier with built-in prefilter for water treatment

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    Natural water sources in the Northern, Northwestern and other regions of Russia are characterized by increased color, the presence of organic pollutants of natural and anthropogenic origin, as well as often high bacterial contamination. The use in practice of a technological scheme with preliminary chlorination and purification of low-turbid colored waters in clarifiers with suspended sediment and filters during periods of low alkalinity and temperature is not always justified. The consequence is a decrease in the barrier role of structures for organochlorine contamination and residual aluminum. The intensification of the water purification process in clarifiers is achieved by adjusting the reagent treatment mode, artificially increasing the turbidity index of water, the device of flocculation chambers, thin-layer modules or sludge recirculators in the working chamber, as well as the device of a prefilter with floating loading. The description of an experimental stand simulating the operation of an industrial water supply station, parameters and operating modes of a clarifier model with a built-in prefilter is given. The experiments were carried out in different periods of the year on real water with permanganate oxidizability up to 22.3 mg/l, chromaticity – 55-81 degrees, turbidity – 2.8-25.6 FTU, pH from 7.52 to 8.04 and alkalinity 1.5-4.6 mg-eq/L. The results of the study showed that the device of a prefilter with a layer thickness of no more than 0.5 m from polystyrene granules at filtration rates from 1.2 to 1.7 m / h reduces turbidity to 7.9 FTU, chromaticity to 14.5 deg., and permanganate oxidizability by 5.4 mg/l, compared with a single clarifier. At the same time, the load on the second stage structures is reduced and the normative value of residual aluminum in drinking water is ensured.load on the second stage structures is reduced and the normative value of residual aluminum in drinking water is ensured

    A Decision Support System for Economic Viability and Environmental Impact Assessment of Vertical Farms

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    Vertical farming (VF) is the practice of growing crops or animals using the vertical dimension via multi-tier racks or vertically inclined surfaces. In this thesis, I focus on the emerging industry of plant-specific VF. Vertical plant farming (VPF) is a promising and relatively novel practice that can be conducted in buildings with environmental control and artificial lighting. However, the nascent sector has experienced challenges in economic viability, standardisation, and environmental sustainability. Practitioners and academics call for a comprehensive financial analysis of VPF, but efforts are stifled by a lack of valid and available data. A review of economic estimation and horticultural software identifies a need for a decision support system (DSS) that facilitates risk-empowered business planning for vertical farmers. This thesis proposes an open-source DSS framework to evaluate business sustainability through financial risk and environmental impact assessments. Data from the literature, alongside lessons learned from industry practitioners, would be centralised in the proposed DSS using imprecise data techniques. These techniques have been applied in engineering but are seldom used in financial forecasting. This could benefit complex sectors which only have scarce data to predict business viability. To begin the execution of the DSS framework, VPF practitioners were interviewed using a mixed-methods approach. Learnings from over 19 shuttered and operational VPF projects provide insights into the barriers inhibiting scalability and identifying risks to form a risk taxonomy. Labour was the most commonly reported top challenge. Therefore, research was conducted to explore lean principles to improve productivity. A probabilistic model representing a spectrum of variables and their associated uncertainty was built according to the DSS framework to evaluate the financial risk for VF projects. This enabled flexible computation without precise production or financial data to improve economic estimation accuracy. The model assessed two VPF cases (one in the UK and another in Japan), demonstrating the first risk and uncertainty quantification of VPF business models in the literature. The results highlighted measures to improve economic viability and the viability of the UK and Japan case. The environmental impact assessment model was developed, allowing VPF operators to evaluate their carbon footprint compared to traditional agriculture using life-cycle assessment. I explore strategies for net-zero carbon production through sensitivity analysis. Renewable energies, especially solar, geothermal, and tidal power, show promise for reducing the carbon emissions of indoor VPF. Results show that renewably-powered VPF can reduce carbon emissions compared to field-based agriculture when considering the land-use change. The drivers for DSS adoption have been researched, showing a pathway of compliance and design thinking to overcome the ‘problem of implementation’ and enable commercialisation. Further work is suggested to standardise VF equipment, collect benchmarking data, and characterise risks. This work will reduce risk and uncertainty and accelerate the sector’s emergence

