23,645 research outputs found

    Community engagement in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis research in Brazil, Ethiopia, and Sri Lanka: A decolonial approach for global health.

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    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a parasitic skin disease endemic in at least 88 countries where it presents an urgent, albeit often "neglected" public health problem. In this paper, we discuss our model of decolonial community engagement in the ECLIPSE global health research program, which aims to improve physical and mental health outcomes for people with CL. The ECLIPSE program has four interlinked phases and underpinning each of these phases is sustained and robust community engagement and involvement that guides and informs all activities in ECLIPSE. Our decolonial approach implies that the model for community engagement will be different in Brazil, Ethiopia and Sri Lanka. Indeed, we adopt a critical anthropological approach to engaging with community members and it is precisely this approach we evaluate in this paper. The data and material we draw on were collected through qualitative research methods during community engagement activities. We established 13 Community Advisory Groups (CAGs): in Brazil ( = 4), Ethiopia ( = 6), and Sri Lanka ( = 3). We identified four overarching themes during a thematic analysis of the data set: (1) Establishing community advisory groups, (2) CAG membership and community representation, (3) Culturally appropriate and context-bespoke engagement, and (4) Relationships between researchers and community members. During our first period of ECLIPSE community engagement, we have debunked myths (for instance about communities being "disempowered"), critiqued our own practices (changing approaches in bringing together CAG members) and celebrated successes (notably fruitful online engagement during a challenging COVID-19 pandemic context). Our evaluation revealed a gap between the exemplary community engagement frameworks available in the literature and the messy, everyday reality of working in communities. In the ECLIPSE program, we have translated ideal(istic) principles espoused by such community engagement guidance into the practical realities of "doing engagement" in low-resourced communities. Our community engagement was underpinned by such ideal principles, but adapted to local sociocultural contexts, working within certain funding and regulatory constraints imposed on researchers. We conclude with a set of lessons learned and recommendations for the conduct of decolonial community engagement in global health research. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2022 Polidano, Parton, Agampodi, Agampodi, Haileselassie, Lalani, Mota, Price, Rodrigues, Tafere, Trad, Zerihun and Dikomitis.

    Consent and the Construction of the Volunteer: Institutional Settings of Experimental Research on Human Beings in Britain during the Cold War

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    This study challenges the primacy of consent in the history of human experimentation and argues that privileging the cultural frameworks adds nuance to our understanding of the construction of the volunteer in the period 1945 to 1970. Historians and bio-ethicists have argued that medical ethics codes have marked out the parameters of using people as subjects in medical scientific research and that the consent of the subjects was fundamental to their status as volunteers. However, the temporality of the creation of medical ethics codes means that they need to be understood within their historical context. That medical ethics codes arose from a specific historical context rather than a concerted and conscious determination to safeguard the well-being of subjects needs to be acknowledged. The British context of human experimentation is under-researched and there has been even less focus on the cultural frameworks within which experiments took place. This study demonstrates, through a close analysis of the Medical Research Council's Common Cold Research Unit (CCRU) and the government's military research facility, the Chemical Defence Experimental Establishment, Porton Down (Porton), that the `volunteer' in human experiments was a subjective entity whose identity was specific to the institution which recruited and made use of the subject. By examining representations of volunteers in the British press, the rhetoric of the government's collectivist agenda becomes evident and this fed into the institutional construction of the volunteer at the CCRU. In contrast, discussions between Porton scientists, staff members, and government officials demonstrate that the use of military personnel in secret chemical warfare experiments was far more complex. Conflicting interests of the military, the government and the scientific imperative affected how the military volunteer was perceived

    Implementing Health Impact Assessment as a Required Component of Government Policymaking: A Multi-Level Exploration of the Determinants of Healthy Public Policy

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    It is widely understood that the public policies of ‘non-health’ government sectors have greater impacts on population health than those of the traditional healthcare realm. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a decision support tool that identifies and promotes the health benefits of policies while also mitigating their unintended negative consequences. Despite numerous calls to do so, the Ontario government has yet to implement HIA as a required component of policy development. This dissertation therefore sought to identify the contexts and factors that may both enable and impede HIA use at the sub-national (i.e., provincial, territorial, or state) government level. The three integrated articles of this dissertation provide insights into specific aspects of the policy process as they relate to HIA. Chapter one details a case study of purposive information-seeking among public servants within Ontario’s Ministry of Education (MOE). Situated within Ontario’s Ministry of Health (MOH), chapter two presents a case study of policy collaboration between health and ‘non-health’ ministries. Finally, chapter three details a framework analysis of the political factors supporting health impact tool use in two sub-national jurisdictions – namely, Québec and South Australia. MOE respondents (N=9) identified four components of policymaking ‘due diligence’, including evidence retrieval, consultation and collaboration, referencing, and risk analysis. As prospective HIA users, they also confirmed that information is not routinely sought to mitigate the potential negative health impacts of education-based policies. MOH respondents (N=8) identified the bureaucratic hierarchy as the brokering mechanism for inter-ministerial policy development. As prospective HIA stewards, they also confirmed that the ministry does not proactively flag the potential negative health impacts of non-health sector policies. Finally, ‘lessons learned’ from case articles specific to Québec (n=12) and South Australia (n=17) identified the political factors supporting tool use at different stages of the policy cycle, including agenda setting (‘policy elites’ and ‘political culture’), implementation (‘jurisdiction’), and sustained implementation (‘institutional power’). This work provides important insights into ‘real life’ policymaking. By highlighting existing facilitators of and barriers to HIA use, the findings offer a useful starting point from which proponents may tailor context-specific strategies to sustainably implement HIA at the sub-national government level

