25,597 research outputs found

    Revisão taxonómica do género Calendula L. (Asteraceae - Calenduleae) na Península Ibérica e Marrocos

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    The genus Calendula L. (Asteraceae - Calenduleae) includes, depending on the author, 10 to 25 species, distributed mainly in the Mediterranean basin. The taxonomy of this genus is considered to be extremely difficult, due to a great morphological variability, doubtfull relevance of some of the characters used to distinguish its species (e.g. the life form: annual or perennial; the habit: erect or diffuse, shape of the leaves, indumentum, relative size of the capitula and colour of disc or ray florets, achene morphology), but also due to the hybridization and polyploidization. Despite the numerous studies that have been published, no agreement on the classification and characters used to discriminate between taxa has been reached. A taxonomic study of the genus Calendula was conducted for the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, aiming at (1) access the morphological variability between and within taxa, (2) confirm the chromosome numbers, (3) increase the nuclear DNA content estimations, (4) re-evaluate taxa delimitations and circumscription, and (5) reassess, and redefine, the descriptions and characters useful to distinguish taxa. In order to achieve a satisfying taxonomic core, extensive fieldwork, detailed morphometric analysis, chorological, karyological and genome size studies were conducted. For the Iberian Peninsula, four species were recognized, including nine subspecies (between these two new subspecies were described). For Morocco, including some taxa from Algeria and Tunisia 13 species were recognized (two new species and a nomenclatural change), including 15 subspecies (among these eight new subspecies were described). To corroborate the results obtained and to evaluate the evolutionary relationships among taxa, phylogenetic studies using molecular methods, such as ITS, microsatellites or other molecular markers, should be used.O g√©nero Calendula L. (Asteraceae - Calenduleae) inclui, dependendo do autor, 10 a 25 esp√©cies, distribu√≠das essencialmente na bacia do Mediterr√Ęneo. A taxonomia deste g√©nero √© considerada extremamente dif√≠cil, devido √† grande variabilidade morfol√≥gica, discutivel relev√Ęncia de alguns dos caracteres utilizados para distinguir suas esp√©cies (por exemplo, a forma de vida: anual ou perene, o h√°bito: erecto ou difuso, a forma das folhas, o indumento, o tamanho e a cor dos cap√≠tulos e a morfologia dos aqu√©nios), mas tamb√©m devido √† hibridiza√ß√£o e poliploidiza√ß√£o. Apesar dos in√ļmeros estudos que foram publicados, n√£o foi alcan√ßado um acordo sobre a classifica√ß√£o e os caracteres utilizados para discriminar as suas esp√©cies. Um estudo taxon√≥mico do g√©nero Calendula foi realizado para a Pen√≠nsula Ib√©rica e Marrocos, com o objectivo de (1) verificar a variabilidade morfol√≥gica, (2) confirmar o n√ļmero de cromossomas, (3) aumentar as estimativas de conte√ļdo em ADN, (4) reavaliar a delimita√ß√£o e a circunscri√ß√£o dos taxa, e (5) reavaliar e redefinir as descri√ß√Ķes e caracteres √ļteis para os distinguir. Para alcan√ßar uma robust√™s taxon√≥mica satisfat√≥ria, foram realizados extensos trabalhos de campo, an√°lise morfom√©trica detalhada, abordagens corol√≥gicas, cariol√≥gicas e quanto ao conte√ļdo em ADN. Para a Pen√≠nsula Ib√©rica, quatro esp√©cies foram reconhecidas, incluindo nove subesp√©cies (entre essas duas novas subesp√©cies foram descritas). Para Marrocos, incluindo alguns taxa da Argelia e Tunisia, foram reconhecidas 13 esp√©cies (duas novas e uma mudan√ßa nomenclatural), incluindo 15 subesp√©cies (entre essas oito novas subesp√©cies foram descritas). Para corroborar os resultados obtidos e avaliar as rela√ß√Ķes evolutivas e filogen√©ticas entre os taxa, estudos que utilizem diferentes m√©todos moleculares, tais como ITS, microsat√©lites ou outros marcadores moleculares, devem ser utilizados.Apoio financeiro do Laborat√≥rio Associado CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (AMB/50017) financiado por fundos nacionais atrav√©s da FCT/MCTES e cofinanciado pelo FEDER (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007638), no √Ęmbito do Acordo de Parceria PT2020, e Compete 2020Programa Doutoral em Biologi

    Enhancing Access and Adoption of Improved Seed for Food Security of Ethiopia (A Review)

