2,517,267 research outputs found

    Musical Program Auralisation: Empirical Studies

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    Program auralisation aims to communicate information about program state, data, and behaviour using audio. We have argued that music offers many advantages as a communication medium [1]. The CAITLIN system [4, 16, 17, 18] was constructed to provide auralisations within a formal structured musical framework. Pilot studies [4, 16] showed that programmers could infer program structure from auralisations alone. A study was conducted using twenty-two novice programmers to assess a) whether novices could understand the musical auralisations and b) whether the musical experience and knowledge of subjects affected their performance. The results show that novices could interpret the auralisations (with accuracy varying across different levels of abstraction) and that musical knowledge had no significant effect on performance. A second experiment was conducted with another twenty-two novice programmers to study the effects of musical program auralisation on debugging tasks. The experiment aimed to determine whether auralisations would lead to higher bug detection rates. The results indicate that, in certain circumstances, musical auralisations can be used to help locate bugs in programs and that musical skill does not affect the ability to make use of the auralisations. In addition, it the experiment showed that subjective workload increased when the musical auralisations were used

    Empirical Studies on Eva and Profitability Ratios Association with Annual Stock Return for Indonesia Companies

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    This research analyzes the influence of Economic Value Added (EVA) and profitability ratios measurement on Indonesian public companies stock returns. The companies are firms that are listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) and that take part in the LQ45 group. The profitability ratios that are used in this research are profit margin (PM), return on sales (ROS), return on equity (ROE), and return on assets (ROA). The aim of this research is to prove the claim that EVA is associated more with company annual stock return rather than profitability ratios. The methodology that is used in this research is a multiple regression test to measure the significance between EVA, profit margin (PM), return on sales (ROS), return on equity (ROE), and return on assets (ROA) with the company annual stock returns. The research result shows that in the end the research prove that EVA does not influence profitability ratios in association with company stock returns. The evidence indicates that profitability ratios are closely associated with company stock returns with the highest significance. More specificly, return on equity (ROE) is the most associated profitability ratio with stock returns followed by return on assets (ROA)

    Attention and empirical studies of grammar

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    How is the generation of a grammatical sentence implemented by the human brain? A starting place for such an inquiry lies in linguistic theory. Unfortunately, linguistic theories illuminate only abstract knowledge representations and do not indicate how these representations interact with cognitive architecture to produce discourse. We examine tightly constrained empirical methods to study how grammar interacts with one part of the cognitive architecture, namely attention. Finally, we show that understanding attention as a neural network can link grammatical choice to underlying brain systems. Overall, our commentary supports a multilevel empirical approach that clarifies and expands the connections between cognitive science and linguistics thus advancing the interdisciplinary agenda outlined by Jackendoff

    Empirical Studies of Foreign Direct Investment

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    Empirical studies of open source evolution

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    Copyright @ 2008 Springer-VerlagThis chapter presents a sample of empirical studies of Open Source Software (OSS) evolution. According to these studies, the classical results from the studies of proprietary software evoltion, such as Lehman’s laws of software evolution, might need to be revised, if not fully, at least in part, to account for the OSS observations. The book chapter also summarises what appears to be the empirical status of each of Lehman’s laws with respect to OSS and highlights the threads to validity that frequently emerge in these empirical studies. The chapter also discusses related topics for further research

    Empirical Studies of Macroeconomic Interdependence

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    In this paper we examine the structure and empirical results from several groups of linked econometric models. The main focus of the paper is on the international transmission of fiscal policies, monetary policies, and oil price shocks, under both fixed and flexible exchange rates. The linkage models are divided into four groups: projects based on available national models; projects using structural models designed with monetary and exchange rate linkages in mind; projects focussed mainly on trade linkages; and projects using very small national models with common structure. Each group comprises from two to four projects. Comparable results on the transmission of fiscal policy under fixed exchange rates are available for eight projects, while four projects provide evidence on the domestic and international effects of monetary policy and oil price shocks.