    Elite perceptions of the Victorian and Edwardian past in inter-war England

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    It is often argued by historians that members of the cultivated Elite after 1918 rejected the pre-war past. or at least subjected it to severe denigration. This thesis sets out to challenge such a view. Above all, it argues that inter-war critics of the Victorian and Edwardian past were unable to reject it even if that was what they felt inclined to do. This was because they were tied to those periods by the affective links of memory, family, and the continually unfolding consequences of the past in the present. Even the severest critics of the pre-war world, such as Lytton Strachey, were less frequently dismissive of history than ambivalent towards it. This ambivalence, it is argued, helped to keep the past alive and often to humanise it. The thesis also explores more positive estimation of Victorian and Edwardian history between the wars. It examines nostalgia for the past, as well as instances of continuity of practice and attitude. It explores the way in which inter-war society drew upon aspects of Victorian and Edwardian history both as illuminating parallels to contemporary affairs and to understand directly why the present was shaped as it was. Again, this testifies to the enduring power of the past after 1918. There are three parts to this thesis. Part One outlines the cultural context in which writers contemplated the Victorian and Edwardian past. Part Two explores some of the ways in which history was written about and used by inter-war society. Part Three examines the ways in which biographical depictions of eminent Victorians after 1918 encouraged emotional negotiation with the pas

    Strategies for Early Learners

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    Welcome to learning about how to effectively plan curriculum for young children. This textbook will address: • Developing curriculum through the planning cycle • Theories that inform what we know about how children learn and the best ways for teachers to support learning • The three components of developmentally appropriate practice • Importance and value of play and intentional teaching • Different models of curriculum • Process of lesson planning (documenting planned experiences for children) • Physical, temporal, and social environments that set the stage for children’s learning • Appropriate guidance techniques to support children’s behaviors as the self-regulation abilities mature. • Planning for preschool-aged children in specific domains including o Physical development o Language and literacy o Math o Science o Creative (the visual and performing arts) o Diversity (social science and history) o Health and safety • Making children’s learning visible through documentation and assessmenthttps://scholar.utc.edu/open-textbooks/1001/thumbnail.jp

    Preferentialism and the conditionality of trade agreements. An application of the gravity model

