660 research outputs found

    Listening to Community: Towards Best Research Practices in Pond Inlet, Nunavut

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    What are the specific conditions and circumstances that can either prevent or facilitate an ethical, meaningful, productive, and respectful collaboration between Settler researchers and Indigenous People engaged in community or regional monitoring programs? How can I bring Settler research and Indigenous knowledge systems together to facilitate more equitable and proactive environmental monitoring programs? My research examines the connections between community-based environmental monitoring, research ethics, and the role of social science in climate change adaptation programs. In this dissertation, I examine the context, community concerns and recommendations for research that emerged during my fieldwork, interviews, and workshops conducted in Pond Inlet and Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, and Calgary, Alberta. It is widely recognized that over the last few decades, the planet has been undergoing rapid climate change, particularly in the Arctic. Climate change has led to a discussion about the role of Settler research and Indigenous knowledge in understanding and addressing environmental changes and community and regional priorities. In the North of Canada and other Arctic regions, the role of Settler researchers facilitating ecological monitoring, environmental changes, and local and regional policy changes has been largely overlooked. As more Indigenous organizations and communities continue to advocate and demonstrate the validity of their knowledge systems, levels of government and research institutions seek to facilitate and embrace the co-integration Indigenous Knowledge (IK) and Settler research. At an individual level, the co-integration of IK with Settler research will build skills and promote community resilience brought on by climate change. At a societal level, the benefits and potential of integrating IK with Settler research are a resource that needs to be investigated. It can add new and essential aspects to climate change adaptation strategies. However, it can also be problematic and reproduce already existing colonial dynamics. In this dissertation, I provide an overview and discussion of the potential role for Settler researchers in climate change research related to adaptation measures for Indigenous communities across the North of Canada and case study results. The outcomes of my research indicate that: 1) there needs to be a significant increase in the number of climate change adaptation projects that incorporate Inuit Knowledge (IK); 2) social science could play a role in the success and sustainability of climate change program development and deployment, and 3) the measurable and tangible ways communities may evaluate the success of adaptation programs. My research also outlines the concerns related to Settler researcher behaviors and practices that a group of Inuit from Pond Inlet and Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, experienced while working on university-based research projects and reports a series of recommendations they provided. My study also presents the concerns and recommendations of Inuit community members about the need to decolonize university ethics boards and research. The objectives of the workshop were to 1) get a sense of Settler research behavior community members saw as unethical, 2) synthesize the recommendations made by various Indigenous organizations related to ethical engagement and a decolonized research approach, and 3) develop a framework for an ethics workshop aimed at decolonizing university research ethics processes, which Indigenous peoples lead, and research in general. The findings indicate the great need for: (1) the inclusion of Indigenous epistemologies into university ethics training and certification processes equal to Settler science; 2) improved understandings of how academic disciplines should consult and work with Indigenous communities; 3) protocols and procedures for Settler research to be integrated with Indigenous Knowledge to be established. Each university, Settler researcher, and Indigenous community has specific circumstances, limitations, obstacles, research priorities, and capacities that need to be understood. The conclusions of my study are: 1) there is a need for Settler researchers to be aware of and recognize different epistemological orientations; 2) universities and researchers must make a concerted effort to spend more time supporting Indigenous-led research, and co-designing and implementing research projects collegially with Indigenous communities; 3) the relevance of Settler research projects needs to be clearly articulated with community members, and the research results need to be presented to the community in a variety of ways, such as through social media, town halls, plain language reports, etc.; 4) Settler researchers can make efforts to document community-level concerns in order for the community to be able to collaboration with Settler researchers on specific concerns

    Foundation of Empire in the Tudor Era: Further Explorations of the Northeast and Northwest Passages

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    The British Empire is often traced back to the late sixteenth century and Sir Francis Drake\u27s circumnavigation, but Tudor monarchs had been eyeing expansion beyond Britain long before Drake. John Cabot, commissioned by Henry VII in the late fifteenth century, became the first European to step foot in the Americas in five centuries. Half a century later, adventurers like Richard Chancellor and Sir Hugh Willoughby sought a possible Northeast Passage to Asia, interacting with the Sami and Russians along the way. These expeditions and others like them, funded by the English monarchy and merchants, aimed to expand the kingdom’s economic base and help England find its place in the world. Although the Northeast Passage and Northwest Passage were not successfully charted during the European Age of Exploration, these Tudor explorers contributed to geographic, social, and cultural knowledge and laid the foundation of the largest empire in world history

