249,924 research outputs found

    It's all about relationships : women managing women and the impact on their careers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Management at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

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    Listed in 2017 Dean's List of Exceptional ThesesWomen represent nearly half of New Zealand’s workforce, making it likely that a woman will, at some stage during her working life, have a woman manager. She may also manage women employees. However, despite this likelihood, very little is known about the nature of women’s hierarchical workplace relationships and even less about the impact these relationships have on women’s careers. This research used narrative inquiry, relational cultural theory and the Kaleidoscope Career Model (KCM) to explore the relational experiences of 15 New Zealand women and the impact of these hierarchical relationships on career decisions. It was undertaken in two phases. Phase One used a combination of creative methods and semi-structured interviews to explore the participants’ experiences. Phase Two brought the participants together in workshops to develop personal and organisational strategies aimed at strengthening workplace relationships. Phase One found that most of the participants had experienced a negative relationship with a women manager and/or employee. Many of those participants subsequently left the organisation they worked for as a direct or indirect result of that relationship. Conversely, nearly half of the participants spoke of a positive relationship and while these were beneficial, they were not linked to a subsequent career decision. These findings suggest that negative relationships affect a woman’s career decisions to a greater extent than positive relationships. The research also extends the KCM by adding the impact of women’s hierarchical relationships to the career parameters of balance and challenge. Phase Two delved further into these findings to determine that women have genderbased expectations of women managers, such as an expectation of a higher degree of emotional understanding and support from a woman manager than would be expected from a man. In addition, while the participants look to women managers for some form of career support, most were not striving for senior management positions. They were instead motivated by a desire to make a difference and live a balanced life, with the demands of senior organisational roles seen as being in conflict with their relationships and family responsibilities. This raises a dilemma from a gender equity perspective, with research suggesting that a critical mass of women at the senior leadership level reduces the gender pay gap and increases the promotional opportunities of women at all organisational levels. Phase Two identified a number of personal and organisational strategies to better support women’s hierarchical relationships, as one way of enhancing women’s careers. Taking a relational approach, an holistic gendered framework is proposed that situates relationships within the broader personal, organisational, societal and temporal context. Strategies are recommended to enhance personal and organisational relational awareness and acceptance, development of relational skills and support, as well as structural change to better align career paths to senior management with women’s career aspirations and realities. In doing so, this thesis aims to progress the discussion on the ways in which organisations and women can better support each other to promote workplace gender equity

    Refining the PoinTER “human firewall” pentesting framework

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    PurposePenetration tests have become a valuable tool in the cyber security defence strategy, in terms of detecting vulnerabilities. Although penetration testing has traditionally focused on technical aspects, the field has started to realise the importance of the human in the organisation, and the need to ensure that humans are resistant to cyber-attacks. To achieve this, some organisations “pentest” their employees, testing their resilience and ability to detect and repel human-targeted attacks. In a previous paper we reported on PoinTER (Prepare TEst Remediate), a human pentesting framework, tailored to the needs of SMEs. In this paper, we propose improvements to refine our framework. The improvements are based on a derived set of ethical principles that have been subjected to ethical scrutiny.MethodologyWe conducted a systematic literature review of academic research, a review of actual hacker techniques, industry recommendations and official body advice related to social engineering techniques. To meet our requirements to have an ethical human pentesting framework, we compiled a list of ethical principles from the research literature which we used to filter out techniques deemed unethical.FindingsDrawing on social engineering techniques from academic research, reported by the hacker community, industry recommendations and official body advice and subjecting each technique to ethical inspection, using a comprehensive list of ethical principles, we propose the refined GDPR compliant and privacy respecting PoinTER Framework. The list of ethical principles, we suggest, could also inform ethical technical pentests.OriginalityPrevious work has considered penetration testing humans, but few have produced a comprehensive framework such as PoinTER. PoinTER has been rigorously derived from multiple sources and ethically scrutinised through inspection, using a comprehensive list of ethical principles derived from the research literature

    Characteristics Statement: Doctoral Degree: February 2020

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    Methodological Innovation in Practice-Based Design Doctorates

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    This article presents a selective review of recent design PhDs that identify and analyse the methodological innovation that is occurring in the field, in order to inform future provision of research training. Six recently completed design PhDs are used to highlight possible philosophical and practical models that can be adopted by future PhD students in design. Four characteristics were found in design PhD methodology: innovations in the format and structure of the thesis, a pick-and-mix approach to research design, situating practice in the inquiry, and the validation of visual analysis. The article concludes by offering suggestions on how research training can be improved. By being aware of recent methodological innovations in the field, design educators will be better informed when developing resources for future design doctoral candidates and assisting supervision teams in developing a more informed and flexible approach to practice-based research

