42,733 research outputs found

    Boosting BCG with recombinant modified vaccinia ankara expressing antigen 85A: Different boosting intervals and implications for efficacy trials

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    Objectives. To investigate the safety and immunogenicity of boosting BCG with modified vaccinia Ankara expressing antigen 85A (MVA85A), shortly after BCG vaccination, and to compare this first with the immunogenicity of BCG vaccination alone and second with a previous clinical trial where MVA85A was administered more than 10 years after BCG vaccination. Design. There are two clinical trials reported here: a Phase I observational trial with MVA85A; and a Phase IV observational trial with BCG. These clinical trials were all conducted in the UK in healthy, HIV negative, BCG naı¨ve adults. Subjects were vaccinated with BCG alone; or BCG and then subsequently boosted with MVA85A four weeks later (short interval). The outcome measures, safety and immunogenicity, were monitored for six months. The immunogenicity results from this short interval BCG prime–MVA85A boost trial were compared first with the BCG alone trial and second with a previous clinical trial where MVA85A vaccination was administered many years after vaccination with BCG. Results. MVA85A was safe and highly immunogenic when administered to subjects who had recently received BCG vaccination. When the short interval trial data presented here were compared with the previous long interval trial data, there were no significant differences in the magnitude of immune responses generated when MVA85A was administered shortly after, or many years after BCG vaccination. Conclusions. The clinical trial data presented here provides further evidence of the ability of MVA85A to boost BCG primed immune responses. This boosting potential is not influenced by the time interval between prior BCG vaccination and boosting with MVA85A. These findings have important implications for the design of efficacy trials with MVA85A. Boosting BCG induced anti-mycobacterial immunity in either infancy or adolescence are both potential applications for this vaccine, given the immunological data presented here. Trial Registration. ClinicalTrials.Oxford University was the sponsor for all the clinical trials reported here

    Human and bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine research and development

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    Human (HRSV) and bovine (BRSV) respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV) are two closely related viruses, which are the most important causative agents of respiratory tract infections of young children and calves, respectively. BRSV vaccines have been available for nearly 2 decades. They probably have reduced the prevalence of RSV infection but their efficacy needs improvement. In contrast, despite decades of research, there is no currently licensed vaccine for the prevention of HRSV disease. Development of a HRSV vaccine for infants has been hindered by the lack of a relevant animal model that develops disease, the need to immunize immunologically immature young infants, the difficulty for live vaccines to find the right balance between attenuation and immunogenicity, and the risk of vaccine-associated disease. During the past 15 years, intensive research into a HRSV vaccine has yielded vaccine candidates, which have been evaluated in animal models and, for some of them, in clinical trials in humans. Recent formulations have focused on subunit vaccines with specific CD4+ Th-1 immune response-activating adjuvants and on genetically engineered live attenuated vaccines. It is likely that different HRSV vaccines and/or combinations of vaccines used sequentially will be needed for the various populations at risk. This review discusses the recent advances in RSV vaccine development

    Analogue peptides for the immunotherapy of human acute myeloid leukemia

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    Accepted manuscript. The final publication is available at: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00262-015-1762-9The use of peptide vaccines, enhanced by adjuvants, has shown some efficacy in clinical trials. However, responses are often short-lived and rarely induce notable memory responses. The reason is that self-antigens have already been presented to the immune system as the tumor develops, leading to tolerance or some degree of host tumor cell destruction. To try to break tolerance against self-antigens, one of the methods employed has been to modify peptides at the anchor residues to enhance their ability to bind major histocompatibility complex molecules, extending their exposure to the T-cell receptor. These modified or analogue peptides have been investigated as stimulators of the immune system in patients with different cancers with variable but sometimes notable success. In this review we describe the background and recent developments in the use of analogue peptides for the immunotherapy of acute myeloid leukemia describing knowledge useful for the application of analogue peptide treatments for other malignancies

    A dose-ranging study in older adults to compare the safety and immunogenicity profiles of MF59®-adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines following intradermal and intramuscular administration