    So You Think You Speak Canadian English: A Study of Language Regard and Lexical Variation of English-Speaking Canadians

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    To date there has been limited research into the language regard of Canadians towards the varieties of English spoken across this vast country. This thesis provides a comprehensive investigation of the language regard of English-speaking Canadians towards varieties of Canadian English, alongside a variationist study of 13 previously studied lexical variables and 10 new lexical variables. This research on perception complements previous work on production, to build a better understanding of sociolinguistic variation (see Kretzschmar, 2000 and Preston, 2018). The methodology provides insights into the use of an online map task with the current available tools, while addressing the strength and weaknesses of these tools. An online survey allowed for data to be gathered from all areas of Canada and for simultaneous collection and analysis of lexical and perceptual data. This study includes a content analysis using GIS technology; an analysis of rating tasks for regions on three characteristics: correctness, pleasantness, and similarity; an experimental rating task focusing on stereotypes of provinces; supplementary perceptual data; and a lexical variation component. Data from 192 completed lexical surveys were analyzed using total variation, net variation, and major isoglosses to help further develop the understanding of the sociolinguistic landscape of Canadian English. Findings suggest that Canadians from different regions harbour perceptions towards Canadian English based on their region of origin, with some areas (e.g., Newfoundland and Labrador, and Québec) appearing more salient to participants than others. The findings from the analysis of the lexical data echo previous findings (e.g., Boberg, 2010, 2016; Gallinger & Motskin, 2018) while also highlighting regional variation in some variables that have not previously been studied, suggesting further research is needed focusing on these variables. Overall, the results demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of an online study to survey a large number of participants across a large geographical area

    askiw meskocipayowina: nikamon wîskicâk (The Seasons: Whiskey-Jack’s Song): A Music Composition for Wind Symphony and Cree Drummers, Chanters and Soloist

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    askiw meskocipayowina: nikamon wîskicâk (The Seasons: Whiskey-Jack’s Song) is a cultural-based hybridized composition that is inspired by the musical practices of my complex Cree-Settler heritage. My Indigenous family’s ancestral ties are to the Eeyou community of Quebec. My grandmother attended residential school in Moose Factory. Therefore, askiw meskocipayowina: nikamon wîskicâk is largely inspired by her Mushkegowuk (Moose Cree) upbringing, teachings, and her community members in Moosonee and Moose Factory. It incorporates Cree drummers and solo and group chanters with the contemporary Western wind symphony. I composed this piece entirely while residing in Calgary, Alberta and chose to represent the Nêhiýaw (Plains Cree) people through the language of the text to show my respect and appreciation as a guest among these people that inhabit the neighbouring areas of central and northern Alberta. I feel the result is a composition that incorporates these disparate Indigenous cultures in a way that maintains their integrity and protections in a good way. It is an expression of my view as a person of mixed-Cree-settler heritage and my story

    Review of participation of Indigenous peoples in plastics pollution governance

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    While calls for Indigenous participation in plastics pollution governance are increasingly common, exactly what participation means remains unclear. This review investigates how English-language peer-reviewed and gray literature describe Indigenous participation and its barriers and analyzes the dominant terms, models, enactments, and theories of Indigenous participation in plastics pollution work. We find that different actors – Indigenous people and organizations, non-Indigenous authors, mixed collaborations, and settler governments and NGOs – are talking about participation in acutely different ways. Non-Indigenous actors tend to focus on the inclusion of Indigenous people, either as data, knowledge, or a presence in existing frameworks. Mixed Indigenous and non-Indigenous author groups focus on partnership and collaboration, though with significant diversity in terms of what modes of decision-making, rights, and leadership these collaborations entail. Indigenous authors and organization advocate for participation premised on Indigenous rights, sovereignty, creation, and leadership. We end by characterizing Indigenous Environmental Justice (IEJ) in the literature. IEJ provides a notably unique way of understanding and intervening in plastics pollution. The text is designed so researchers and organizers can be more specific, deliberate, and just in the way Indigenous peoples participate in plastic pollution research, initiatives, and governance