    Application and evaluation of sediment fingerprinting techniques in the Manawatu River catchment, New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Geography at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

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    Suspended sediment is an important component of the fluvial environment, contributing not only to the physical form, but also the chemical and ecological character of river channels and adjacent floodplains. Fluvial sediment flux reflects erosion of the contributing catchment, which when enhanced can lead to a reduction in agricultural productivity, effect morphological changes in the riparian environment and alter aquatic ecosystems by elevating turbidity levels and degrading water quality. It is therefore important to identify catchment-scale erosion processes and understand rates of sediment delivery, transport and deposition into the fluvial system to be able to mitigate such adverse effects. Sediment fingerprinting is a well-used tool for evaluating sediment sources, capable of directly quantifying sediment supply through differentiating sediment sources based on their inherent geochemical signatures and statistical modelling. Confluence-based sediment fingerprinting has achieved broad scale geochemical discrimination within the 5870 km2 Manawatu catchment, which drains terrain comprising soft-rock Tertiary and Quaternary sandstones, mudstones, limestones and more indurated greywacke. Multiple sediment samples were taken upstream and downstream of major river confluences, sieved to 40 and > 35 respectively. The revised mixing model estimated Mudstone terrain to contribute 59.3 % and 61.8 %, with significant contributions estimated from Mountain Range (12.0 % and 11.4 %) and Hill Surface (11.5 % and 11.3 %) respectively, indicating that Tm, Ni, Cu, Ca, P, Mn and Cr have an influence on these sediment source estimations

    Capturing tacit knowledge: Documenting and understanding recent methodological innovation used in Design Doctorates in order to inform Postgraduate training provision

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    This paper presents a preliminary review of recent Design PhDs that identify and analyse the methodological innovation that is occurring in the field, in order to inform future provision of research training for Design PhDs. Six recently completed Design PhDs are used to highlight possible philosophical and practical models that can be adopted by future PhD design students. Four characteristics were found in Design PhD methodology; thesis-structural innovation, a ‘pick and mix’ research design approach, situating practice in the enquiry and the validation of visual analysis. The paper concludes by offering suggestions on how research training can be improved for Design PhD candidates. By being aware of recent methodological innovations in the field, design educators will be better informed when developing resources for future design doctoral candidates, and assisting supervision teams in developing a more informed and flexible approach to practice-led research

    Interactive transfer guide: sharing knowledge from the ESRALE project

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    The Interactive Transfer Guide (ITG) is an expert resource that summarises and points users to where they can find the full details of the distinctive knowledge developed as part of the ESRALE project, including the key outputs and lessons learned. It is designed to be used by a range of parties interested in developing and innovating the professional provision of adult education across Europe

    Pakistani learners' transition into university : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Education at Massey University, Manawatƫ, New Zealand

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    This study aimed to explore the experiences of Pakistani learners in their transition to university, and to understand how they adapted to the new learning culture in university. Key factors explored included the influence of Pakistani learners’ expectations of and preparedness for university, prior learning experiences and medium of instruction on their transition into university. The research used a mixed methods approach in which data was collected sequentially. The study began with a quantitative questionnaire conducted with 154 first-year undergraduate students enrolled in four majors in the Bachelor of Studies in a public sector university in Pakistan. This was followed by the qualitative phase which consisted of three semi-structured interview rounds with 14 students selected from the participants in the questionnaire that was undertaken over the first semester of their enrolment. The quantitative findings provided a broad picture of the adaptation experiences of the learners and the influence of learners’ prior learning experiences and medium of instruction on their transition experiences. The qualitative findings also provided deeper insights into the transition experiences and how these were influenced and shaped by various pre-university and post-shift factors. Finally, the integration of the two sets of findings provided a more comprehensive understanding of the transition process and how the learners formulated new identities as independent university learners for successful transition into university. The findings of this study revealed that many of the transition experiences of the Pakistani learners in this study are similar to those in the international settings. However, some experiences are of a different nature due to Pakistan’s educational, cultural and historical background as a post-colonial nation. In particular, the country’s parallel public/private school education system and the Urdu/English dual medium of instruction policy have a significant influence on the learners’ transition into university, in shaping the adaptation experiences and the whole transition process. As a result of this study, it is suggested that there is a need to reform the school education system and to review education policies in order to bridge the gap between the school/college and university education and make transition into university a smoother process