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    Increasing agricultural productivity is central to accelerate economic growth and improving the wellbeing of both rural and urban people in Ethiopia. Agriculture, particularly crop production, has a greater effect on both the rural and the urban poor who spend more than a half of their incomes on food. Therefore, generation and transfer of improved technologies are critical prerequisites for agricultural development particularly for an agrarian based economy such as of Ethiopian. Seed, especially that of improved varieties, are among the most important productive inputs which can take the lion`s share from other agricultural inputs in affecting productivity, livelihood and assuring food security in Ethiopia. The direct contribution of quality seed alone to the total production is estimated at 15 ‚Äď20% depending upon the crop and it can be further raised up to 45% with efficient management of the other inputs. Despite the importance of improved seed in increasing crop productivity, their availability on the required amount, quality and time is still limited in Ethiopia. The unavailability of quality seed at the right place and time coupled with the poor promotion system is one key factor accounting for the limited use of improved seed, which further contributing to low crop productivity. Therefore, in order to access quality seed at the required time and amount to the farmers and increase the adoption of improved seed, there is a need to have a robust seed system which can strictly control seed outlets and a strong seed-related extension program. The present paper reviews about enhancing access and adoption of improved seeds for better food security in Ethiopia. Keywords: Adoption, food security, improved seed, seed access DOI: 10.7176/DCS/13-3-02 Publication date:March 31st 202

    Autoabasto en la dieta campesina del Totonacapan poblano (México): implicaciones para la agrodiversidad

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    Objetivo: caracterizar el patr√≥n alimentario de las familias campesinas y determinar la influencia de los factores socioecon√≥micos en el origen y consumo de los alimentos en el Totonacapan poblano (M√©xico). Metodolog√≠a: con la t√©cnica de recordatorio de 24 horas, se aplic√≥ una encuesta a 270 familias sobre su dieta y se document√≥ la informaci√≥n socioecon√≥mica. Resultados: se registraron 159 alimentos, de los cuales 57.6% tiene procedencia externa e incluyen grasas, l√°cteos, huevo, pan, pasta de trigo, sal y alimentos y bebidas altas en az√ļcares. El ma√≠z, algunos frijoles y chiles, las hojas verdes ‚Äúquelites‚ÄĚ, las frutas, la carne de pollo y el puerco proceden en gran medida de la producci√≥n propia, local y regional. Valor: se aportan datos sobre la dieta campesina actual y sus implicaciones para la agrodiversidad y la salud. Conclusiones: la dieta campesina se est√° desligando de la producci√≥n de autoconsumo debido a la migraci√≥n asociada con bajos ingresos

    Supplement to the Historiography I:22

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    Brave New World 1998 film and novel compared, Doshin the Gian


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    This study was aimed to evaluate the response of common bean cultivars to NPS fertilizer. Results revealed that the main effect of NPS rates, and cultivars highly significantly affected 50% days to flowering, number of primary branches per plant, pods per plant, hundred seeds weight, above-ground dry matter biomass, and grain yield. Nasir cv. provided highest  for all the studie parameters, among NPS rate, 100 kg ha-1 recorded the highest results for the  50% days to flowering, the number of primary branches per plant, pods per plant, hundred seeds weight, above-ground dry matter biomass, and seeds yield. The interaction effects of NPS rate and cultivars highly significantly influenced days to 90% physiological maturity, plant height, total and effective nodule number, and the number of seeds per pod. Thus, cultivar Nasir interaction with 100 kg ha-1 NPS rate resulted in higher total and effective nodule number, seeds per pod, and the less for plant height which was recorded highest result for Red Wolaita with 100 kg ha-1 NPS rate. This study was revealed that cultivar Nasir with the optimum amount of NPS fertilizer application, the common bean can produce a more effective nodule that is capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen for plant nourishment under acidic soil..It can be  concluded as the combined use of 100 kg ha-1 NPS with cultivar Nasir results in higher grain yield and soil fertility improvement through nitrogen fixation for succeeding crops

    √Čvaluation de l'impact du changement climatique sur la d√©foliation de l'√©pinette noire par la tordeuse des bourgeons de l'√©pinette