    Cyberbullying in educational context

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    Kustenmacher and Seiwert (2004) explain a man’s inclination to resort to technology in his interaction with the environment and society. Thus, the solution to the negative consequences of Cyberbullying in a technologically dominated society is represented by technology as part of the technological paradox (Tugui, 2009), in which man has a dual role, both slave and master, in the interaction with it. In this respect, it is noted that, notably after 2010, there have been many attempts to involve artificial intelligence (AI) to recognize, identify, limit or avoid the manifestation of aggressive behaviours of the CBB type. For an overview of the use of artificial intelligence in solving various problems related to CBB, we extracted works from the Scopus database that respond to the criterion of the existence of the words “cyberbullying” and “artificial intelligence” in the Title, Keywords and Abstract. These articles were the subject of the content analysis of the title and, subsequently, only those that are identified as a solution in the process of recognizing, identifying, limiting or avoiding the manifestation of CBB were kept in the following Table where we have these data synthesized and organized by years

    Considerations when Developing an Indigenous Early Learning and Child Care Outcomes Framework within Canada: A Collaboration between a White Settler and Ojibway/Oneida Knowledge Keeper

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    This research contributes to the scholarship on evaluation and assessment within early learning and child care (ELCC) environments. The research was carried out in collaboration with the leaders of an Indigenous ELCC centre, an Ojibway/Oneida Knowledge Keeper, co-supervisors with the Faculty of Education at Western University, and funding partners Mitacs and a municipal funder. The collaboration took place within Southwestern Ontario, Canada. The dissertation is a diffractive analysis that involved reading texts multiple times, focusing on differences that matter while not ignoring relevant similarities. The methodology was also informed by the Ojibway/Oneida Knowledge Keeper who collaborated with the researcher by providing feedback throughout the project. The research examined the state of knowledge relating to Indigenous ELCC frameworks and outcomes. The project also described tensions, debates, and potentialities when establishing an ELCC outcomes frameworks from Indigenous perspectives. Analysis included standardization, terminology, spirituality, indicators, and resource allocation considerations. Part of the project also focused on patterns within existing Indigenous ELCC outcomes frameworks across Turtle Island (Canada). This project concludes by offering considerations and provocations for the development of Indigenous ELCC outcomes frameworks, as well as providing a discussion of methodological considerations, contributions of the diffractive analysis, and considerations for future research

    Women in the History of Science

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    Women in the History of Science brings together primary sources that highlight women’s involvement in scientific knowledge production around the world. Drawing on texts, images and objects, each primary source is accompanied by an explanatory text, questions to prompt discussion, and a bibliography to aid further research. Arranged by time period, covering 1200 BCE to the twenty-first century, and across 12 inclusive and far-reaching themes, this book is an invaluable companion to students and lecturers alike in exploring women’s history in the fields of science, technology, mathematics, medicine and culture. While women are too often excluded from traditional narratives of the history of science, this book centres on the voices and experiences of women across a range of domains of knowledge. By questioning our understanding of what science is, where it happens, and who produces scientific knowledge, this book is an aid to liberating the curriculum within schools and universities

    The 'Swadeshi Jinish' from the 'Didima Company': an analysis of the connection between Thakurmar Jhuli by Dakshinaranjan Mitra Majumder and nationalism in Bengal in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century

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    This thesis provides a critical analysis of the Bengali folktale collection Thakurmar Jhuli (1907) by Dakshinaranjan Mitra Majumder linking it to the prevalent notion of Bengal folklore and Bengali nation of late nineteenth and early twentieth century Bengal. I focus on the ways in which the dominant scholarly and political ideologies of the time shaped the choice of tales in the collection. In particular, this study analyzes Majumder’s writing in its historical context by drawing upon Benedict Anderson’s theory of nationalism and Herder’s concept of romantic nationalism. Moreover, I discuss the content of this collection adopting Sadhana Naithani’s idea of “prefaced space” and Maurice Bloomfield’s “Hindu motif” to discuss the connection between Bengal folklore and nationalism of the time. Taking a folkloric approach of analyzing the content and context of the collection, I demonstrate that this collection by Majumder introduced a Bengali folktale genre named “rupkatha” against the colonial genre of folktales and fairy tales. In so doing, he also assumed a power position where he made representational choices in including and excluding the religious, linguistic and cultural elements of the people of Bengal. Finally, demonstrating examples from other Bengali folklore genres, the thesis asserts the importance of addressing the absence of Islamic elements in Majumder’s collection, and the investigation of different versions of rupkatha to create a more complete sense of the genre

    Les écrivaines autochtones contemporaines au Québec : re/connexion avec le soi, la communauté et la Terre par la narration résurgente

