1,778 research outputs found

    Cereales de invierno

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    En esta obra se estudian diversos aspectos referentes al trigo y la cebada como principales cereales de invierno: origen, morfología, fisiología, cultivo —incluyendo el impacto de enfermedades, plagas, malezas y manejo de la fertilización nitrogenada— calidad, comercialización y mejoramiento de estos cereales.Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestale

    Undergraduate and Graduate Course Descriptions, 2023 Spring

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    Wright State University undergraduate and graduate course descriptions from Spring 2023

    Assessing Fish Communities and Habitat Dynamics at the North Platte River-Lake Mcconaughy Interface: Implications for Conservation and Management

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    The river-reservoir interface (RRI) provides dynamic habitat heterogeneity that influences fish communities within the reservoir and the tributary upstream. However, little is known about the North Platte River-Lake McConaughy interface. Thus, the objectives of this research were to: 1) describe fish assemblages in the North Platte River and relate their temporal differences to water quality and physical habitat parameters; and 2) compare young fish communities collected with different gears in the upper reservoir. Twenty-nine species were collected across four habitat types in the North Platte River above Lake McConaughy. Main and side channel habitats were more consistently available throughout the summer. Backwater habitats declined in abundance, and back eddies disappeared. Species richness and Shannon’s diversity were highest in backwaters. Fish communities were somewhat similar between the habitat types, but some species were more or less abundant in some habitats. Water quality did not differ between habitat types. However, discharge and water temperature appeared to influence community composition. In upper Lake McConaughy, I captured 21 taxa across four sampling gears. Fewer species were captured with the gears used in the earlier time period compared to the gears used later time period. Species richness, Shannon’s diversity, and relative abundance were highest for seines and lowest for tow nets. Boat-mounted electrofishing appeared to be the most efficient gear. Similarities were noted in fish communities between the two time periods, but abundance of individual species varied between time periods. This study provides updated and new information on fish communities in the North Platte River-Lake McConaughy system. Selecting the sampling gear or gears that best meet sampling objectives is important for understanding fish communities in RRIs. With such sampling information, fisheries managers may be able to identify water management strategies that provide habitats for fish communities in unique ecotones such as the RRI

    Mouldable Solids: Exploring Organisational Grid Strategies to Enhance Mud Architecture

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    Mud is a material with deep origins in human ecology and vernacular architecture. Despite housing one-third of the world’s population and almost half in developing countries, the application of mud as a building material has diminished over the years, perhaps due to a worldwide application of industrialised building materials and practices, as well as the perception of mud as a primitive material. On the contrary, mud is cheap, reusable and sustainable yet critical challenges relate to material behaviour and performance. The researcher takes the standpoint that mud architecture is a material practice and explores organisational grids consisting of skin and skeleton to enhance structural performance. Three areas of interest combine to demonstrate how mud as a material operates in a contemporary context: (1) The Natural Philosophy of Aristotle and ibn Sina to understand the transitional state of matter and force-form relations; (2) Isaac Newton’s Laws of Motion and Hooke’s Law to understand force-displacement relationships; (3) Information theory to represent parameters and conditions as information in organisational strategies. While mud is of interest, other materials explored include plastic, concrete, clay, and adobe as they categorise as mouldable solids due to their transitional states. Where a careful focus on mud regarding material, form, motion and force, the research deploys the technical with the philosophical to negotiate the capacities of this particular mouldable solid. The hypothesis is that the greater the variance in the skin and skeleton grid, the better the resilience and adaptability a body has due to the complex interconnections between the parts that make up a whole, organising and re-organising to withstand forces. The dissertation celebrates mud as a reconfigurable architectural material rather than static and outdated, allowing for a multi-approach solution to contemporary and standardised materials in the current industrialised context

    Industrial Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Agronomy and Utilization: A Review

