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    Bentuk Khazanah Ekoleksikon Pertanian Bahasa Waijewa

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    Tulisan singkat ini membahas tentang bentuk kekayaan ekoleksikon pertanian dalam bahasa Waijewa (BW). Khazanah bahasa diciptakan tidak terlepas dari lingkungan dimana bahasa itu hidup karena digunakan oleh penuturnya dalam lingkungannya. Dengan mengaplikasikan teori ekolinguistik yang dikemukakan oleh Haugen (1972) dan menggunakan metode deskriptif analisis data lingual BW ini dijelaskan. Berdasarkan hasil analisis data dapat disimpulkan bahwa bentuk ekoleksikon pertanian BW dikategorikan dalam bentuk nomina, verba dan adjektiva yang secara morfologis, ekoleksikon pertanian yang berkategori nomina dalam BW terbentuk dari dua kategori kata, yakni NOMINA+ ADJEKTIVA dan NOMINA + NOMINA. Ekoleksikon BW kategori verba terdiri atas verba asal dan verba turunan berbentuk kata majemuk. Dan yang termasuk ke dalam kategori adjektiva, secara semantik dapat menyatakan taraf atau tingkatan dan tidak bertaraf yang meliputi ukuran, warna, dan cerapan yang terkait dengan pancaindera

    No. 24: South Africa\u27s Two Diasporas: Engagement and Disengagement

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    The African diaspora is increasingly viewed as a key to realizing the development potential of international migration. At the same time, there remains considerable confusion about who exactly constitutes the diaspora and which groups should be targeted for ‚Äúdiaspora engagement.‚ÄĚ For some, the diaspora consists of all migrants of African birth living outside Africa. The African Union‚Äôs definition of the African diaspora, for example, ‚Äúcomprises people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality.‚ÄĚ The World Bank goes a step further to distinguish between an involuntary and a voluntary, a historical and a contemporary, component of the diaspora: ‚ÄúOver four million voluntary immigrants of African origin reside in the West. This ‚Äėvoluntary‚Äô Diaspora is distinct from the vastly larger ‚Äėinvoluntary‚Äô Diaspora that populates North America, Europe, the Caribbean, and Brazil. On matters of African development, however, the interests of both groups often intersect.‚ÄĚ Despite differences of emphasis, most definitions of the African diaspora in the migration and development literature agree on two things. First, the African diaspora is located outside the continent, usually in several different countries or regions but primarily in the North. Second, membership of the African diaspora is predicated on an interest or involvement in African development. Former South African President Thabo Mbeki, for example, conveyed both messages when he argued at the 2007 African Ministerial Diaspora Conference that ‚Äúthere is an urgent need for knowledge sharing and economic cooperation between Africa and the Diaspora.‚ÄĚ The African Union similarly notes that members of the Diaspora must be ‚Äúwilling to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union.‚ÄĚ Clearly, the African Union and African governments have little interest in engaging with those who have turned their backs on Africa for a new life elsewhere. From that standpoint, a definition of the diaspora that demands actual or potential engagement in African development makes perfect sense. What does not make sense is the idea that diaspora individuals and groups are located exclusively outside Africa. Perhaps, as Bakewell notes, this is not surprising for ‚Äúthese tend to be wealthier, better-educated and more organized groups‚ÄĚ with easier access to donor and African government officials and business groups across the globe. This may well be true, but it is also elitist, ignoring the much larger number of ordinary migrants whose ‚Äúhidden‚ÄĚ contributions to development go largely uncelebrated and unrecorded (except perhaps in aggregate remittance statistics). There is no reason why the African diaspora should not include all migrants who maintain links with Africa, and the many migrants from Africa who live and work in other African countries. This paper argues for a spatially inclusive definition of the African diaspora that encompasses all migrants of African origin wherever they live so long as they are outside their country of origin. This would include people of African origin (not just first-generation migrants) resident in the North, in the South and, crucially, in Africa itself. There are, in other words, African diasporas outside Africa and African diasporas within Africa, and the two are often closely connected. Accordingly, this paper: (a) Discusses the development rationale for a revised definition of the African diaspora, which encompasses African migrants living in other countries within the continent (b) Discusses the case of South Africa, which is a major African migrant country of origin and destination (c) Compares the African diaspora in South Africa and the South African diaspora outside South Africa (d) Reflects on the general relevance of the South African case study for our understanding of the role of the diaspora in African development