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    Abstract : This dissertation explores contemporary Indigenous women writers who crafted their cultural productions in the geo-political territory we now call Quebec between 1976 and the present. My main argument is that contemporary Indigenous women’s writing in Quebec constitutes an expression of Indigenous resurgence. I understand Indigenous resurgence as a movement of transformation that is grounded in Indigenous worldviews and seeks to revitalize Indigenous ways of knowing and being. My corpus is comprised of the artistic and literary texts of seven Indigenous women in Quebec. More specifically, I investigate Kanien’kehá:ka artist Skawennati’s machinima project TimeTravellerTM (2008-2013), selected poems from Maya Cousineau Mollen’s debut collection Bréviaire du matricule 082 (2019), Natasha Kanapé Fontaine’s poetry collections Manifeste Assi (2014) and Bleuets et abricots (2016), Rita Mestokosho’s multilingual collections How I See Life, Grandmother / Eshi uapataman nukum / Comment je perçois la vie, grand-mère (2011) and Née de la pluie et de la terre (2014), and Manon Nolin’s debut collection Ma peau aime le Nord (2016), as well as the autobiographically-based narratives Eukuan nin matshi-manitu innushkueu / Je suis une maudite Sauvagesse (1976) by An Antane Kapesh and Kuessipan: à toi (2011) by Naomi Fontaine. My methodological approach juxtaposes contemporary Indigenous women’s writing with Indigenous feminist and decolonizing theories. In Chapter 1, I argue that Skawennati’s main objective is to empower Indigenous women by sharing and celebrating decolonial alternatives of the past, present, and future. In Chapter 2, I contend that Innu women poets use what I refer to as “Indigenous herstory” to lyrically transcribe their transformation into “Innushkueu,” meaning Innu or Indigenous woman. Chapter 3 discusses Indigenous women’s autobiographically-based narratives as “tipatshimuns:” Innu traditionally oral stories testifying to the storyteller’s lives experiences. In Chapter 4, I propose that Innu women’s poetry and environmental activism merge into what I call “land-based poetic activism:” activist poetry that voices opposition to environmental exploitation, destruction, and injustice and is thus instrumentalized in a political manner to protect Indigenous land and Rights.Cette thèse explore l’élaboration de productions culturelles d’écrivaines autochtones contemporaines dans le territoire géopolitique que nous appelons présentement le Québec entre 1976 jusqu’à présent. Mon argument principal est que l’écriture contemporaine des femmes autochtones au Québec constitue une expression de la résurgence autochtone. Je comprends la résurgence autochtone comme un mouvement de transformation qui est fondé sur les visions du monde autochtones et qui cherche à revitaliser les modes de connaissance et d’existence autochtones. Mon corpus est constitué des textes artistiques et littéraires de sept femmes autochtones du Québec. Plus précisément, j’étudie le projet machinima TimeTravellerTM (2008-2013) de l’artiste Kanien’kehá:ka Skawennati, le premier recueil de Maya Cousineau Mollen Bréviaire du matricule 082 (2019), les recueils de poésie de Natasha Kanapé Fontaine Manifeste Assi (2014) et Bleuets et abricots (2016), les recueils multilingues de Rita Mestokosho How I See Life, Grandmother / Eshi uapataman nukum / Comment je perçois la vie, grand-mère (2011) et Née de la pluie et de la terre (2014), le premier recueil de Manon Nolin Ma peau aime le Nord (2016), ainsi que les récits à caractère autobiographique Eukuan nin matshi-manitu innushkueu / Je suis une maudite Sauvagesse (1976) d’An Antane Kapesh, et Kuessipan: à toi (2011) de Naomi Fontaine. Mon approche méthodologique juxtapose les écrits de femmes autochtones contemporaines avec les théories féministes autochtones et décolonisatrices. Dans le chapitre 1, j’avance que l’objectif principal de Skawennati est de rendre le pouvoir aux femmes autochtones en partageant et en célébrant les alternatives décolonisatrices du passé, du présent et du futur. Dans le chapitre 2, je soutiens que les poètes innues utilisent ce que j’appelle « l’histoire autochtone au féminin ou Indigenous herstory » pour transcrire de façon lyrique leur transformation en « Innushkueu », qui signifie femme innue ou autochtone. Le chapitre 3 traite des récits autobiographiques en tant que « tipatshimuns » : des histoires innues traditionnellement orales qui témoignent des expériences de vie de la narratrice. Dans le chapitre 4, je propose que la poésie des femmes innues et l’activisme environnemental fusionnent dans ce que j’appelle « l’activisme poétique territorial ou land-based poetic activism » : une poésie activiste qui exprime une opposition à l’exploitation, à la destruction et à l’injustice environnementales et qui ainsi est instrumentalisée de manière politique pour protéger la Terre et les droits autochtones
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