337 research outputs found

    The production of biopharmaceuticals in Brazil: current issues

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    Biopharmaceuticals are gaining a growing share of the pharmaceuticals market. In recent years, the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has approved the registration of biological drugs with domestic production. Although Brazil is in the early stages of biopharmaceutical production, governmental incentives and the investment in private companies in the technological domain in this country have created expectations of an increase in the capacity of biopharmaceutical production. Private initiatives, once rare, have now started to blossom in this field, such as collagenase from Cristalia and filgrastim from Eurofarm. The expiry of the patents for certain biopharmaceuticals (e.g. infliximab, filgrastim and rituximab) has generated the possibility of savings to the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) in terms of biosimilars and incentives for national production. National production could also avoid dependence on external imports and a lack of essential supplies. In the next few years, Brazil is expected to bring nationally produced biopharmaceuticals to the market. Although there is some way to go before Brazil will be able to sustain the national demand for biopharmaceuticals and supply international markets with new products, the country is starting to take its first steps towards these objectives

    Drug Product Liability and Health Care Delivery Systems

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    This note will use the principles of law and economics to examine the interaction of market structures and product liability rules in a world of imperfect information. The goals of the analysis are to create incentives for optimal care by producers and consumers, induce the socially appropriate amount of consumption of each product (often referred to as the activity level ), and minimize the costs of bearing the risk of injury. The note will conclude that the existence of health maintenance organizations ( HMOs ) and similar prepaid providers with superior information capacity and total patient care responsibility may create a context in which current standards of drug liability should be revised

    Local Foundations and Medical Research Support in Indianapolis after 1945

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    Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI)Philanthropy plays an important and often publicly visible role in modern medicine. Names like Carnegie, Rockefeller, and Gates are associated with medicine both personally and through the foundations they created. This phenomenon also played out on a local level, where communities are dotted with hospitals, university laboratories, and medical schools bearing the names of families who contributed to build, literally and figuratively, the institutions of medical research. Little is known about these local philanthropists, including why they decided to support research and how they organized and carried out the work of grantmaking. Consequently, there is no deep understanding of the value of their contributions. I seek to remedy that omission through this study of the history and work of three small foundations dedicated to medical and scientific research and located in a single, midsized American city. Ultimately this work considers a question fundamental to medical research philanthropy: Can smaller foundations make a meaningful contribution to modern medical research given the scale, complexity, and cost of the work as well as the dominance of federal government funding? This work concludes that the primary value of the foundations under study was not their financial support for research per se, but their flexible and sustained contributions to the local research infrastructure, including philanthropic investments that helped launch research projects and the careers of individual scientists; provided capital for needed physical space; and supported recruiting efforts to bring innovative and productive faculty members to staff new research and patient care departments. The foundations in this study, both individually and collectively, served as valuable strategic allies to the research institutions in their community. As a result, the foundations contributed directly and meaningfully toward the expansion and improvement of the research institutions. The resulting growth in the size and reputation of these programs and facilities generated economic gain that benefitted the broader community. This finding supports a call for the development of a more nuanced and complete understanding of the potential impact that smaller funders can have in a large and complicated system

    Evaluation of profits in the ethical drug industry

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    Thesis (M.B.A.)--Boston Universit

    Exploration of the Impact of Lean System on Profitability in U. S. Pharmaceutical Industry

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    A thesis presented to the faculty of the College of Business and Technology at Morehead State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree Master of Science by Linya Shu on April 27, 2018

    History of British Intensive Care, c. 1950–c. 2000

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    Annotated and edited transcript of a Witness Seminar held on 16 June 2010. Introduction by Professor Sir Ian Gilmore, Royal Liverpool Hospital and University of Liverpool.Annotated and edited transcript of a Witness Seminar held on 16 June 2010. Introduction by Professor Sir Ian Gilmore, Royal Liverpool Hospital and University of Liverpool.Annotated and edited transcript of a Witness Seminar held on 16 June 2010. Introduction by Professor Sir Ian Gilmore, Royal Liverpool Hospital and University of Liverpool.Annotated and edited transcript of a Witness Seminar held on 16 June 2010. Introduction by Professor Sir Ian Gilmore, Royal Liverpool Hospital and University of Liverpool.Annotated and edited transcript of a Witness Seminar held on 16 June 2010. Introduction by Professor Sir Ian Gilmore, Royal Liverpool Hospital and University of Liverpool.Annotated and edited transcript of a Witness Seminar held on 16 June 2010. Introduction by Professor Sir Ian Gilmore, Royal Liverpool Hospital and University of Liverpool.Annotated and edited transcript of a Witness Seminar held on 16 June 2010. Introduction by Professor Sir Ian Gilmore, Royal Liverpool Hospital and University of Liverpool.Annotated and edited transcript of a Witness Seminar held on 16 June 2010. Introduction by Professor Sir Ian Gilmore, Royal Liverpool Hospital and University of Liverpool.Intensive care developed in the UK as a medical specialty as the result of some extraordinary circumstances and the involvement of some extraordinary people. In 1952, the polio epidemic in Copenhagen demonstrated that tracheostomy with intermittent positive pressure ventilation saved lives and those infected with tetanus (common in agricultural areas) soon benefited. War-time developments such as triage, monitoring, transfusion and teamwork, and different specialists such as respiratory physiologists, anaesthetists and manufacturers of respiratory equipment all improved emergency treatment. These advances were rapidly extended to the care of post-operative patients, particularly with developments in cardiac surgery. Dedicated units appeared in the early 1960s in Cambridge, London and Liverpool, and later specialist care units were created for prenatal, cardiac and dialysis patients. The importance of specialist nursing care led to the development of nurse training, education and the eventual appointment of nurse consultants in the NHS in 1999. The specialty of intensive care was granted Faculty status by the GMC in 2010. Introduced by Professor Sir Ian Gilmore, this transcript includes, inter alia, the development of cardiac catheters, monitoring equipment, data collection techniques and the rise of multidisciplinarity, national audit, and scoring systems