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    Strategies to optimize responses to seasonal influenza vaccination in older adults include the use of adjuvants, higher antigen doses, and intradermal delivery. In this study adults aged >= 65 years (n = 450) received a single dose of 1 of 2 non-adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) formulations administered intradermally (ID), both containing 6 mu g of A/H1N1 and B, differing in A/H3N2 content (6 mu g or 12 mu g), or a single dose of 1 of 8 TIV formulations administered intramuscularly (IM) all containing 15 mu g of A/H1N1 and B, differing in A/H3N2 hemagglutinin (HA) content (15 mu g or 30 mu g) and/or in MF59 (R) adjuvant content (0%, 25%, 50%, or 100% of the standard dose). This paper focuses on the comparisons of low-dose non-adjuvanted ID, full-dose non-adjuvanted IM and full-dose MF59-adjuvanted IM formulations (n = 270). At day 22 post-vaccination, at least one European licensure immunogenicity criterion was met by all groups against all 3 strains; however, all three criteria were met against all 3 vaccine strains by the low-dose non-adjuvanted ID and the full-dose MF59-adjuvanted IM groups only. The full-dose MF59-adjuvanted IM group elicited significantly higher immune response vs. the low-dose non-adjuvanted ID formulations for most comparisons. The full-dose MF59 adjuvanted IM groups were associated with increased pain at the site of injection (P < 0.01) compared to the ID groups, and the low-dose non-adjuvanted ID groups were associated with increased erythema, induration, and swelling at the injection site (P < 0.0001) and unsolicited AEs compared with the IM groups. There were no differences between IM and ID groups in the frequencies of subjects experiencing solicited systemic reactions. Overall, while MF59 adjuvantation increased pain at the site of injection, and intradermal delivery increased unsolicited adverse events, erythema, induration, and swelling at the injection site, both strategies of vaccination strongly enhanced the immunogenicity of seasonal influenza vaccine in older adults compared with conventional non-adjuvanted intramuscular delivery

    Characterization of structural and immunological properties of a fusion protein between flagellin from Salmonella and lumazine synthase from Brucella

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    Aiming to combine the flexibility of Brucella lumazine synthase (BLS) to adapt different protein domains in a decameric structure and the capacity of BLS and flagellin to enhance the immunogenicity of peptides that are linked to their structure, we generated a chimeric protein (BLS-FliC131) by fusing flagellin from Salmonella in the N-termini of BLS. The obtained protein was recognized by anti-flagellin and anti-BLS antibodies, keeping the oligomerization capacity of BLS, without affecting the folding of the monomeric protein components determined by circular dichroism. Furthermore, the thermal stability of each fusion partner is conserved, indicating that the interactions that participate in its folding are not affected by the genetic fusion. Besides, either in vitro or in vivo using TLR5-deficient animals we could determine that BLS-FliC131 retains the capacity of triggering TLR5. The humoral response against BLS elicited by BLS-FliC131 was stronger than the one elicited by equimolar amounts of BLS + FliC. Since BLS scaffold allows the generation of hetero-decameric structures, we expect that flagellin oligomerization on this protein scaffold will generate a new vaccine platform with enhanced capacity to activate immune responsesFil: Hiriart, Yanina. Inmunova S.A; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - La Plata. Instituto de Estudios Inmunológicos y Fisiopatológicos. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas. Instituto de Estudios Inmunológicos y Fisiopatológicos; ArgentinaFil: Rossi, Andrés Hugo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Parque Centenario. Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de Buenos Aires. Fundación Instituto Leloir. Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de Buenos Aires; ArgentinaFil: Biedma, Marina Elizabeth. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - La Plata. Instituto de Estudios Inmunológicos y Fisiopatológicos. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas. Instituto de Estudios Inmunológicos y Fisiopatológicos; ArgentinaFil: Errea, Agustina Juliana. Universidad Nacional de La Plata; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de La Plata; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - La Plata. Instituto de Estudios Inmunológicos y Fisiopatológicos. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas. Instituto de Estudios Inmunológicos y Fisiopatológicos; ArgentinaFil: Moreno, Griselda Noemí. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - La Plata. Instituto de Estudios Inmunológicos y Fisiopatológicos. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas. Instituto de Estudios Inmunológicos y Fisiopatológicos; ArgentinaFil: Cayet, D.. Universidad Nacional de La Plata; ArgentinaFil: Rinaldi, Jimena Julieta. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Parque Centenario. Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de Buenos Aires. Fundación Instituto Leloir. Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de Buenos Aires; ArgentinaFil: Blancá, Bruno Martin. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - La Plata. Instituto de Estudios Inmunológicos y Fisiopatológicos. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas. Instituto de Estudios Inmunológicos y Fisiopatológicos; ArgentinaFil: Sirard, J.C.. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique; FranciaFil: Goldbaum, Fernando Alberto. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Parque Centenario. Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de Buenos Aires. Fundación Instituto Leloir. Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de Buenos Aires; ArgentinaFil: Berguer, Paula Mercedes. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Parque Centenario. Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de Buenos Aires. Fundación Instituto Leloir. Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de Buenos Aires; ArgentinaFil: Rumbo, Martín. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - La Plata. Instituto de Estudios Inmunológicos y Fisiopatológicos. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas. Instituto de Estudios Inmunológicos y Fisiopatológicos; Argentin

