16 research outputs found

    Empowerment, Participation and the Poor

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    human development, democracy

    Institutional Arrangements and Fiscal Performance: The Latin American Experience

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    This paper considers whether institutional factors, in this instance electoral systems and procedures, affect Latin American countries` fiscal performance as measured by the size of the public sector, fiscal deficits, the size of the public debt, and the degree of procyclality of fiscal policy. The authors find that electoral systems characterized by large district magnitude and high political fragmentation have larger governments, larger deficits, and more procyclical fiscal policies. Transparent and hierarchical budget procedures, on the other hand, lead to lower deficits and levels of debt.

    The General Election in Costa Rica, February 2010

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    On 7 February 2010, almost 2 million Costa Ricans (69% of the registered electorate) voted in the country‚Äôs general election, the fifteenth consecutive general election to be held since the end of the short but bloody civil war of 1948. Laura Chinchilla was elected as Costa Rica‚Äôs first woman president but her Partido Liberaci√≥n Nacional (National Liberation Party, PLN) fell short of a parliamentary majority and so will have to sustain agreements with other parties in the legislature in order to pursue its policy agenda.UCR::Vicerrector√≠a de Investigaci√≥n::Sistema de Estudios de Posgrado::Ciencias Sociales::Maestr√≠a Acad√©mica en Ciencias Pol√≠ticas con √©nfasis en Pol√≠ticas P√ļblicas y Gobernabilidad Democr√°tic

    The Programmatic Dimension of Political Communication on Twitter: The Case of Costa Rica’s 2022 General Elections

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    This research seeks to analyze the use of the social network Twitter by presidential candidacies in the context of the first round of the 2022 electoral campaign in Costa Rica. This is a proposal that is articulated under an exploratory and descriptive scope, so that in the first place it tries to understand the characteristics under which politicians exercise a presence in digital environments and make general use of Twitter in the context of an electoral campaign, Secondly, it seeks to identify the programmatic dimension in the publications shared by the profiles of the candidacies with the highest voting intentions. The work makes a contribution based on the methodological background of the Manifesto Research on Political Representation (MARPOR), to inquire about electoral communication exercised through a social network, from a multimodal approach. The findings prove the existence of a clear programmatic dimension within the activity of the candidacies on the platform that is articulated not only with government plans, but also with conjunctural elements of the campaign such as debates. Likewise, the work explores some non-programmatic uses and offers new lines of research within the field of political communication in Costa Rica

    Jóvenes y democracia: Comportamiento electoral y actitudes políticas en Costa Rica

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    Contrario al pensamiento que equipara a los j√≥venes como el futuro, los j√≥venes son una parte de la poblaci√≥n de singular relevancia en torno al presente del debate pol√≠tico y a las nuevas formas de organizaci√≥n de los partidos. Los partidos pol√≠ticos capitalizan una importante actividad de movilizaci√≥n social, especialmente durante campa√Īa, gracias al involucramiento de este segmento, pero hist√≥ricamente las agrupaciones los han relegado de las agendas de pol√≠tica al priorizar a los votantes de mayor edad. En la actualidad, la aparente ruptura de los v√≠nculos partidistas con sus ciudadanos y la creciente apat√≠a hacia la pol√≠tica tradicional han aumentado el inter√©s por cuestiones relacionadas con la ciudadan√≠a juvenil. La resonancia pol√≠tica de las demandas vinculadas a los j√≥venes y su activa participaci√≥n en los nuevos medios de comunicaci√≥n son elementos fundamentales que deben tenerse en cuenta para comprender los cambios de la sociedad costarricense.Contrary to the belief that identifies young people as the future, young people are a population of singular relevance in terms of the current scenario of political debate and the new forms of party organization. Political parties capitalize on an important activity of social mobilization, especially during the campaign thanks to the involvement of this segment of the population but, historically, this segment has been relegated from political agendas because the priority has been given to older electors. Currently, the apparent break-up of party ties with its citizens and the increasing apathy towards traditional politics has augmented the interest for issues related to young citizens. The political resonance of demands linked to the youth and their active participation in the new mass media are fundamental elements that must be taken into account to comprehend the changes in Costa Rican. society.UCR::Vicerrector√≠a de Investigaci√≥n::Unidades de Investigaci√≥n::Ciencias Sociales::Centro de Investigaci√≥n y Estudios Pol√≠ticos (CIEP)UCR::Vicerrector√≠a de Docencia::Ciencias Sociales::Facultad de Ciencias Sociales::Escuela de Ciencias Pol√≠tica

    Ideological proximity in the presidential elections of Costa Rica, El Salvador and Honduras