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    Currently, there are increased interests in growing grain and fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as well as in large-scale hemp products. Cannabis has been grown/utilized for thousands of years as a fiber, grain, and drug/medicinal plant. However, the strict control of cannabis cultivation to combat illegal use, the spread of new yarns and oilseeds, and the advent of cheap synthetic fibers caused a decreased/eliminated hemp production. Hemp has been banned in most of the world for more than seven decades; it missed out on the Green Revolution and the adoption of new technologies and varieties, creating a knowledge gap. After the 2014 and 2018 Farm Bill in the USA, hemp became legal and the land grand universities launched research programs. The ability to utilize the entire plant for multiple purposes creates opportunity for the market to value hemp products. Hemp production technology varies depending on the type of hemp cultivated (grain, fiber, or cannabinoids), soil characteristics, and environmental factors. Hemp has the potential to be a very sustainable and ecologically benign crop. Hemp roots have a significant potential for absorbing and storing heavy metals such as lead, nickel, cadmium, and other harmful substances. In addition, hemp has been proven to be an excellent carbon trap and biofuel crop. Hemp has the ability to successfully suppress weeds, and it is generally regarded a pesticide-free crop. The purpose of this paper is to examine historic and recent industrial hemp (grain and fiber) literature, with a focus on hemp agronomy and utilization

    Differential evolution of non-coding DNA across eukaryotes and its close relationship with complex multicellularity on Earth

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    Here, I elaborate on the hypothesis that complex multicellularity (CM, sensu Knoll) is a major evolutionary transition (sensu Szathmary), which has convergently evolved a few times in Eukarya only: within red and brown algae, plants, animals, and fungi. Paradoxically, CM seems to correlate with the expansion of non-coding DNA (ncDNA) in the genome rather than with genome size or the total number of genes. Thus, I investigated the correlation between genome and organismal complexities across 461 eukaryotes under a phylogenetically controlled framework. To that end, I introduce the first formal definitions and criteria to distinguish ‘unicellularity’, ‘simple’ (SM) and ‘complex’ multicellularity. Rather than using the limited available estimations of unique cell types, the 461 species were classified according to our criteria by reviewing their life cycle and body plan development from literature. Then, I investigated the evolutionary association between genome size and 35 genome-wide features (introns and exons from protein-coding genes, repeats and intergenic regions) describing the coding and ncDNA complexities of the 461 genomes. To that end, I developed ‘GenomeContent’, a program that systematically retrieves massive multidimensional datasets from gene annotations and calculates over 100 genome-wide statistics. R-scripts coupled to parallel computing were created to calculate >260,000 phylogenetic controlled pairwise correlations. As previously reported, both repetitive and non-repetitive DNA are found to be scaling strongly and positively with genome size across most eukaryotic lineages. Contrasting previous studies, I demonstrate that changes in the length and repeat composition of introns are only weakly or moderately associated with changes in genome size at the global phylogenetic scale, while changes in intron abundance (within and across genes) are either not or only very weakly associated with changes in genome size. Our evolutionary correlations are robust to: different phylogenetic regression methods, uncertainties in the tree of eukaryotes, variations in genome size estimates, and randomly reduced datasets. Then, I investigated the correlation between the 35 genome-wide features and the cellular complexity of the 461 eukaryotes with phylogenetic Principal Component Analyses. Our results endorse a genetic distinction between SM and CM in Archaeplastida and Metazoa, but not so clearly in Fungi. Remarkably, complex multicellular organisms and their closest ancestral relatives are characterized by high intron-richness, regardless of genome size. Finally, I argue why and how a vast expansion of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) regulators rather than of novel protein regulators can promote the emergence of CM in Eukarya. As a proof of concept, I co-developed a novel ‘ceRNA-motif pipeline’ for the prediction of “competing endogenous” ncRNAs (ceRNAs) that regulate microRNAs in plants. We identified three candidate ceRNAs motifs: MIM166, MIM171 and MIM159/319, which were found to be conserved across land plants and be potentially involved in diverse developmental processes and stress responses. Collectively, the findings of this dissertation support our hypothesis that CM on Earth is a major evolutionary transition promoted by the expansion of two major ncDNA classes, introns and regulatory ncRNAs, which might have boosted the irreversible commitment of cell types in certain lineages by canalizing the timing and kinetics of the eukaryotic transcriptome.:Cover page Abstract Acknowledgements Index 1. The structure of this thesis 1.1. Structure of this PhD dissertation 1.2. Publications of this PhD dissertation 1.3. Computational infrastructure and resources 1.4. Disclosure of financial support and information use 1.5. Acknowledgements 1.6. Author contributions and use of impersonal and personal pronouns 2. Biological background 2.1. The complexity of the eukaryotic genome 2.2. The problem of counting and defining “genes” in eukaryotes 2.3. The “function” concept for genes and “dark matter” 2.4. Increases of organismal complexity on Earth through multicellularity 2.5. Multicellularity is a “fitness transition” in individuality 2.6. The complexity of cell differentiation in multicellularity 3. Technical background 3.1. The Phylogenetic Comparative Method (PCM) 3.2. RNA secondary structure prediction 3.3. Some standards for genome and gene annotation 4. What is in a eukaryotic genome? GenomeContent provides a good answer 4.1. Background 4.2. Motivation: an interoperable tool for data retrieval of gene annotations 4.3. Methods 4.4. Results 4.5. Discussion 5. The evolutionary correlation between genome size and ncDNA 5.1. Background 5.2. Motivation: estimating the relationship between genome size and ncDNA 5.3. Methods 5.4. Results 5.5. Discussion 6. The relationship between non-coding DNA and Complex Multicellularity 6.1. Background 6.2. Motivation: How to define and measure complex multicellularity across eukaryotes? 6.3. Methods 6.4. Results 6.5. Discussion 7. The ceRNA motif pipeline: regulation of microRNAs by target mimics 7.1. Background 7.2. A revisited protocol for the computational analysis of Target Mimics 7.3. Motivation: a novel pipeline for ceRNA motif discovery 7.4. Methods 7.5. Results 7.6. Discussion 8. Conclusions and outlook 8.1. Contributions and lessons for the bioinformatics of large-scale comparative analyses 8.2. Intron features are evolutionarily decoupled among themselves and from genome size throughout Eukarya 8.3. “Complex multicellularity” is a major evolutionary transition 8.4. Role of RNA throughout the evolution of life and complex multicellularity on Earth 9. Supplementary Data Bibliography Curriculum Scientiae Selbständigkeitserklärung (declaration of authorship