    Redefining Diaspora through a Phenomenology of Postmemory

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    This article seeks to intervene in the debates about the definition of diaspora by attending to the way in which it is a phenomenon, rooted in a particular kind of experience and consciousness. This approach seeks to move beyond ontological definitions based on categorical criteria toward a more phenomenological definition that can help us better understand the lived experience of diasporic subjects and the formation of diasporic communities. While these groups do not exist as entities that have some common essence or nature, I insist that they do exist phenomonologically. Rather than an objective, prescriptive definition of diaspora, this essay explores the subjective, descriptive quality of diaspora when approached from the inside, as an experience. A phenomenological approach, therefore, can rescue the term diaspora from its overextensions and case-specific limitations. A key consideration will be the role of memory in creating the phenomenon of diaspora. Diaspora must be understood as a phenomenon that emerges when displaced subjects who experience the loss of an "origin" (whether literal or symbolic) perpetuate identifications associated with those places of origin in subsequent generations through the mechanisms of postmemory

    Armenia: What drives first movers and how can their efforts be scaled up?

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    The paper examines ways to expand the contribution of the Armenian diaspora to Armenia’s long-term development agenda. It identifies factors that could explain the involvement and dynamics of a small group of entrepreneurs from the diaspora who have been active in and with Armenia. Based on these findings, it develops recommendations, consistent with the diaspora’s institutional capabilities, for increasing the number of such business activists and transforming diaspora efforts from humanitarian relief campaigns to business initiatives and development projects. The findings are based on detailed interviews with a group of prominent diaspora activists.diaspora, Armenia, diaspora mobilization, diaspora expertise for development

    Four types of diaspora mobilization : Albanian diaspora activism for Kosovo independence in the US and the UK

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    This comparative study explores the conditions and causal pathways through which conflict-generated diasporas become moderate or radical actors when linked to homelands experiencing limited sovereignty. Situated at the nexus of scholarship on diasporas and conflict, ethnic lobbying in foreign policy, and transnationalism this article develops four types of diaspora political mobilization‚ÄĒradical (strong and weak) and moderate (strong and weak)‚ÄĒand unpacks the causal pathways that lead to these four types in different political contexts. I argue that dynamics in the original homeland drive the overall trend towards radicalism or moderation of diaspora mobilization in a host-land: high levels of violence are associated with radicalism, and low levels with moderation. Nevertheless, how diaspora mobilization takes place is a result of the conjuncture of the level of violence with another variable, the linkages of the main secessionist elites to the diaspora. The article uses observations from eight cases of Albanian diaspora mobilization in the US and the UK from 1989 until the proclamation of Kosovo's independence in 2008

    Transnational transitional justice and reconciliation: the participation of conflict-generated diaspora in addressing the legacy of mass violence

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    This paper is a preliminary exploration of the role that conflict-generated diaspora communities can play in transitional justice and processes of reconciliation. The aim is to consider what potential there is for tapping into diaspora communities and the possible benefits this could have on diasporas themselves and on peacebuilding processes in the homeland. The goal is also to explore and reflect on ways in which reconciliatory attitudes can be encouraged among diaspora communities, as well as their participation in transnational activities. The paper begins by providing a brief overview of diasporas, followed by a discussion on relationships and attitudes within conflict-generated diaspora communities in the aftermath of violence. The paper then explores the various roles that diasporas can play in transitional justice, such as providing input to strategies and participating in established mechanisms; or mobilizing on their own to push for transitional justice measures. This is followed by a brief look at diaspora involvement in other processes of reconciliation, including dialogue and media initiatives. The paper then discusses how integration policies and outcomes in the hostland can influence the views of diasporas and their involvement with the homeland. The paper concludes with challenges related to diaspora participation and some overall reflections

