1,191 research outputs found

    EFFECT OF CuO NANOPARTICLES ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH IN ECHINACEA PURPUREA IN VITRO.

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    This study was aimed to examin the effect of CuONPs on both seeds germination, seedling growth and comparing the method of soaking and adding to the culture medium, The research was implemented at PTC. Lab. College of Biotechnology - Al Nahrain University, during 2022 and 2023. The experimental design was factorial within CRD. It was included five experments and ten replicates (4X3). first experment  was by using Sodium Hypochlorite (0.0, 1, 2 and 3%) with (5, 10, 15min) duartion time. The second experment was CuONPs (0, 25, 50, 75mg,L‾¹ ) combined with (3,6,9 and 12 day) Time duration, same factors wre examined after soaking seeds with CuONPs which represented the third experment, fourth and fifth experments soaked before culture seeds were cultured respictively with CuONPs (0.0, 25, 50, 75mg,L‾¹ ) for 1hour then culturing them on MS media. Results showed full reduction in the contamination rate of the selected E. purpurea explant recorded in 3% sodium hypochlorite at 10 and 15min. the highest rate of seeds germination were a chieved with CuONPs of 50 mg, L‾¹ for 9 days rated 7.80 germinated seeds in MS media culture method, at the soaking method the results clarify the highest CuONPs 75 mg, L‾¹ combined with 6,9 and 12 days of soaking a chieved the highest germination rate 10.0 seeds (100% germination).The results also showed that 50% of CuONPs increases shoot numbers 8.6 explant and dry weight 198 mg. 25% of CuONPs achieve the best shoot length 14.5 cm. in seeds soaking results showed the best shoot Nu. 8.7, shoot length 9.7 cm. and dry weight 204 mg. when seeds was soaked in 75 mg, L‾¹ of CuONPs

    A plea for scale, and why it matters for invasive species management, biodiversity and conservation

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    Invasive species are suspected to be major contributors to biodiversity declines worldwide. Counterintuitively, however, invasive species effects are likely scale dependent and are hypothesized to be positively related to biodiversity at large spatial scales. Past studies investigating the effect of invasion on biodiversity have been mostly conducted at small scales (\u3c100 m2) that cannot represent large dynamic landscapes by design. Therefore, replicated experimental evidence supporting a negative effect of invasive plants on biodiversity is lacking across many landscape types, including large grasslands. We collected data across eight large (333–809 ha) grassland landscapes managed with pyric herbivory—that is the recoupling of fire and grazing—to test how an invasive legume Lespedeza cuneata affected plant and bird communities at spatial grains ranging from 0.1 m2 to \u3e3,000,000 m2. Lespedeza cuneata invasion effects on grassland plant diversity and composition changed with scale, being negative at small spatial grains (0.1 m2) and neutral or positive at large spatial grains (\u3e3,000,000 m2). Lespedeza cuneata abundance did not significantly affect bird diversity at any spatial grain measured. Lespedeza cuneata may negatively affect biodiversity if abundances are greater than those observed in this study. However, previous research suggests that Lespedeza cuneata may not be capable of exceeding 20% canopy cover across large landscapes (\u3e400 ha). Control and eradication strategies can be costly and are fraught with risk. If data do not clearly support a negative Lespedeza cuneata abundance–biodiversity relationship, and if invasion is spatially limited across large landscapes, ongoing control and eradication efforts may be unwarranted and ineffective. Synthesis and applications: Invasive species effects gleaned from small-scale studies may not reliably predict their effects at larger scales. Although we recognize the importance of small-scale studies in potentially isolating individual mechanisms, management strategies based solely on results from small-scale studies of invasion are unlikely to increase or conserve biodiversity across large landscapes. Rather, processes that generate landscape heterogeneity—like pyric herbivory—are probably more important for promoting biodiversity across all scales. Scale is a central problem in ecology, and defining scale in management objectives is essential for effective biodiversity conservation

    Improving propagation of Echinacea purpurea and its content of some active compounds by using Tyrosine and Salicylic acid in vitro

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    The seed propagation is the predominant method of Echinacea propagation, which has been criticized for its time-consuming control over the separation factor and the uncertainty of pathogen-free plants produced by this method. The technology of tissue culture has provided multiple opportunities for the production of secondary metabolites continuously without being restricted to a specific season, due to the possibility of controlling the environmental conditions and the components of the nutrient medium needed by the plant. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of salicylic acid as elicitor and tyrosine as precursor on propagation and some secondary compounds production in coneflower in vitro. The result showed the superiority of 2 mg / liter SA over the other treatments, which gave the highest average number of branches formed reaching 33.6 branches / plant part, number of leaves 33.6 leaves/vegetable part, fresh 1.067g and dry 0.058g weights as well as echinacoside concentration  of 291.3427 μg / g DW. However, the treatment 100 mg/l tyrosine gave a maximum of average number of branches 11.80 branches / plant part, number of leaves 11.80 leaves/vegetable part, fresh and dry weight 0.152 and 0.023 g respectively. Concerning echinacoside value, its maximum 318.5203 μg / g DW was recorded with 150 mg/l tyrosine. From this study, we concluded that caffeic acid derivatives such as echinacosides are one of the main phytochemical components of Echinacea extracts. The system of cell culture is a tool for the large-scale, year-round culture of plant cells, so it is a continuous source for the production of active compound