    Marine science from cartographic viewpoint: from research to education in Hungary | Tengertan térképészet szemmel: a kutatåstól az oktatåsig Magyarorszågon

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    KĂ©t Ă©s fĂ©l Ă©vtizedes magyar kutatĂĄsok, valamint a tĂ©mĂĄhoz kapcsolĂłdĂł kĂŒlföldi szakirodalom magyar adaptĂĄciĂłja Ă©s szintĂ©zise eredmĂ©nyekĂ©ppen, ma mĂĄr korszerƱ Ă©s elegendƑ tudĂĄssal rendelkezĂŒnk ahhoz, hogy a tengerfenĂ©knek a szĂĄrazföldek leĂ­rĂłföldrajzĂĄhoz hasonlĂł rĂ©szletessĂ©gƱ leĂ­rĂĄsĂĄt adjuk. Ez adta az ötletet, hogy kurzust szervezzĂŒnk a Miskolci Ă©s a Szegedi Egyetemen „Tengertan I. – MorfolĂłgia”, illetve „Tengertan tĂ©rkĂ©pĂ©sz szemmel” cĂ­mmel. Jelen tanulmĂĄnyban összegzem kutatĂĄsaim törtĂ©netĂ©t, hĂĄlĂĄs tisztelettel Klinghammer IstvĂĄn professzor Ășrnak. A tudomĂĄnyos munkĂĄssĂĄgomhoz kapcsolĂłdĂł sikerek kĂ©t idƑszakra Ă©s kĂ©t kĂŒlönbözƑ hasznosĂ­tĂĄsi terĂŒletre oszthatĂłk. Az elsƑ idƑszakban (1974–90) az eredmĂ©nyek gyakorlati hasznosulĂĄsa jellemzƑ, nem vĂ©letlenĂŒl, hiszen ekkor a KartogrĂĄfiai VĂĄllalat munkatĂĄrsa voltam. MĂ­g a mĂĄsodik – nagyjĂĄbĂłl az 1990-es Ă©vek elejĂ©n elkezdƑdött – idƑszakban az ELTE oktatĂłjakĂ©nt a kutatĂĄs ĂĄttevƑdött az egyetemre, hallgatĂłk bevonĂĄsĂĄval folyt, de az ezredfordulĂł elejĂ©ig „csak” nemzetközi visszhangot is kivĂĄltĂł elmĂ©leti eredmĂ©nyek szĂŒlettek, az eredmĂ©nyek ugyan folyamatosan beĂ©pĂŒltek az oktatĂĄsba, azonban „lĂĄtvĂĄnyosabb hasznosĂ­tĂĄsuk” kĂŒlönbözƑ kiadvĂĄnyokban csak 2003 Ă©s 2004 folyamĂĄn valĂłsulhatott meg. SzĂŒksĂ©gesnek lĂĄtom azonban a fizikai oceanogrĂĄfia eredmĂ©nyeinek tĂ©rkĂ©pi szintĂ©zisĂ©t, összegzĂ©sĂ©t Ă©s „honosĂ­tĂĄsĂĄt” is. A 2004-ben a TopogrĂĄf–NyĂ­r-Karta kiadta „Nagy VilĂĄgatlaszba” elkĂ©szĂ­tettem a 32 oldalas TENGERFENÉK-DOMBORZAT cĂ­mƱ fejezetet. A kiadĂłval tovĂĄbbi 40 oldalnyi tematikus tĂ©rkĂ©ppel kibƑvĂ­tett kiadĂĄsrĂłl tĂĄrgyalunk, a felsƑoktatĂĄs Ă©s a doktorkĂ©pzĂ©s szĂĄmĂĄra. After having pursued research of marine science for two and half decades, and after having synthesized international literature on this discipline and adapted it to the Hungarian language, we are in possession of a level of modern knowledge sufficient to give a detailed and adequate description of the seafloor, similar to descriptive geography of continents. This gave us the idea to organize a course at the University of Miskolc and Szeged as well with the titles „Marine Science I – Morphology”and „Marine Science from Cartographic Viewpoint”. This paper gives a summary of the history of this research, with grateful respects to Professor IstvĂĄn Klinghammer. My achievements in research can be divided in two periods fundamentally different in practical respect. In the first period (1974–90), when I was working for the KartogrĂĄfiai VĂĄllalat, my results were typically utilized in practice. During the second period, which began in the early 1990s, being a lecturer at Eötvös LorĂĄnd University, I transferred my research to the university, where several students joined the project. Until the first years of the new millennium, we could „only” achieve theoretical results; although these results elicited international reaction and were incorporated in education, they could be utilized in various publications „spectacularly” only during 2003 and 2004. I also find the cartographical synthesis, summary and „nationalization” of results of physical oceanography important. I prepared a chapter of 32 pages with the title „Seafloor Relief”, which was published in 2004 by TopogrĂĄf–NyĂ­r-Karta in their „Great World Atlas”. We are negotiating with the publishing company about a more comprehensive publication including 40 new pages of thematic maps for the university and postgraduate training