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    Modern economic growth is driven by international trade, and the preferential trade agreement constitutes the primary fit-for-purpose mechanism of choice for establishing, facilitating, and governing its flows. However, too little attention has been afforded to the differences in content and conditionality associated with different trade agreements. This has led to an under-considered mischaracterisation of the design-flow relationship. Similarly, while the relationship between trade facilitation and trade is clear, the way trade facilitation affects other areas of economic activity, with respect to preferential trade agreements, has received considerably less attention. Particularly, in light of an increasingly globalised and interdependent trading system, the interplay between trade facilitation and foreign direct investment is of particular importance. Accordingly, this thesis explores the bilateral trade and investment effects of specific conditionality sets, as established within Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs). Chapter one utilises recent content condition-indexes for depth, flexibility, and constraints on flexibility, established by Dür et al. (2014) and Baccini et al. (2015), within a gravity framework to estimate the average treatment effect of trade agreement characteristics across bilateral trade relationships in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) from 1948-2015. This chapter finds that the composition of a given ASEAN trade agreement’s characteristic set has significantly determined the concomitant bilateral trade flows. Conditions determining the classification of a trade agreements depth are positively associated with an increase to bilateral trade; hereby representing the furthered removal of trade barriers and frictions as facilitated by deeper trade agreements. Flexibility conditions, and constraint on flexibility conditions, are also identified as significant determiners for a given trade agreement’s treatment effect of subsequent bilateral trade flows. Given the political nature of their inclusion (i.e., the appropriate address to short term domestic discontent) this influence is negative as regards trade flows. These results highlight the longer implementation and time frame requirements for trade impediments to be removed in a market with higher domestic uncertainty. Chapter two explores the incorporation of non-trade issue (NTI) conditions in PTAs. Such conditions are increasing both at the intensive and extensive margins. There is a concern from developing nations that this growth of NTI inclusions serves as a way for high-income (HI) nations to dictate the trade agenda, such that developing nations are subject to ‘principled protectionism’. There is evidence that NTI provisions are partly driven by protectionist motives but the effect on trade flows remains largely undiscussed. Utilising the Gravity Model for trade, I test Lechner’s (2016) comprehensive NTI dataset for 202 bilateral country pairs across a 32-year timeframe and find that, on average, NTIs are associated with an increase to bilateral trade. Primarily this boost can be associated with the market access that a PTA utilising NTIs facilitates. In addition, these results are aligned theoretically with the discussions on market harmonisation, shared values, and the erosion of artificial production advantages. Instead of inhibiting trade through burdensome cost, NTIs are acting to support a more stable production and trading environment, motivated by enhanced market access. Employing a novel classification to capture the power supremacy associated with shaping NTIs, this chapter highlights that the positive impact of NTIs is largely driven by the relationship between HI nations and middle-to-low-income (MTLI) counterparts. Chapter Three employs the gravity model, theoretically augmented for foreign direct investment (FDI), to estimate the effects of trade facilitation conditions utilising indexes established by Neufeld (2014) and the bilateral FDI data curated by UNCTAD (2014). The resultant dataset covers 104 countries, covering a period of 12 years (2001–2012), containing 23,640 observations. The results highlight the bilateral-FDI enhancing effects of trade facilitation conditions in the ASEAN context, aligning itself with the theoretical branch of FDI-PTA literature that has outlined how the ratification of a trade agreement results in increased and positive economic prospect between partners (Medvedev, 2012) resulting from the interrelation between trade and investment as set within an improving regulatory environment. The results align with the expectation that an enhanced trade facilitation landscape (one in which such formalities, procedures, information, and expectations around trade facilitation are conditioned for) is expected to incentivise and attract FDI

    Waste chains and loops in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

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    The objective of this paper is to describe the current diverse and complex waste chains and loops in the Kathmandu Valley with a focus on three sites: (1) the generation, collection, and recycling of waste in the municipality of Kirtipur, where the private sector is also actively engaged; (2) the sorting and recycling at the transfer station in Teku (Ward no. 12 of Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC)); and (3) the final disposal and scavenging at the landfill site in Sisdol. These descriptions refer to the involved materials, processes, and actors with the aim to identify the main challenges and opportunities in the waste chain. The paper also examines the influence of the waste crisis triggered by the earthquake and Indian blockade in 2015

    Terapia fotodinâmica na inativação de bacteriófagos com porfirina e potenciadoresem águas residuais