    Plant-derived bioactive compounds for inflammatory diseases

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    Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia de Tecidos, Medicina Regenerativa e Células EstaminaisA Organização Mundial da Saúde qualifica as doenças inflamatórias crónicas como a principal causa de morbilidade e mortalidade no mundo. A inflamação crónica é caracterizada por uma resposta inflamatória anormal e persistente que conduz à disfunção de tecidos e órgãos (p. ex. artrite). Nas últimas décadas, foram observadas melhorias significativas no tratamento destas doenças. No entanto, a contínua administração de fármacos anti-inflamatórios é limitada devido à sua associação com efeitos secundários graves. Assim, terapias mais seguras e eficazes devem ser exploradas. As plantas, sendo a base da medicina tradicional em muitas culturas por milhares de anos, são uma excelente fonte de moléculas bioativas, tornando-se algumas delas marcos na indústria farmacêutica (p. ex. morfina). Duas plantas tradicionalmente utilizadas no tratamento de doenças imunológicas são a Salvia officinalis e a Echinacea purpurea. Todavia, a sua atividade imunomoduladora ainda não foi amplamente estudada de forma a fornecer evidências científicas sólidas acerca da sua eficácia. Neste trabalho foram preparados extratos de diferentes órgãos dessas plantas (flores, folhas e raízes) para explorar o seu potencial como formulações pró- ou anti-inflamatórias. Diferentes solventes e métodos de extração foram usados para preparar extratos com diferentes características. Em particular, os extratos da E. purpurea foram separados em duas frações (fenóis/ácidos carboxílicos e alquilamidas) para permitir identificar a classe de compostos responsável pela maior bioatividade. A composição química dos extratos e das frações foi caracterizada por diferentes técnicas cromatográficas. A atividade antioxidante das diferentes formulações foi avaliada na presença de espécies reativas relevantes. Os efeitos pró- e anti-inflamatórios dos diferentes extratos e frações foram investigados, respetivamente, em macrófagos não estimulados e estimulados com lipopolissacarídeos. Relativamente às propriedades pró-inflamatórias, somente os extratos aquosos de E. purpurea demonstraram bioatividade ao induzir as principais vias de sinalização inflamatória e os mediadores pró-inflamatórios. Considerando as atividades antioxidantes e anti inflamatórias, todos os extratos e frações preparados apresentaram grande eficácia, a qual foi influenciada pelo método de extração, solvente utilizado e órgão da planta selecionado. Posteriormente, o extrato mais promissor foi encapsulado em vesículas unilamelares grandes, funcionalizadas com ácido fólico, com o objetivo de melhorar a sua biodistribuição. Por fim, demonstrou-se a segurança e a eficácia terapêutica desta formulação num modelo experimental de inflamação em ratos. Assim, concluiu-se que os extratos de plantas são formulações com grande potencial para serem posteriormente utilizadas como base no tratamento eficaz de doenças que afetam o sistema imunológico, seja quando este está comprometido ou hiper-reativo.Chronic inflammation-related diseases are ranked by the World Health Organization as the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Chronic inflammation is characterized by a persistent and abnormal inflammatory response that leads to tissue damage and/or dysfunction (e.g., arthritis). There were remarkable improvements in the last decades in the management of chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the constant administration of the clinically available anti-inflammatory drugs is limited due to their association with serious side effects. Therefore, alternative, safer and more effective therapies must be investigated. Plants, being the basis of traditional medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, are a rich source of bioactive molecules. Some of them became landmarks in the pharmaceutical field (e.g., morphine). Two plants traditionally used in the treatment of immune-related diseases are Salvia officinalis and Echinacea purpurea. However, their immunomodulatory activity has not been extensively studied in a scientifically soundness. Therefore, in this work, we obtained extracts from different organs of those plants (flowers, leaves, and roots) to explore their potential as pro- or anti-inflammatory formulations. Different solvents and extraction methods were used to prepare a variety of extracts. Particularly for E. purpurea extracts were fractionated into phenolic/carboxylic acids and alkylamide fractions to identify the class of compounds responsible for the strongest bioactivity. Then, the chemical fingerprint in the extracts and fractions was evaluated by different chromatographic techniques. The antioxidant activity of the different formulations was evaluated against relevant reactive species. The proand anti-inflammatory effects of the different extracts and fractions were evaluated using non-stimulated and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages, respectively. Regarding pro-inflammatory properties, aqueous E. purpurea extracts were the most promising by the induction of main inflammatory signaling pathways and pro-inflammatory mediators. Considering antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, all the developed extracts displayed strong efficacy that was influenced by the extraction method, solvent used, and source organ of the plant. Afterward, the most promising extract was loaded in folic acidfunctionalized large unilamellar vesicles (FLUVs) to improve its therapeutic biodistribution. Finally, it was demonstrated in an experimental rat model of inflammation the safety and enhanced therapeutic efficacy of the most powerful extracts loaded in FLUVs. Therefore, we showed that the plant extracts are promising natural formulations that can be further used as a basis for the effective treatment for disorders in which the immune system is either overactive or impaired.Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) for my Ph.D. scholarships (PD/BD/135246/2017 and COVID/BD/152012/2021) and the Ph.D. programme in Advanced Therapies for Health (PATH, PD/00169/2013)