    The Right to Exist: The Position of Universal Basic Income in the Works of the Most Influential Contemporary Philosophers

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    Universal Basic Income has become a popular idea in the last few decades even though one can find its roots in the earlier centuries. In this thesis, I have examined the position of UBI in the works of the most influential contemporary philosophers. By connecting the idea of UBI with some certain concepts from different philosophers, I aimed to improve the overall understanding of UBI. I have mentioned the concepts such as "labor", "leisure", "idleness", "boredom", "poverty", "inequality", "distribution", "happiness", "power", "needs", "truth", "alienation", etc. I have used a literature methodology for my research. I have tried to read and relate the concept of UBI with the works of 10 philosophers: Arthur Schopenhauer, Karl Marx, William James, Bertrand Russell, Michel Foucault, John Rawls, Robert Nozick, Noam Chomsky, Slavoj Zizek, Peter Singer

    MUFFLE: Multi-Modal Fake News Influence Estimator on Twitter

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    To alleviate the impact of fake news on our society, predicting the popularity of fake news posts on social media is a crucial problem worthy of study. However, most related studies on fake news emphasize detection only. In this paper, we focus on the issue of fake news influence prediction, i.e., inferring how popular a fake news post might become on social platforms. To achieve our goal, we propose a comprehensive framework, MUFFLE, which captures multi-modal dynamics by encoding the representation of news-related social networks, user characteristics, and content in text. The attention mechanism developed in the model can provide explainability for social or psychological analysis. To examine the effectiveness of MUFFLE, we conducted extensive experiments on real-world datasets. The experimental results show that our proposed method outperforms both state-of-the-art methods of popularity prediction and machine-based baselines in top-k NDCG and hit rate. Through the experiments, we also analyze the feature importance for predicting fake news influence via the explainability provided by MUFFLE

    Valores Públicos e Performance Financeira das Entidades Públicas: Proposta de Modelo de Análise na Perspetiva do Relato

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    Tese de Doutoramento em Administração Pública Especialização em Administração e Políticas PúblicasA criação de valor público, na qual a Administração Pública assume um papel fundamental, deverá traduzir o interesse dos cidadãos e nortear-se por um conjunto abrangente de valores públicos. Estes valores públicos, amplos, complexos e divergentes, devem integrar o modelo de governança democrática, suportar a tomada de decisão e servir de referência para a Administração Pública, na prossecução do interesse público. Tendo por base os modelos de governação pública, a Teoria do Valor Público e a Teoria do Interesse Público, bem como as dimensões dos valores públicos apontadas por stakeholders e influencers da informação financeira pública, procurou estudar-se de que forma os valores públicos, que materializam o interesse público, podem integrar na sua função de accountability, a avaliação e a análise da performance financeira na perspetiva da prestação de contas das entidades públicas. Nesse sentido, o estudo pretendeu identificar quais os valores públicos de natureza económica e financeira que interessam aos stakeholders e enquadrá-los num modelo estruturado de análise da financeira, que contribua para o reforço da performance accountability e transparência do relato financeiro público. A partir de uma estratégia de investigação mista, materializada na realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas e no ensaio aplicado sobre os dados financeiros do Município de Cascais, a investigação desenvolveu um modelo de análise e relato da performance financeira com vista a integrar a prestação de contas das entidades públicas, tendo como referência basilar não a ótica contabilística da estrutura e conteúdo das demonstrações financeiras, mas os «valores públicos» que consubstanciam o «interesse público». Conclui-se que este modelo favorece a adequação do relato financeiro público aos valores públicos, bem como representa um contributo para a normalização da avaliação da performance, reduzindo a discricionariedade do relato, melhorando o benchmarking financeiro e o robustecimento do sistema de avaliação do desempenho das entidades públicas previsto na Lei de Enquadramento Orçamental.The creation of public value, in which the Public Administration plays a key role, should translate the citizens' interest and be guided by a comprehensive set of public values. These public values, broad, complex and divergent, should integrate the democratic governance model, support decision-making, and serve as a reference for the Public Administration in the pursuit of public interest. Based on the models of public governance, the Public Interest Theory and the Theory of Public Values, as well as the dimensions of public values pointed out by stakeholders and influencers of public financial information, we sought to study how public values, which materialize public interest, can integrate into the function of accountability, the evaluation and analysis of financial performance from the perspective of accountability of public entities. In this sense, the study intended to identify which public values of economic and financial nature are of interest to the stakeholders and frame them in a structured model of financial performance analysis, which contributes to the strengthening of accountability and transparency of public financial reporting. Based on a mixed research strategy, materialized in semi-structured interviews and the test applied on the financial data of the Municipality of Cascais, the research developed a model of analysis and reporting of the financial performance to integrate the accountability of public entities. This was done having as an essential reference not the accounting perspective of the structure and content of the financial statements, but the "public values" that embody the "public interest". The conclusion is that this model favours the adequacy of public financial reporting to public values and represents a contribution to the standardization of performance evaluation, reducing the discretion of reporting, improving financial benchmarking, and strengthening the performance evaluation system of public entities foreseen in the Budgetary Framework Law.N/
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