35,294 research outputs found

    TOI-969: a late-K dwarf with a hot mini-Neptune in the desert and an eccentric cold Jupiter

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    Context. The current architecture of a given multi-planetary system is a key fingerprint of its past formation and dynamical evolution history. Long-term follow-up observations are key to complete their picture. Aims. In this paper, we focus on the confirmation and characterization of the components of the TOI-969 planetary system, where TESS detected a Neptune-size planet candidate in a very close-in orbit around a late K-dwarf star. Methods. We use a set of precise radial velocity observations from HARPS, PFS, and CORALIE instruments covering more than two years in combination with the TESS photometric light curve and other ground-based follow-up observations to confirm and characterize the components of this planetary system. Results. We find that TOI-969 b is a transiting close-in (Pb ∼ 1.82 days) mini-Neptune planet (Formula Presented), placing it on the lower boundary of the hot-Neptune desert (Teq,b = 941 \ub1 31 K). The analysis of its internal structure shows that TOI-969 b is a volatile-rich planet, suggesting it underwent an inward migration. The radial velocity model also favors the presence of a second massive body in the system, TOI-969 c, with a long period of (Formula Presented) days, a minimum mass of (Formula Presented), and a highly eccentric orbit of (Formula Presented). Conclusions. The TOI-969 planetary system is one of the few around K-dwarfs known to have this extended configuration going from a very close-in planet to a wide-separation gaseous giant. TOI-969 b has a transmission spectroscopy metric of 93 and orbits a moderately bright (G = 11.3 mag) star, making it an excellent target for atmospheric studies. The architecture of this planetary system can also provide valuable information about migration and formation of planetary systems

    Constraining a Model of the Radio Sky Below 6 MHz Using the Parker Solar Probe/FIELDS Instrument in Preparation for Upcoming Lunar-based Experiments

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    We present a Bayesian analysis of data from the FIELDS instrument on board the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) spacecraft with the aim of constraining low frequency (\lesssim 6 MHz) sky in preparation for several upcoming lunar-based experiments. We utilize data recorded during PSP's ``coning roll'' maneuvers, in which the axis of the spacecraft is pointed 45^{\circ} off of the Sun. The spacecraft then rotates about a line between the Sun and the spacecraft with a period of 24 minutes. We reduce the data into two formats: roll-averaged, in which the spectra are averaged over the roll, and phase-binned, in which the spectra are binned according to the phase of the roll. We construct a forward model of the FIELDS observations that includes numerical simulations of the antenna beam, an analytic emissivity function of the galaxy, and estimates of the absorption due to free electrons. Fitting 5 parameters, we find that the roll-averaged data can be fit well by this model and we obtain posterior parameter constraints that are in general agreement with previous estimates. The model is not, however, able to fit the phase-binned data well, likely due to limitations such as the lack of non-smooth emission structure at both small and large scales, enforced symmetry between the northern and southern galactic hemispheres, and large uncertainties in the free electron density. This suggests that significant improvement in the low frequency sky model is needed in order to fully and accurately represent the sky at frequencies below 6 MHz.Comment: 18 pages, 10 figures, 5 tables. Under review in the Astrophysical Journa