    Public Perception of and Preference for Designed Naturalistic Urban Plantings in Beijing, China

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    Naturalistic plantings provide environmental and human well-being benefits and have become increasingly popular in many parts of the world, particularly in Europe and North America. China, a major carbon emitter with a mission to achieve carbon neutrality, is gradually recognizing the ecological benefits of naturalistic plantings in promoting sustainable environmental improvement. In recent years, naturalistic plantings have been introduced in major Chinese cities such as Beijing and Chengdu. If this approach is to be upscaled to deliver environmental and wellbeing effects across China, there is an urgent need for a greater understanding of the level of acceptance of naturalistic planting design amongst the Chinese public. This study aimed to explore public perceptions of and preferences for designed naturalistic planting design in Beijing, China to inform future urban landscape design and management throughout China. An on-site questionnaire was conducted with 1600 participants who were visiting national nature reserves, urban parks, and EXPO show gardens in Beijing. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were then carried out online or on-site with a sub-set of 47 interviewees. Our results show that most respondents recognized and defined nature according to the degree of human intervention and the scale of a scene. Respondents surveyed in urban parks perceived designed naturalistic urban plantings, more positively than conventional Chinese planting design. They recognized and appreciated naturalistic plantings for their ecological values, enjoyment, and fitness, as well as acknowledging the perception of disorder and unsafety in small-scale design show gardens. We identified relationships between respondents’ gender, age, education level, income and professional background and their preference for designed naturalistic urban plantings. Our study contributes to the growing body of research on urban plantings and provides valuable insights for urban planners and greenspace designers in China. By harnessing the preferred planting characteristics identified in our study, urban planners and designers can shape greener, more sustainable environments that effectively address the challenges of urbanization while creating harmonious spaces that benefit both urban residents and the ecosystem

    Validación del método analítico para diagnosticar Botrytis cinerea mediante el sistema de identificación microbiana BIOLOG, y el aseguramiento de la calidad del ensayo mediante análisis genético

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    AGROCALIDAD es la Agencia encargada de la regulación y control de la sanidad del sector agropecuario y la inocuidad de los alimentos en la producción primaria. Para garantizar la calidad e inocuidad de la producción agropecuaria, implementa planes, programas y proyectos de sanidad vegetal que apoyan los flujos comerciales y contribuyen con la soberanía alimentaria (AGROCALIDAD, 2018). El laboratorio de Fitopatología cuenta con la acreditación en bacterias y virus por lo que busca la acreditación para garantizar la competencia técnica en sus ensayos en hongos utilizando el sistema de identificación microbiana BIOLOG, el cual se basa en la identificación de microorganismos mediante el perfil metabólico utilizando diferentes fuentes de carbono. El objetivo general del presente trabajo de investigación fue la validación del método analítico para el diagnóstico de Botrytis cinerea mediante el sistema de identificación microbiana BIOLOG y el aseguramiento de la calidad del ensayo mediante análisis genético, en esta validación se aplicaron los criterios de la Norma ISO/IEC 17025 y los criterios generales de acreditación del SAE. Para el estudio primero se realizó un análisis de la base de datos del laboratorio con el fin de notar la presencia y persistencia del patógeno en las diferentes provincias del país, después se precisó aislar, identificar y conservar cepas de Botrytis sp. que afectan a diferentes cultivos, mediante la aplicación de técnicas morfológicas, morfométricas, bioquímicas, de inmunoensayo y moleculares; finalmente, se desarrolló la validación del método y el aseguramiento de la calidad del ensayo, identificando las limitaciones e influencias que puedan afectar al analito. Esta investigación concluyó con la identificación positiva del patógeno en todos los ensayos realizados principalmente en el sistema de identificación microbiana BIOLOG.AGROCALIDAD is the Agency in charge of the regulation and control of the agricultural sanitation and food safety in primary production. To guarantee the quality and safety of agricultural production, it implements plans, programs and projects for plant sanitation that support trade flows and contribute to food sovereignty (AGROCALIDAD, 2018). The Phytopathology Laboratory has the accreditation for bacteria and viruses identification, so it seeks accreditation to guarantee technical competence in its fungal tests using the BIOLOG microbial identification system, which is based on the identification of microorganisms through their metabolic profile using different carbon sources. The general objective of this research was to validate the analytical method for the diagnosis of Botrytis cinerea through the MICROBIAL IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM BIOLOG and ensure the quality of the assay through genetic analysis. For this validation, the ISO/IEC 17025 Standard criteria and the general accreditation criteria of the SAE were applied. A search through the laboratory database was initialy carried out in order to determine the presence and persistence of the pathogen in different provinces of the country. An isolation, identification and preservation of Botrytis sp. strains which affect several types of crop was necessary. This was achieved through the application of morphological, morphometric, biochemical, immunoassay and molecular techniques. Finally, the validation of the method and the assurance of the quality of the test was obtained, identifying the limitations and parameters that may affect the analyte. This research concluded with the positive identification of the pathogen in all the assays carried out mainly in the MICROBIAL IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM BIOLO