    Perverse Incentives: Why Everyone Prefers High Drug Prices -- Except for Those Who Pay the Bills

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    Health care spending rarely follows an ordinary, rational model. Yet even in that context, prescription drug prices are rising at a puzzling rate. What is causing the phenomenon? Quite simply, incentives percolating throughout the prescription drug market push players toward higher prices. At the center lies the highly secretive and concentrated Pharmacy Benefit Manager (PBM) industry middle players who negotiate between drug companies and health insurers by arranging for rebates and establishing coverage levels for patients. Contracts between drug companies and the middle players are closely guarded secrets. The PBM customers, including Medicare, private insurers, and even their auditors, generally are not permitted access to the terms. And the middle players are not alone; everyone is feeding at the trough. Markets, like gardens, grow best in the sun. They wither without information. Thus, one should not be surprised to see competitive distortions and suboptimal outcomes. Despite the extreme secrecy, details have begun to seep out-through case documents (including recent contract disputes among parties), government reports, reports to shareholders, and industry insider reports. Piecing together these sources, this Article presents a full picture of incentive structures in which higher-priced drugs receive favorable treatment, and patients are channeled towards more expensive medicines. In exchange for financial incentives structured in different ways to appeal to hospitals, insurers, doctors, and even patient advocacy groups, drug companies ensure that lower-priced substitutes cannot gain a foothold. It is a win-win for everyone, except of course for taxpayers and society. This Article also analyzes popular proposals that are unlikely to work and suggests approaches for aligning incentives

    Technological learning and the evolution of the Indian pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical sectors

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    Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2004.Includes bibliographical references (p. 216-227).The Indian pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical sectors have been characterised by three features considered analogous to technological stagnation: low R&D investments, "copying" on-patent drugs (legal in India if a novel process is found) and manufacturing off-patent, generic drugs. Yet, some firms are innovating in drug discovery and development and the total number of firms is among the most numerous and export-oriented in the developing world. This dissertation looks at patterns of technological capabilities using sector-wide indicators and firm-level cases in synthetic and biological pharmaceuticals. Common explanations for the sectoral capabilities are the country's process patent regime. However, a more detailed analysis shows this cannot be the sole cause. Although the patent regime was critical in helping firms develop skills early on, their process capabilities were honed by a variety of selection environments, of which the patent regime was one type. There were at least three distinct selection environments and at least three broad types of associated learning. The findings of external environmental influence and selection do not weaken the importance of national policy, far from it. However, studies that assign explanatory power for the sectors' advance entirely to national patent policies or rational firms miss the significance of the Indian story to date. The research also shows that there is scope for broadening debates on public health medicines to address technological learning opportunities in developing countries.by Smita Srinivas.Ph.D

    Tell Me How It Ends: The Path to Nationalizing the U.S. Pharmaceutical Industry

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    The U.S. medicines system is broken. Millions of Americans suffer and some even die because they cannot afford medicines discovered by government-funded research. At the same time, corporations holding monopoly patent rights to those medicines collect some of the largest profits in modern capitalist history. It does not have to be this way. The global legacy of treating essential medicines as a public good and the robust U.S. history of government seizure of private property for the public interest reveals a better path: the United States should nationalize its pharmaceutical industry. U.S. statutory law already provides broad powers for the executive branch to immediately order the substantial manufacturing and distribution of patent-free medicines. That statutory authority should be immediately implemented and further expanded. In addition, U.S. constitutional law justifies a full seizure of all industry assets. Given the pharmaceutical industry’s substantial reliance on government funding and licensing, along with the industry’s widespread malfeasance that harms the public welfare, the amount of compensation for this seizure will be limited. That seizure and compensation will finally conclude the tragic era of medicines profiteering and launch a new system that restores life-saving medications to their rightful role as affordable, accessible public goods

    The Courier, September 1952

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    https://hsrc.himmelfarb.gwu.edu/courier/1048/thumbnail.jp
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