    Grand challenges in entomology: Priorities for action in the coming decades

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    Entomology is key to understanding terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems at a time of unprecedented anthropogenic environmental change and offers substantial untapped potential to benefit humanity in a variety of ways, from improving agricultural practices to managing vector-borne diseases and inspiring technological advances. We identified high priority challenges for entomology using an inclusive, open, and democratic four-stage prioritisation approach, conducted among the membership and affiliates (hereafter ‘members’) of the UK-based Royal Entomological Society (RES). A list of 710 challenges was gathered from 189 RES members. Thematic analysis was used to group suggestions, followed by an online vote to determine initial priorities, which were subsequently ranked during an online workshop involving 37 participants. The outcome was a set of 61 priority challenges within four groupings of related themes: (i) ‘Fundamental Research’ (themes: Taxonomy, ‘Blue Skies’ [defined as research ideas without immediate practical application], Methods and Techniques); (ii) ‘Anthropogenic Impacts and Conservation’ (themes: Anthropogenic Impacts, Conservation Options); (iii) ‘Uses, Ecosystem Services and Disservices’ (themes: Ecosystem Benefits, Technology and Resources [use of insects as a resource, or as inspiration], Pests); (iv) ‘Collaboration, Engagement and Training’ (themes: Knowledge Access, Training and Collaboration, Societal Engagement). Priority challenges encompass research questions, funding objectives, new technologies, and priorities for outreach and engagement. Examples include training taxonomists, establishing a global network of insect monitoring sites, understanding the extent of insect declines, exploring roles of cultivated insects in food supply chains, and connecting professional with amateur entomologists. Responses to different challenges could be led by amateur and professional entomologists, at all career stages. Overall, the challenges provide a diverse array of options to inspire and initiate entomological activities and reveal the potential of entomology to contribute to addressing global challenges related to human health and well-being, and environmental change

    Anatomy and kinematic evolution of an ancient passive margin involved into an orogenic wedge (Western Southern Alps, Varese area, Italy and Switzerland)

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    We make use of own geological mapping, interpretations of seismic reflection profiles and deep geophysical data to build a lithospheric-scale cross-section across the European Western Southern Alps (Varese area) and to model a progressive restoration from the end of Mesozoic rifting to present-day. Early phases of Alpine orogeny were characterized by Europe-directed thrusting, whereas post-Oligocene shortening led to basement-involving crustal accretion accompanied by backfolding, and consistent with the kinematics of the adjoining Ivrea Zone. Wedging was favored by a significant component of reactivation of the inherited Adriatic rifted margin. Our results also suggest that, during the collisional and post-collisional tectonics, lithosphere dynamics drove diachronically the onset of tectonic phases (i.e., wedging and slab retreat), from east to west, across the Western Southern Alps

    Food biodiversity: Quantifying the unquantifiable in human diets

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    Dietary diversity is an established public health principle, and its measurement is essential for studies of diet quality and food security. However, conventional between food group scores fail to capture the nutritional variability and ecosystem services delivered by dietary richness and dissimilarity within food groups, or the relative distribution (i.e., evenness or moderation) of e.g., species or varieties across whole diets. Summarizing food biodiversity in an all-encompassing index is problematic. Therefore, various diversity indices have been proposed in ecology, yet these require methodological adaption for integration in dietary assessments. In this narrative review, we summarize the key conceptual issues underlying the measurement of food biodiversity at an edible species level, assess the ecological diversity indices previously applied to food consumption and food supply data, discuss their relative suitability, and potential amendments for use in (quantitative) dietary intake studies. Ecological diversity indices are often used without justification through the lens of nutrition. To illustrate: (i) dietary species richness fails to account for the distribution of foods across the diet or their functional traits; (ii) evenness indices, such as the Gini-Simpson index, require widely accepted relative abundance units (e.g., kcal, g, cups) and evidence-based moderation weighting factors; and (iii) functional dissimilarity indices are constructed based on an arbitrary selection of distance measures, cutoff criteria, and number of phylogenetic, nutritional, and morphological traits. Disregard for these limitations can lead to counterintuitive results and ambiguous or incorrect conclusions about the food biodiversity within diets or food systems. To ensure comparability and robustness of future research, we advocate food biodiversity indices that: (i) satisfy key axioms; (ii) can be extended to account for disparity between edible species; and (iii) are used in combination, rather than in isolation

    CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SCIENTIFIC PROFILE ASSOCIATED WITH GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE: ANALYSIS FROM WELL-BEING

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    In order to develop this article, a documentary review of the elaboration and production of research works related to the study of Global Warming and Climate Change was carried out to know, through a bibliometric study, the main characteristics of 245 publications registered in Latin America, according to the Scopus database. The results obtained from this database were organized in tables and figures, categorizing the information by variables such as the Year of Publication, Country of Origin and Area of Knowledge, which allowed to identify, through qualitative analysis, the position of different authors regarding the proposed topic. The main findings of this research were that Brazil stood out for having the highest scientific production, leading the list with 108 publications. Likewise, the area of knowledge that made the greatest contribution to the construction of bibliographic material related to the study of variables was agricultural and biological sciences, with 115 published documents