    Innovación educativa en los tiempos de la inteligencia artificial. Actas del VII Congreso Internacional sobre Aprendizaje, Innovación y Cooperación. CINAIC 2023 (18-20 de Octubre de 2023, Madrid, España)

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    VII Edición del Congreso Internacional sobre Innovación, Aprendizaje y Cooperación, CINAIC 2023 El congreso se organiza de forma bianual y en esta edición la participación del congreso será totalmente presencial. La celebración será en Madrid, concretamente en la Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas y Energía. Desde el año 2011 CINAIC organiza actividades presenciales y online de forma continua y los años pares organiza el Congreso Científico Internacional. Su línea de acción se basa en cuatro ejes: Punto de encuentro donde intercambiar buenas prácticas de innovación educativa, conocer las últimas novedades, obtener una formación aplicada de las principales innovaciones educativas y, principalmente, conocer a personas que compartimos unas mismas inquietudes por la mejora del aprendizaje. Medio de divulgación de los trabajos presentados a través de las actas con ISSN y DOI individual, selección de los mejores trabajos para invitación a presentarse a revistas científicas de impacto (Scopus y JCR) y este año con la posibilidad de publicar los trabajos presentados en Scopus. Tras la exitosa experiencia de la convocatoria del 2021 donde se publicaron parte de los trabajos en la editorial Springer, este año trataremos de que todos los trabajos aceptados se publiquen en dicha editorial. Escenario para experimentar con innovaciones metodológicas en cuanto a su organización. Algunas de ellas se presentarán por primera vez en este congreso, como los espacios de innovación docente, y otras ya están consolidadas en ediciones anteriores como “Ecolab” (espacio abierto de discusión), “Presentaciones en formato Pecha-Kucha” (20 diapositivas con 20” de duración cada una), “Mesa redonda de palabras” (mesas redondas sociales donde los asistentes forman parte de la misma) y “Escuela de Cocina” (se exponen recetas para preparar innovaciones docentes aplicadas en el aula) y «Desmontando la Innovación docente» A fondo. Análisis de temas relacionados con la innovación educativa: Tendencias, medición de la innovación educativa, escenarios para el desarrollo, análisis, etc. Cooperación y servicio. Desde el comité de acción social el congreso presta ayuda material y formativa en entornos desfavorecidos para potenciar el aprendizaje tanto del profesorado como de su alumnado

    University of Maine Undergraduate Catalog, 2022-2023

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    The University of Maine undergraduate catalog for the 2022-2023 academic year includes an introduction, the academic calendars, general information about the university, and sections on attending, facilities and centers, and colleges and academic programs including the Colleges of Business, Public Policy and Health, Education and Development, Engineering, Liberal Arts and Sciences, and Natural Sciences, Forestry and Agriculture
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