    No. 26: Social Media, The Internet and Diasporas for Development

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    The recent focus on diasporas by policy-makers researchers has highlighted the rich potential of migrants as a force for shaping development activities in their countries of origin. The study of diasporas in development presents researchers a number of significant challenges. As Vertovec and Cohen suggest, ‚Äėone of the major changes in migration patterns is the growth of populations anchored ‚Ķ neither at their places of origin nor at their places of destination‚Äô. The fluid, multi-sited and multi-generational nature of diaspora groupings poses considerable methodological challenges of definition, identification, location, sampling and interviewing. As the nature of African diasporas are constantly in flux so too should the methodologies we use to study them. In practice, traditional approaches lead to the same methodological roadblocks. Census and immigration data (particularly from destination countries) can provide an overall picture of diaspora stocks, flows and locations. However, privacy issues generally preclude these sources from providing disaggregated data at the level of the individual migrant or migrant household. Surveys of diaspora members have therefore become the standard means of collecting information on diaspora characteristics, identities, activities and linkages. This immediately raises a set of problems and challenges. Census data can tell us the size of the population to sample but not who the individuals are, where they live and how to contact them. Without a sampling frame, researchers tend to rely instead on ‚Äėsnowball‚Äô, ‚Äėpurposive‚Äô or ‚Äėconvenience‚Äô sampling. This has produced a disproportionate number of studies that rely on key informant and focus group interviews in order to create a profile of diasporas and their development-related activities. Diasporas are often geographically dispersed within a country and across different countries. Cost and time constraints and the bias of snowball and convenience sampling lead to a focus on sub-sets. Studies of diaspora members in particular cities or regions are especially common. While sample sizes vary considerably, there is a marked reliance on very small samples, which raises obvious questions about the representativeness and generalizability of the findings. The mail-out survey is still the preferred method of reaching members of a geographically dispersed diaspora, although response rates remain stubbornly low. To contact members of the diaspora, mailing lists are compiled from organizations that keep, and are willing to share, membership lists (such as diaspora organizations, embassies, alumni associations, immigrant service agencies and religious organizations). However, this means an inherent sampling bias since data collected from these individuals and groups has the potential to be skewed towards diaspora members actively engaged with their origin country. This method of ‚Äėaccessing the diaspora through the diaspora‚Äô is also unlikely to provide much information on ‚Äėhidden‚Äô members of a diaspora whose immigration status may be undocumented or uncertain and who are wary of disclosing personal information directly to researchers. Researchers have also noted that members of vulnerable populations such as asylum seekers and refugees might be reluctant to provide personal information due to fear and trust issues. To identify and connect with larger numbers, different strategies need to be adopted. In this context, the potential of the internet has rarely been considered. Since the advent of the internet age, more than one billion people have become connected to the World Wide Web (WWW), creating seemingly limitless opportunities for communication. The past decade has also seen a major increase in the use of the internet by diaspora individuals and groupings. The internet has not only facilitated remittance transfers, but has increased communication among and between diasporas and influenced the formation of diasporic identities. In this context, the potential of web-based methodologies in diaspora research appears promising. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, we argue for supplementing conventional approaches with new methodologies that embrace the connectivity of diasporas, the emergence of social media and the potential of online surveys. Second, we illustrate the potential of this approach through discussion of the methods adopted in our current research on the African diaspora in Canada

    The power of the strong state: A comparative analysis of the diaspora engagement strategies of India and Ethiopia

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    Migrant-sending countries are increasingly exploring schemes where human capital of expatriates can be used for the benefit of the home country's socioeconomic development. This paper focuses on the mechanisms of emigration management and problematizes the government involvement in diaspora engagement. By exploring the two cases of diaspora engagement policies, namely, that of India and Ethiopia, the paper questions the success of government mechanisms, establishing the conditions under which these mechanisms lead to political and economic benefit from the diaspora. Although countries differ immensely in various aspects, Ethiopia modeled its diaspora policy after the case of India, which provides us with a good case for establishing the necessary conditions. Both countries see diaspora as a key resource in economic development of respective countries and have therefore invested significant resources into developing institutions and policies to engage diaspora. Nevertheless, there are some major differences between the countries, in terms of the countries' resources and capacities to design and implement diaspora engagement policies and also in the composition of migrant communities. While Indian migration has always had an economic component, the Ethiopian Diaspora is primarily characterized by refugee flows. Moreover, India has a long history of migration and one of the largest migrant communities in the world. The paper argues that government resources and capacities to design and implement policies and the composition of migrant communities play a key role in determining the approach governments adopt with their diasporas.diaspora, migration, diaspora engagement policy, diaspora engagement, institutions, India, Ethiopia

    Kenyan Diaspora Philanthropy: Key Practices, Trends and Issues

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    Describes key trends in giving by the U.S. African diaspora; perspectives, social customs, and institutions of Kenyan philanthropy; how the U.S. diaspora adapt their practices, including with technology; and recommendations for expanding scale and impact
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