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    Pathogenic viruses are frequently introduced into marine and estuarine waters through the discharge of treated and untreated sewage, since current treatments are unable to provide virus-free wastewater (WW) effluents, affecting the receiving waters quality and, consequently, human health. The removal of harmful constituents by the conventional treatments comprises a combination of chemical, physical and biological methods. Usually, WW from urban areas is secondarily, rarely tertiary, treated. Although the secondary effluent contains high concentrations of microorganisms, the effect of water dilution makes it acceptable in terms of quality indicators. In tertiary treatment, chlorination is the most common method used to ensure microbiological safety in tertiarily treated effluents. However, its massive utilization, both in free and combined chlorine forms, may lead to the formation of chemical disinfection by-products though the reaction with organic matter present in the effluents, being those chemicals toxic to aquatic organisms, representing potential health hazards. Unfortunately, these conventional methods are limited and may not be adequate to reach the quality levels specified by the guidelines. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with porphyrins may be a promising approach for the inactivation of pathogens as they are effective in inactivating microorganisms without the formation of potentially toxic products. Some studies have reported an enhancer effect on antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) by the combined used of some photosensitizer (PS) with potassium iodide (KI) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the aPDT efficacy of a PS based on a low-cost formulation constituted by five cationic porphyrins (Form) and its potentiation effect by KI and H2O2 in the inactivation of a T4-like bacteriophage in WW. The experiments were done in phosphate buffered saline and in filtered and non-filtered contaminated wastewater. The aPDT assays in filtered WW (0.45 μm pore-size) were performed with different concentrations of Form (1.0 to 10 μM). In a second phase was evaluated the effect of KI (100 mM) in the photodynamic action of Form (1.0 to 10 μM). The results of these experiments demonstrated that Form is efficient in filtered WW treatment and that the efficacy of bacteriophage photoinactivation is correlated with the concentration of the used PS. When combined with KI, the Form is clearly less effective to inactivate the bacteriophage. To evaluate if the organic matter present in water influences the efficiency of PS, the WW was filtered using three different pore-sized membranes (0.45, 0.30 and 0.22 μm). The results demonstrated that the increase of organic matter promote a significant decrease in the efficiency of Form. In order to evaluate if the efficiency of aPDT to inactivate bacteriophages is maintained when the treatments are performed in non-filtrated WW, the effect of Form alone (10 μM) and combined with H2O2 (2, 5 and 9%) in non-filtered WW was evaluated. The Form alone proved to be an efficient PS to photoinactivate the bacteriophage in non-filtered WW, but the presence of H2O2 enhanced the photodynamic effect. The FORM can be an effective alternative to control viruses in WW, particularly if combined with H2O2.Os vírus patogénicos são frequentemente introduzidos nas águas marinhas e estuarinas através da descarga de esgoto tratado e não tratado, uma vez que os tratamentos atuais não inativam os vírus presentes nas águas residuais (WW), afetando a qualidade das águas recetoras e, consequentemente, a saúde humana. Nos tratamentos convencionais, a remoção de constituintes nocivos consiste no uso de métodos químicos, físicos e biológicos. Geralmente, a WW de áreas urbanas é tratada secundariamente e não terciariamente. Embora o efluente secundário contenha altas concentrações de microrganismos, o efeito da diluição na água torna-o aceitável em termos de indicadores de qualidade. A cloração é o método mais comum usado para garantir a segurança microbiológica em efluentes tratados terciariamente. No entanto, a sua utilização maciça, tanto na forma de cloro livre como combinada, pode levar à formação de subprodutos químicos como resultado da reação com a matéria orgânica presente nos efluentes, sendo esses produtos químicos tóxicos para os organismos aquáticos, apresentando riscos para a saúde. Os métodos convencionais são limitados e podem não ser adequados para manter os níveis de qualidade especificados nas diretrizes. As porfirinas quando usadas como fotossensibilizadores (PS) na terapia fotodinâmica (PDT) podem ser desinfetantes promissores para a inativação de microrganismos patógenicos, pois são eficazes na inativação de microrganismos sem formação de produtos tóxicos. Alguns estudos mostraram efeito potenciador de alguns PS usados em terapia fotodinâmica antimicrobiana (aPDT) quando estes são usados em combinação com iodeto de potássio (KI) e peróxido de hidrogénio (H2O2). O principal objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia da aPDT de um PS baseado numa formulação de baixo custo constituída por cinco porfirinas catiónicas (Form) e o seu efeito potenciador por KI e H2O2 na inativação de um bacteriófago tipo T4. As experiências foram realizadas em solução salina tamponada com fosfato e em água residual contaminada filtrada e não filtrada. Os ensaios de aPDT em WW filtrada (tamanho do poro de 0,45 μm) foram realizados com diferentes concentrações de Form (1,0 a 10 μM). Numa segunda fase foi avaliado o efeito do KI (100 mM) na ação fotodinâmica da FORM (1,0 a 10 μM). Os resultados dessas experiências demonstraram que a Form é eficiente no tratamento de WW filtrada e que a eficácia da fotoinativação de bacteriófagos está correlacionada com a concentração do PS usado. Quando combinada com o KI, a Form é claramente menos eficaz na inativação do bacteriófago. Para avaliar se a matéria orgânica presente na água influencia a eficiência do PS, a WW foi filtrada usando três membranas com tamanho de poros diferentes (0,45, 0,30 e 0,22 μm). Os resultados mostraram que o aumento da matéria orgânica promove uma diminuição significativa na eficiência da Form. Para avaliar se a eficiência da aPDT para inativar bacteriófagos é mantida quando os tratamentos são realizados em WW não filtrada, o efeito da Form sozinha (10 μM) e combinado com H2O2 (2, 5 e 9%) em WW não filtrada foi avaliado. A Form por si só provou ser um PS eficiente para fotoinativar o bacteriófago em WW não filtrada, mas a presença de H2O2 aumentou significativamente o efeito fotodinâmico. A Form pode ser uma alternativa eficaz para controlar vírus na WW, principalmente se combinada com H2O2.This work was supported by funding FEDER through COMPETE – Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade, and by National funding through Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) and Marine Studies (CESAM).Mestrado em Biologia Molecular e Celula