    Influenza Vaccination of young children or Antibody Immune Response and Protection after Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Children – A Literature Review

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    Influenza virus infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in at risk populations. Children, especially under the age of two, are at an increased risk of complications associated with influenza virus infection. Evidence suggests that a single dose of influenza vaccine does not adequately protect children against circulating influenza virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Advisory Committee on Immunizations Practices (ACIP) recommends two doses of influenza vaccine, spaced at least four weeks apart, before the beginning of the influenza season for children between the ages of 6 months through 8 years receiving influenza vaccine for the first time. The initial dose is thought to prime the immune system, and the second dose is thought to mount a protective antibody response. We conducted a systematic literature review to summarize current evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies that compared immunogenicity and vaccine effectiveness (VE) after one or two doses of influenza vaccine in children to evaluate the evidence basis for the CDC recommendations. The search identified 727 unique articles and 82 were screened in full text for eligibility. A total of 26 studies met inclusion criteria, 16 immunogenicity and 10 VE studies. Overall, the evidence demonstrates increased immunogenicity and VE after two doses of influenz

    Heterologous prime-boost-boost immunisation of Chinese cynomolgus macaques using DNA and recombinant poxvirus vectors expressing HIV-1 virus-like particles

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    Background: There is renewed interest in the development of poxvirus vector-based HIV vaccines due to the protective effect observed with repeated recombinant canarypox priming with gp120 boosting in the recent Thai placebo-controlled trial. This study sought to investigate whether a heterologous prime-boost-boost vaccine regimen in Chinese cynomolgus macaques with a DNA vaccine and recombinant poxviral vectors expressing HIV virus-like particles bearing envelopes derived from the most prevalent clades circulating in sub-Saharan Africa, focused the antibody response to shared neutralising epitopes. Methods: Three Chinese cynomolgus macaques were immunised via intramuscular injections using a regimen composed of a prime with two DNA vaccines expressing clade A Env/clade B Gag followed by boosting with recombinant fowlpox virus expressing HIV-1 clade D Gag, Env and cholera toxin B subunit followed by the final boost with recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing HIV-1 clade C Env, Gag and human complement protein C3d. We measured the macaque serum antibody responses by ELISA, enumerated T cell responses by IFN-gamma ELISpot and assessed seroneutralisation of HIV-1 using the TZM-bl beta-galactosidase assay with primary isolates of HIV-1. Results: This study shows that large and complex synthetic DNA sequences can be successfully cloned in a single step into two poxvirus vectors: MVA and FPV and the recombinant poxviruses could be grown to high titres. The vaccine candidates showed appropriate expression of recombinant proteins with the formation of authentic HIV virus-like particles seen on transmission electron microscopy. In addition the b12 epitope was shown to be held in common by the vaccine candidates using confocal immunofluorescent microscopy. The vaccine candidates were safely administered to Chinese cynomolgus macaques which elicited modest T cell responses at the end of the study but only one out of the three macaques elicited an HIV-specific antibody response. However, the antibodies did not neutralise primary isolates of HIV-1 or the V3-sensitive isolate SF162 using the TZM-bl b-galactosidase assay. Conclusions: MVA and FP9 are ideal replication-deficient viral vectors for HIV-1 vaccines due to their excellent safety profile for use in humans. This study shows this novel prime-boost-boost regimen was poorly immunogenic in Chinese cynomolgus macaques