    The VLT/SPHERE view of the ATOMIUM cool evolved star sample

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    Context. Low- and intermediate-mass asymptotic giant stars and massive red supergiant stars are important contributors to the chemical enrichment of the Universe. They are among the most efficient dust factories of the Galaxy, harboring chemically rich circumstellar environments. Yet, the processes that lead to dust formation or the large-scale shaping of the mass loss still escape attempts at modeling. Aims. Through the ATOMIUM project, we aim to present a consistent view of a sample of 17 nearby cool evolved stars. Our goals are to unveil the dust-nucleation sites and morphologies of the circumstellar envelope of such stars and to probe ambient environments with various conditions. This will further enhance our understanding of the roles of stellar convection and pulsations, and that of companions in shaping the dusty circumstellar medium. Methods. Here we present and analyze VLT/SPHERE-ZIMPOL polarimetric maps obtained in the visible (645–820 nm) of 14 out of the 17 ATOMIUM sources. They were obtained contemporaneously with the ALMA high spatial resolution data. To help interpret the polarized signal, we produced synthetic maps of light scattering by dust, through 3D radiative transfer simulations with the RADMC3D code. Results. The degree of linear polarization (DoLP) observed by ZIMPOL spreads across several optical filters. We infer that it primarily probes dust located just outside of the point spread function of the central source, and in or near the plane of the sky. The polarized signal is mainly produced by structures with a total optical depth close to unity in the line of sight, and it represents only a fraction of the total circumstellar dust. The maximum DoLP ranges from 0.03–0.38 depending on the source, fractions that can be reproduced by our 3D pilot models for grains composed of olivine, melilite, corundum, enstatite, or forsterite. The spatial structure of the DoLP shows a diverse set of shapes, including clumps, arcs, and full envelopes. Only for three sources do we note a correlation between the ALMA CO υ = 0, J = 2−1 and SiO υ = 0, J = 5−4 lines, which trace the gas density, and the DoLP, which traces the dust. Conclusions. The clumpiness of the DoLP and the lack of a consistent correlation between the gas and the dust location show that, in the inner environment, dust formation occurs at very specific sites. This has potential consequences for the derived mass-loss rates and dust-to-gas ratio in the inner region of the circumstellar environment. Except for π1 Gru and perhaps GY Aql, we do not detect interactions between the circumstellar wind and the hypothesized companions that shape the wind at larger scales. This suggests that the orbits of any other companions are tilted out of the plane of the sky

    The low density, hot Jupiter TOI-640 b is on a polar orbit

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    TOI-640 b is a hot, puffy Jupiter with a mass of 0.57±0.020.57 \pm 0.02 MJ_{\rm J} and radius of 1.72±0.051.72 \pm 0.05 RJ_{\rm J}, orbiting a slightly evolved F-type star with a separation of 6.330.06+0.076.33^{+0.07}_{-0.06} R_\star. Through spectroscopic in-transit observations made with the HARPS spectrograph, we measured the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, analysing both in-transit radial velocities and the distortion of the stellar spectral lines. From these observations, we find the host star to have a projected obliquity of λ=184±3\lambda=184\pm3^\circ. From the TESS light curve, we measured the stellar rotation period, allowing us to determine the stellar inclination, i=232+3i_\star=23^{+3\circ}_{-2}, meaning we are viewing the star pole-on. Combining this with the orbital inclination allowed us to calculate the host star obliquity, ψ=104±2\psi=104\pm2^\circ. TOI-640 b joins a group of planets orbiting over stellar poles within the range 8012580^\circ-125^\circ. The origin of this orbital configuration is not well understood.Comment: 15 pages, 12 figures, accepted for publication in A&A, in pres
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