107,642 research outputs found

    Bioaugmentation for Improved Recovery of Anaerobic Digesters After Toxicant Exposure

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    Bioaugmentation was investigated as a method to decrease the recovery period of anaerobic digesters exposed to a transient toxic event. Two sets of laboratory-scale digesters (SRT = 10 days, OLR = 2 g COD/L-day), started with inoculum from a digester stabilizing synthetic municipal wastewater solids (MW) and synthetic industrial wastewater (WW), respectively, were transiently exposed to the model toxicant, oxygen. Bioaugmented digesters received 1.2 g VSS/L-day of an H2-utilizing culture for which the archaeal community was analyzed. Soon after oxygen exposure, the bioaugmented digesters produced 25–60% more methane than non-bioaugmented controls (p \u3c 0.05). One set of digesters produced lingering high propionate concentrations, and bioaugmentation resulted in significantly shorter recovery periods. The second set of digesters did not display lingering propionate, and bioaugmented digesters recovered at the same time as non-bioaugmented controls. The difference in the effect of bioaugmentation on recovery may be due to differences between microbial communities of the digester inocula originally employed. In conclusion, bioaugmentation with an H2-utilizing culture is a potential tool to decrease the recovery period, decrease propionate concentration, and increase biogas production of some anaerobic digesters after a toxic event. Digesters already containing rapidly adaptable microbial communities may not benefit from bioaugmentation, whereas other digesters with poorly adaptable microbial communities may benefit greatly

    Spectrum of topics for world congresses and other activities of the International Society for Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM) : a first proposal

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    Background: One of the objectives of the International Society for Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine is to improve the continuity of World Congresses. This requires the development of an abstract topic list for use in congress announcements and abstract submissions. Methods: An abstract topic list was developed on the basis of the definitions of human functioning and rehabilitation research, which define 5 main areas of research (biosciences in rehabilitation, biomedical rehabilitation sciences and engineering, clinical Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) sciences, integrative rehabilitation sciences, and human functioning sciences). For the abstract topic list, these research areas were grouped according to the proposals of congress streams. In a second step, the first version of the list was systematically compared with the topics of the 2003 ISPRM World Congress. Results: The resulting comprehensive abstract topic list contains 5 chapters according to the definition of human functioning and rehabilitation research. Due to the high significance of clinical research, clinical PRM sciences were placed at the top of the list, comprising all relevant health conditions treated in PRM services. For congress announcements a short topic list was derived. Discussion: The ISPRM topic list is sustainable and covers a full range of topics. It may be useful for congresses and elsewhere in structuring research in PRM

    Ischemic Heart Disease Incidence in Relation to Fine versus Total Particulate Matter Exposure in a U.S. Aluminum Industry Cohort.

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    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) has been linked to exposures to airborne particles with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) in the ambient environment and in occupational settings. Routine industrial exposure monitoring, however, has traditionally focused on total particulate matter (TPM). To assess potential benefits of PM2.5 monitoring, we compared the exposure-response relationships between both PM2.5 and TPM and incidence of IHD in a cohort of active aluminum industry workers. To account for the presence of time varying confounding by health status we applied marginal structural Cox models in a cohort followed with medical claims data for IHD incidence from 1998 to 2012. Analyses were stratified by work process into smelters (n = 6,579) and fabrication (n = 7,432). Binary exposure was defined by the 10th-percentile cut-off from the respective TPM and PM2.5 exposure distributions for each work process. Hazard Ratios (HR) comparing always exposed above the exposure cut-off to always exposed below the cut-off were higher for PM2.5, with HRs of 1.70 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-2.60) and 1.48 (95% CI: 1.02-2.13) in smelters and fabrication, respectively. For TPM, the HRs were 1.25 (95% CI: 0.89-1.77) and 1.25 (95% CI: 0.88-1.77) for smelters and fabrication respectively. Although TPM and PM2.5 were highly correlated in this work environment, results indicate that, consistent with biologic plausibility, PM2.5 is a stronger predictor of IHD risk than TPM. Cardiovascular risk management in the aluminum industry, and other similar work environments, could be better guided by exposure surveillance programs monitoring PM2.5

    Assessing nutrient and sediment transport for Water Framework Directive purposes using the SWAT model - a case study in SW Finland

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    The ecological status of lake Pyhäjärvi, located in south-western Finland, may be classified as moderate due to its elevated nutrient concentrations and algal biomass production. Thus, the Yläneenjoki river basin, accounting for >50% of the total phosphorus loading to the lake, was chosen as the Finnish test catchment in the Benchmark models for the Water Framework Directive project. One aim of the project was to test the suitability of models like the catchment scale model SWAT for the assessment of nutrient and sediment transport and management options needed to meet the surface water quality requirements