    Immunogenicity evaluation of a DNA vaccine expressing the hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 2 gene in C57BL/6 Mice

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    Backgrounds: Most of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections elicit poor immune responses and 75% to 85% of cases become chronic; therefore, the development of an effective vaccine against HCV is of paramount importance. In this study, we aimed to evaluate co-administration of HCV non-Structural Protein 2 and IL-12 DNA vaccines in C57BL/6 mice. Methods: A plasmid encoding full-length HCV NS2 protein (non-structural protein 2) was generated and used to vaccinate mice. Negative control (an empty expression vector) was also employed to evaluate the background response. To investigate immune responses against vaccine, C57BL/6 mice received three doses of the vaccine with a two-week interval. Cellular immunity was assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay for lymphocyte proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase release for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and cytokine assay. Results: The findings demonstrated that immunization of mice with plasmid expressing HCV NS2 induced CTL response, interferon gamma production, and lymphocyte proliferation compared to negative control. The results also demonstrated that co-administration of IL-12 with the HCV NS2 plasmid induced significantly better immune response in C57BL/6 mice. Conclusion: DNA vaccine encoding HCV NS2 is an effective candidate that can trigger CTL-based immune response against HCV. In addition, the results suggested that combining the DNA vaccine approach with immune stimulatory cytokines may significantly enhance antigen-specific immune responses

    Roles for Treg expansion and HMGB1 signaling through the TLR1-2-6 axis in determining the magnitude of the antigen-specific immune response to MVA85A

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    © 2013 Matsumiya et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are creditedA better understanding of the relationships between vaccine, immunogenicity and protection from disease would greatly facilitate vaccine development. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing antigen 85A (MVA85A) is a novel tuberculosis vaccine candidate designed to enhance responses induced by BCG. Antigen-specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production is greatly enhanced by MVA85A, however the variability between healthy individuals is extensive. In this study we have sought to characterize the early changes in gene expression in humans following vaccination with MVA85A and relate these to long-term immunogenicity. Two days post-vaccination, MVA85A induces a strong interferon and inflammatory response. Separating volunteers into high and low responders on the basis of T cell responses to 85A peptides measured during the trial, an expansion of circulating CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ cells is seen in low but not high responders. Additionally, high levels of Toll-like Receptor (TLR) 1 on day of vaccination are associated with an increased response to antigen 85A. In a classification model, combined expression levels of TLR1, TICAM2 and CD14 on day of vaccination and CTLA4 and IL2Rα two days post-vaccination can classify high and low responders with over 80% accuracy. Furthermore, administering MVA85A in mice with anti-TLR2 antibodies may abrogate high responses, and neutralising antibodies to TLRs 1, 2 or 6 or HMGB1 decrease CXCL2 production during in vitro stimulation with MVA85A. HMGB1 is released into the supernatant following atimulation with MVA85A and we propose this signal may be the trigger activating the TLR pathway. This study suggests an important role for an endogenous ligand in innate sensing of MVA and demonstrates the importance of pattern recognition receptors and regulatory T cell responses in determining the magnitude of the antigen specific immune response to vaccination with MVA85A in humans.This work was funded by the Wellcome Trust. MM has a Wellcome Trust PhD studentship and HM is a Wellcome Trust Senior Fello
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