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    Radiation induced precursor flow field ahead of a Jovian entry body

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    The change in flow properties ahead of the bow shock of a Jovian entry body, resulting from absorption of radiation from the shock layer, is investigated. Ultraviolet radiation is absorbed by the free stream gases, causing dissociation, ionization, and an increase in enthalpy of flow ahead of the shock wave. As a result of increased fluid enthalpy, the entire flow field in the precursor region is perturbed. The variation in flow properties is determined by employing the small perturbation technique of classical aerodynamics as well as the thin layer approximation for the preheating zone. By employing physically realistic models of radiative transfer, solutions are obtained for velocity, pressure, density, temperature, and enthalpy variations. The results indicate that the precursor flow effects, in general, are greater at higher altitudes. Just ahead of the shock, however, the effects are larger at lower altitudes. Pre-heating of the gas significantly increases the static pressure and temperature ahead of the shock for velocities exceeding 36 km/sec

    Finite size effects on calorimetric cooperativity of two-state proteins

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    Finite size effects on the calorimetric cooperatity of the folding-unfolding transition in two-state proteins are considered using the Go lattice models with and without side chains. We show that for models without side chains a dimensionless measure of calorimetric cooperativity kappa2 defined as the ratio of the van't Hoff to calorimetric enthalpy does not depend on the number of amino acids N. The average value of kappa2 is about 3/4 which is lower than the experimental value kappa2=1. For models with side chains kappa2 approaches unity as kappa2 \sim N^mu, where exponent mu=0.17. Above the critical chain length Nc =135 these models can mimic the truly all-or-non folding-unfolding transition.Comment: 3 eps figures. To appear in the special issue of Physica

    Simulating neutron stars with a flexible enthalpy-based equation of state parametrization in SpECTRE

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    Numerical simulations of neutron star mergers represent an essential step toward interpreting the full complexity of multimessenger observations and constraining the properties of supranuclear matter. Currently, simulations are limited by an array of factors, including computational performance and input physics uncertainties, such as the neutron star equation of state. In this work, we expand the range of nuclear phenomenology efficiently available to simulations by introducing a new analytic parametrization of cold, beta-equilibrated matter that is based on the relativistic enthalpy. We show that the new enthalpy parametrization\textit{enthalpy parametrization} can capture a range of nuclear behavior, including strong phase transitions. We implement the enthalpy parametrization in the SpECTRE\texttt{SpECTRE}, code, simulate isolated neutron stars, and compare performance to the commonly used spectral and polytropic parametrizations. We find comparable computational performance for nuclear models that are well represented by either parametrization, such as simple hadronic EoSs. We show that the enthalpy parametrization further allows us to simulate more complicated hadronic models or models with phase transitions that are inaccessible to current parametrizations.Comment: 20 pages, 14 figures, submitted to PRD, additional information on software including input files available at https://github.com/sxs-collaboration/paper-2023-spectre-enthalpy-eo
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