    Exploring the Regulatory Challenges and Opportunities for Echinacea purpurea as a Food in the European Union

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    openThe European Union (EU) has established a complex regulatory framework governing the marketing of food products, including food supplements and botanical ingredients. This is particularly important for food business operators looking to market botanicals like Echinacea purpurea as herbal teas, given their increasing popularity (). Despite the growing use of Echinacea purpurea, there is a notable gap in research exploring its fit within the EU's regulatory landscape, especially when sold as an herbal tea. To address this, the present review aims to answer the question, "How does the current EU regulatory framework accommodate the marketing of Echinacea purpurea as an herbal tea?" Through a comprehensive examination of its historical use, botanical and pharmacological characteristics, and existing EU legislation, this review dissects the challenges and opportunities for businesses. The study finds that Echinacea purpurea exists in a nebulous space between food supplements and medicinal products, with its classification varying across Member States. This complicates its marketing as an herbal tea and highlights the need for a harmonized approach. By providing these insights, the review emphasizes the urgent need for greater regulatory harmonization to fully realize the potential of botanicals like Echinacea purpurea beyond food supplements

    Electrosprayed Nanoparticles Containing Hydroalcoholic Extract of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench Stimulates Immune System by Increasing Inflammatory Factors in Male Wistar Rats

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    Purpose: Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench is a member of the Asteraceae family and is traditionally used mainly due to its immunostimulatory properties. Various compounds including alkylamides and chicoric acid were reported as active ingredients of E. purpurea. Here, we aimed to prepare electrosprayed nanoparticles (NPs) containing hydroalcoholic extract of E. purpurea using Eudragit RS100 (EP-Eudragit RS100 NPs) to improve the immunomodulatory effects of the extract. Methods: The EP-Eudragit RS100 NPs with the different extract:polymer ratios and solution concentrations were prepared using the electrospray technique. The size and morphology of the NPs were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). To evaluate the immune responses, male Wistar rats were administrated with the prepared EP-Eudragit RS100 NPs and plain extract in the final dose of 30 or 100 mg/kg. The blood samples of the animals were collected and the inflammatory factors and complete blood count (CBC) were investigated. Results: In vivo studies indicated that the plain extract and EP-Eudragit RS100 NPs (100 mg/kg) significantly increased the serum level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1-β (IL1-β) whereas the EP-Eudragit RS100 NPs (30 mg/kg) significantly increased the number of white blood cells (WBCs) compared to the control group. Lymphocytes’ count in all groups was increased significantly compared to the control group (P<0.05) whereas other CBC parameters remained unchanged. Conclusion: The prepared EP-Eudragit RS100 NPs by electrospray technique caused significant reinforcement in the immunostimulatory effects of the extract of E. purpurea

    Biotic homogenization in the availability of ornamental seeds of the native flora in Chile

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    Biotic homogenization is a global phenomenon, mainly in urban areas where exotic species are dominant, contributing to the loss of native biodiversity. Gardening native flora to promote local biodiversity is becoming a conservation practice in urban settings. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the representation of the Chilean native flora in the Chilean and international ornamental flower seed market to know which native plant seeds are sold. We found that native seed are absent in the local market and that the totality of seed supply in the market corresponds to species of exotic origin, mainly from the Palearctic region (43%). However, surprisingly, many Chilean flower seeds are traded in the international market (approximately 6% of the total Chilean flora). This lack of availability of native seeds for local consumers constitutes a bottleneck for ecological restoration initiatives. It is consistent with the greater abundance of exotic species in urban green areas and supports the hypothesis of biocultural homogenization
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