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    In this article we test the theory of proximity voting in the most recent presidential elections of three Central American countries: Costa Rica, El Salvador and Honduras. For this purpose, we specified Mixed Mutinomial Probit models and found that ideological proximity had a relevant effect on voters‚Äô choices. Moreover, the ideological distance between those citizens and the candidates affected the latter differently, depending on the partisan context in which they were competing.En este art√≠culo contrastamos la teor√≠a del voto por proximidad ideol√≥gica en las m√°s recientes elecciones presidenciales de tres pa√≠ses centroamericanos: Costa Rica, El Salvador y Honduras. Para tal efecto especificamos modelos Probit Mutinomiales Mixtos, a partir de los cuales encontramos que la cercan√≠a ideol√≥gica tuvo un efecto relevante en dichas elecciones. La distancia entre votantes y candidatos afect√≥ de manera diferente a estos √ļltimos, dependiendo del contexto partidista en que compet√≠an

    Costa Rica and Kenya as Ecotourism Destinations : Country Strategies vs. Visitor Perceptions

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    Tourism is one of the largest industries in the world, and especially the popularity of ecotourism has been steadily increasing in the recent decades. This study concentrates on two of the more prominent ecotourism destinations in the world, Costa Rica and Kenya. It has been suggested that ecotourism was born in Costa Rica, due to their incredible biodiversity within such a small country. Kenya, on the other hand, has become one of the most popular destinations for safaris, and the country is a home to a wide range of ecosystems and massive biodiversity. Protecting this ecological diversity is extremely important, and both countries have taken measures to achieve a sustainable level of tourism, ecotourism being one of these measures. The purpose of this study is to determine how visitors perceive Costa Rica and Kenya as ecotourism destinations, and how Costa Rica’s and Kenya’s ecotourism branding and tourism strategy align with the visitors’ perceptions. This qualitative analysis was conducted through netnographic content analysis. The data used for the analysis was collected from trip report discussion threads in four different travel related online discussion forums. These forum posts represent all first-hand descriptions of vacations in Costa Rica or Kenya, which provide an authentic source of data for this study. The trip reports were categorized and analyzed for terminology and narratives related to ecotourism, and then further analyzed within the framework provided by the countries’ individual tourism strategies. Based on the findings of this study, visitors travel to these destinations predominantly to observe the nature and wildlife but regardless, ecotourism is not an important concept for the vast majority of the visitors. Topics related to ecological and environmental issues were not widely spoken about, however, a large number of the visitors did engage in certain activities that could be considered ecotourism and/or stayed at eco-certified accommodation. While ecotourism as a concept takes into account the specific natural, economic, socio-economic and political environments of the destination, it is still a very restrictive concept with strict rules that do not allow much flexibility. Going forward, emphasizing the wider concept of sustainable tourism instead of ecotourism in the national tourism strategies could bring forth greater benefits for the destinations in the long term, as individual stakeholders could potentially adapt their operations to adhere to sustainable practices with less friction compared to transitioning to abiding by all of the rules of ecotourism

    Prior Democratic Exposure and the Development of Democracy in Latin America and the Caribbean

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    This thesis examines democratic history and the effect it has had on the rise of illiberal and liberal democracy in Latin America and the Caribbean, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitatively, this study examines the relationships between the prevalence of democratic history and democratic episodes within the regions and current liberal and illiberal democracies in the region. The qualitative work focuses on the cases of Costa Rica, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Illiberal democracies, while still electoral democracies, are characterized by the denial of basic rights and liberties, ignoring constitutional limits of power, frequent use of referendums, and lack of accountability for the executive, but are still electoral democracies. In turn, liberal democracies are defined as those that, in addition to being electoral democracies, also include the protection of constitutional rights, executive accountability, and the executive’s respect of democratic norms. Using a comparative case study approach, this thesis explores the factors that have contributed to the emergence of illiberal or liberal democracy in contemporary Latin America, focusing in particular on democratic legacies and the impact they have had on the development of democratic institutions. Drawing on a range of scholarly sources, this thesis argues that while the nature of contemporary democratic regimes in Latin America and the Caribbean is a complex and multi-faceted phenomenon, there is a need for scholars to focus more on the democratic histories of nations as a crucial explanatory factor. The thesis concludes with a discussion of the implications of the study's findings for academics and future research regarding democratic consolidation and development in Latin America, the Caribbean, and beyond.Bachelor of Art

    El desempe√Īo laboral y la competitividad de la instituci√≥n prestadora de servicios de Salud Villa sol, Los Olivos 2021

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    La presente investigaci√≥n tuvo como objetivo general determinar la relaci√≥n del desempe√Īo laboral con competitividad. La metodolog√≠a utilizada fue de tipo aplicada, enfoque cuantitativo, dise√Īo no experimental de corte transversal, nivel descriptivo correlacional, m√©todo hipot√©tico deductivo; la t√©cnica utilizada para la obtenci√≥n de datos ha sido la encuesta y el instrumento un cuestionario de tipo Likert, con una poblaci√≥n conformada por 50 colaboradores, siendo esta tambi√©n la totalidad de la muestra. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos y con el an√°lisis descriptivo inferencial se concluye que existe relaci√≥n significativa del desempe√Īo laboral con competitividad en la Instituci√≥n prestadora de servicios de salud Villa sol, Los Olivos, 202
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