3,090,510 research outputs found

    Modeling Infectious Diseases : Two Strain Diseases in Metapopulations

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    Infectious diseases often mutate and are carried between regions. We consider a mathematical model which begins to account for these factors. We assume two disjoint populations that only occasionally comingle, and two strains of a disease present in these populations. Of interest are the equations describing the dynamics of this system, the conditions under which epidemics will occur, and the long term behavior of the system under various initial conditions. We find that in many ways this system is similar to a simpler one-population model. However, we find evidence that there may be conditions under which both disease strains can coexist, other than the expected case where both strains are of equal strength

    Old Diseases'

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    Availability, price, and affordability of essential medicines to manage noncommunicable diseases : a national survey from Nepal

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    The aim of this study was to evaluate the availability, price, and affordability of essential noncommunicable disease (NCD) medicines in Nepal. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Nepal in 2015 using World Health Organization/Health Action International (WHO/HAI) methodology. We collected data on the availability and price of 60 essential NCD medicines from medicine distribution outlets in both the public and private health care sectors in 6 regions. Essential NCD medicines were more available in the private sector (78%) than the public sector (60%). Furosemide tablets were the cheapest (NPR 0.6/10 tablets) and streptokinase injections were the most expensive (NPR 2200/vial) drugs. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in availability and affordability of essential NCD medicines across the 6 survey areas. Treating selected NCD conditions with medicines was generally affordable, with 1 month of treatment costing no more than a day’s wage of the lowest paid unskilled government worker. The lower availability of NCD medicines in the public sector limits the effectiveness of the government’s policy of providing free health services at public facilities. Although NCD medicines were generally affordable, future health policy should aim to ensure improved equitable access to NCD medicines, particularly in public facilities

    Combating Kinetoplastid Diseases

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    Vector borne diseases

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    A vector-borne disease is one in which the pathogenic microorganism is transmitted from an infected individual to another individual by an arthropod or other agent. The transmission depends upon the attributes and requirements of at least three different Iiving organisms : the pathologic agent which is either a virus, protozoa, bacteria or helminth (worm); the vector, which is commonly an arthropod such as ticks or mosquitoes; and the human host.peer-reviewe

    IDCR: Infectious Diseases in Corrections Report, Vol. 7 No. 12

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