    A culturally-focused life cycle sustainability assessment: Analysis of forestry value chain options with Māori land owners : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Doctor of Philosophy in Life Cycle Management At Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

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    The purpose of this research was to 1) explore the potential for the more distinctive representation of Māori culture in Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA), and 2) understand the relationship between culturally-focused LCSA and the Māori decisionmaking process. These two interrelated aspects were investigated through participatory engagement with three members of the Ngāti Porou iwi (tribe), and through collaborative development of three forestry LCSA scenarios (radiata pine, rimu, and mānuka). Aligning with principles of kaupapa Māori research, a participatory LCSA methodology approach was created which encapsulated five phases: 1) understand Ngāti Porou aspirations and concerns, 2) co-develop options for forestry scenarios, 3) co-develop and select LCSA indicators (including a cultural indicator), 4) LCSA indicator data collection and modelling, and 5) communication of results. The methodology utilised a mixed methods approach as Stage 1, 2, 3, and 5 are predominantly qualitative while Stage 4 is predominantly quantitative. Culture was represented in the participatory LCSA in two ways. Firstly, a bespoke cultural indicator (Cultural Indicator Matrix) was co-developed to distinctly include culture within LCSA. The Cultural Indicator Matrix was based on and adapted an existing cultural decision-making framework (i.e. the Mauri Model) in order to ensure its capability to represent both Ngāti Porou aspirations and the forestry value chains explored in this research. The Cultural Indicator Matrix was completed by each participant and subjectively measured the impact they perceived each forestry process or product had upon a range of Ngāti Porou aspirations. Secondly, a participatory research approach was utilised that itself made the LCSA process more culturally-focused. The participatory approach relied on active engagement with the research participants throughout the LCSA study, primarily with the utilisation of semi-structured interviews. Such collaborative participatory engagement with the research participants allowed for their cultural input, preferences, and knowledge at each stage of the LCSA process. This research has yielded several original and meaningful results: 1. The Cultural Indicator Matrix is a new culturally-focused mechanism which can be used to support the Māori decision-making process. The participants viewed the Cultural Indicator Matrix as an effective method for gathering community impressions of how potential forestry life cycle processes could impact upon their cultural aspirations. 2. The participants felt the participatory LCSA aspect was crucially important; the open and consistent communication between themselves and the LCSA practitioner provided them with more control, access to information, understanding of the LCSA process, and enhanced their acceptance of the final results. They considered that the results of the culturally-focused LCSA gave them “validation” and “direction”, and justified their interests in pursuing forestry options for their land. 3. The participatory LCSA process led to the identification of a need to formally include a Cultural Compliance process with the LCSA. The Cultural Compliance process is comprised of six cultural components occurring throughout the forestry life cycle. Recognition of these components helps to ensure that appropriate and necessary cultural considerations are taken into account during relevant forestry life cycle processes. It is unlikely that this insight would have been reached if not for the participatory engagement focus of this LCSA research. 4. The development and analysis of three forestry scenarios using a range of sustainability indicators generated distinctive datasets on the life cycles of radiata pine, rimu, and mānuka. As the rimu and mānuka scenarios are particularly underrepresented in forestry-life cycle literature, this research has provided a contribution to knowledge regarding these two forestry options. For the first time, indigenous culture has been represented alongside economic, social, and environmental impacts in LCSA. This comprehensive presentation of results facilitates the decision-making process by providing the decision maker(s) with information about the “big picture”, thus supporting educated and informed decisions. Furthermore, a culturally-focused LCSA approach helps to ensure that culture is not lost during the decision-making process, but rather is an active component. Finally, of critical importance, both the culturally-focused LCSA process and associated results will further enable the recognition cultural groups, including their values and aspirations. The explicit acknowledgement of culture in LCSA will engender more awareness and protection for culture, lessen the isolation and marginalisation of culture, and empower cultural groups to develop and pursue brave choices
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