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    Les mod√®les √©cologiques actuels pr√©voient de profonds effets des changements climatiques sur les r√©gimes de perturbations naturelles des for√™ts. La tordeuse des bourgeons de l'√©pinette (Choristoneura fumiferana) (TBE) est le principal insecte d√©foliateur dans l'est de l'Am√©rique du Nord. Les √©pid√©mies de TBE ont un impact majeur sur la structure et la fonction de la for√™t bor√©ale canadienne puisque la d√©foliation entra√ģne une diminution de la croissance des arbres, une augmentation de la mortalit√© et une baisse de la productivit√© foresti√®re. Les √©pid√©mies de TBE sont devenues plus s√©v√®res au cours du dernier si√®cle √† cause des changements climatiques; cependant, nous savons peu de choses sur la mani√®re dont l'effet int√©gr√© du climat et du TBE modifie la croissance des esp√®ces h√ītes. Nous √©valuons ici comment l‚Äôinteraction entre le climat et la gravit√© de l'√©pid√©mie affecte la croissance de l'√©pinette noire (Picea mariana) pendant l'√©pid√©mie de TBE qui a eu lieu entre 1968-1988 et 2006-2017. Nous avons compil√© des s√©ries dendrochronologiques (2271 arbres), des donn√©es de s√©v√©rit√© de l'√©pid√©mie (estim√©e par la d√©foliation a√©rienne observ√©e) et des donn√©es climatiques pour 164 sites au Qu√©bec, Canada. Nous avons utilis√© un mod√®le lin√©aire √† effets mixtes pour d√©terminer l'impact des param√®tres climatiques, de la d√©foliation cumulative (des cinq ann√©es pr√©c√©dentes) et de leur effet coupl√© sur la croissance en surface terri√®re. √Ä la gravit√© maximale de l'√©pid√©mie, la croissance en surface terri√®re de l'√©pinette noire a √©t√© r√©duite de 14 √† 18 % sur les cinq ann√©es en raison de l'effet TBE. Cette croissance a √©t√© affect√©e par le climat : des temp√©ratures minimales estivales pr√©c√©dentes plus √©lev√©es et un indice d'humidit√© climatique estival plus √©lev√© ont r√©duit la croissance de 11 % et 4 % respectivement. En revanche, l'effet n√©gatif de la d√©foliation a √©t√© att√©nu√© de 9% pour une temp√©rature minimale plus √©lev√©e au printemps pr√©c√©dent et de 7% pour une temp√©rature maximale plus √©lev√©e l'√©t√© pr√©c√©dent. Cette √©tude am√©liore notre compr√©hension des effets combin√©s de la TBE et du climat et aide √† pr√©voir les dommages futurs caus√©s par cet insecte dans les peuplements forestiers afin de soutenir la gestion durable des for√™ts. Nous recommandons √©galement que les projections des √©cosyst√®mes dans la for√™t bor√©ale incluent plusieurs classes de d√©foliation de la TBE et plusieurs sc√©narios climatiques

    Investigating process skills and competency gaps in undergraduate agricultural extension curriculum in selected South African universities

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    The Michigan State University Alliance for African Partnership (AAP) launched a multi-country study to contribute to upgrading and tailoring the agricultural extension curricula at participating institutions. The first phase of primary data collection consisted of focus group discussions. The focus groups were structured around a specific objective: gathering information around specific questions. Focus group discussions were followed by an online survey of Agricultural Extension and Advisory Services (AEAS) role players, of which the results will be discussed separately. It was concluded from the focus group discussions that the AEAS workers in South Africa lacked the critical skills to perform their responsibilities efficiently. Several required skills were singled out during the focus group discussions. It was concluded that it is vital for agricultural development in the country to ensure that these skills and competencies are included in all South African teaching institutions' curricula. It is therefore recommended that it is critical for each institution offering agricultural extension training to keep the curriculum relevant so that it meets the needs of the profession. Keeping the curriculum relevant includes participatory curriculum development (PCD), regular review of the curriculum by all the stakeholders of the profession, and the necessary collaborations with professional bodies to regulate the curriculum. The efficiency in the sector will be enhanced if AEAS qualifications at the various training institutions cater to the profession's demands


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    In order to develop this article, a documentary review of the elaboration and production of research works related to the study of Global Warming and Climate Change was carried out to know, through a bibliometric study, the main characteristics of 245 publications registered in Latin America, according to the Scopus database. The results obtained from this database were organized in tables and figures, categorizing the information by variables such as the Year of Publication, Country of Origin and Area of Knowledge, which allowed to identify, through qualitative analysis, the position of different authors regarding the proposed topic. The main findings of this research were that Brazil stood out for having the highest scientific production, leading the list with 108 publications. Likewise, the area of knowledge that made the greatest contribution to the construction of bibliographic material related to the study of variables was agricultural and biological sciences, with 115 published documents

    A Visual Modeling Method for Spatiotemporal and Multidimensional Features in Epidemiological Analysis: Applied COVID-19 Aggregated Datasets

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    The visual modeling method enables flexible interactions with rich graphical depictions of data and supports the exploration of the complexities of epidemiological analysis. However, most epidemiology visualizations do not support the combined analysis of objective factors that might influence the transmission situation, resulting in a lack of quantitative and qualitative evidence. To address this issue, we have developed a portrait-based visual modeling method called +msRNAer. This method considers the spatiotemporal features of virus transmission patterns and the multidimensional features of objective risk factors in communities, enabling portrait-based exploration and comparison in epidemiological analysis. We applied +msRNAer to aggregate COVID-19-related datasets in New South Wales, Australia, which combined COVID-19 case number trends, geo-information, intervention events, and expert-supervised risk factors extracted from LGA-based censuses. We perfected the +msRNAer workflow with collaborative views and evaluated its feasibility, effectiveness, and usefulness through one user study and three subject-driven case studies. Positive feedback from experts indicates that +msRNAer provides a general understanding of analyzing comprehension that not only compares relationships between cases in time-varying and risk factors through portraits but also supports navigation in fundamental geographical, timeline, and other factor comparisons. By adopting interactions, experts discovered functional and practical implications for potential patterns of long-standing community factors against the vulnerability faced by the pandemic. Experts confirmed that +msRNAer is expected to deliver visual modeling benefits with spatiotemporal and multidimensional features in other epidemiological analysis scenarios
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