    Gamification in E-Learning: game factors to strengthen specific English pronunciation features in undergraduate students at UPTC Sogamoso

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    Appendix A Characterization survey (104), Appendix B. EFL Students’ questionnaire (109), Appendix C. Characterization survey: data treatment question (113), Appendix D. Informed consent letter, English version (114), Appendix E. Carta de consentimiento informado, versión en español (117), Appendix F. Time Schedule (120), Appendix G. Sample Challenges at Moodle (126), Appendix H. Participants’ questionnaire results (128).La gamificación es un término que suele denotar el uso de componentes del juego en situaciones no relacionadas con el juego en sí para crear experiencias de aprendizaje agradables, divertidas y motivadoras para los estudiantes (Werbach y Hunter, 2012). Por lo tanto, el análisis de los factores básicos de los juegos se convierte en algo esencial a la hora de definir y utilizar la gamificación como estrategia de mediación del inglés como lengua extranjera para fortalecer rasgos específicos de pronunciación en los estudiantes de pregrado de la UPTC Sogamoso. El procedimiento de estudio se basa en la investigación acción mediante la implementación de la estrategia de gamificación para la mediación en la pronunciación del inglés, orientada a treinta estudiantes de diferentes programas de ingeniería, administración y tecnología con niveles heterogéneos de dominio del inglés. Las actividades se centran principalmente en la producción de sonidos, el ritmo, el acento y la entonación, los rasgos de pronunciación segmental y suprasegmental. Los resultados arrojaron una evidente mejora en las características segméntales y suprasegmentales de la percepción en la pronunciación de los participantes así como la contribución del objetivo de los juegos a la instrucción fonética y fonológica, la sensación en el juego a la motivación para mejorar la pronunciación, el reto establecido en los juegos a la actitud positiva de los participantes, y la sociabilidad a la exposición practica de la pronunciación inglesa.Gamification is a relatively new term that often denotes the use of game components in situations unrelated to the game itself to create enjoyable, fun, and motivating learning experiences for students (Werbach and Hunter, 2012). Therefore, analyzing the games' basic factors becomes essential when defining and using gamification as a strategy for English as Foreign Language mediation to strengthen specific pronunciation features in UPTC Sogamoso undergraduate students. The study procedure is based on action research by implementing the gamification strategy for mediation in English pronunciation, oriented to thirty students from different engineering, management, and technology programs at heterogeneous levels of English proficiency. The activities mainly focus on sound production, rhythm, stress, and intonation, segmental and suprasegmental pronunciation features. The results showed an evident improvement in the segmental and suprasegmental features of the participants' pronunciation perception as well as the contribution of game goals to phonetics and phonological instruction, the game sensation to the motivation for pronunciation improvement, the game challenge to the participants' positive attitude, and the sociality to the English pronunciation exposure practice
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