505,366 research outputs found

    Genetic and cellular sensitivity of Caenorhabditis elegans to the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin

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    Cisplatin and derivatives are commonly used as chemotherapeutic agents. Although the cytotoxic action of cisplatin on cancer cells is very efficient, clinical oncologists need to deal with two major difficulties, namely the onset of resistance to the drug and the cytotoxic effect in patients. Here, we used Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate factors influencing the response to cisplatin in multicellular organisms. In this hermaphroditic model organism, we observed that sperm failure is a major cause of cisplatin-induced infertility. RNA sequencing data indicate that cisplatin triggers a systemic stress response, in which DAF-16/FOXO and SKN-1/NRF2, two conserved transcription factors, are key regulators. We determined that inhibition of the DNA damage-induced apoptotic pathway does not confer cisplatin protection to the animal. However, mutants for the pro-apoptotic BH3-only gene ced-13 are sensitive to cisplatin, suggesting a protective role of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Finally, we demonstrated that our system can also be used to identify mutations providing resistance to cisplatin and therefore potential biomarkers of innate cisplatin-refractory patients. We show that mutants for the redox regulator trxr-1, ortholog of the mammalian thioredoxin reductase 1 TRXR1, display cisplatin resistance. By CRISPR/Cas9, we determined that such resistance relies on the presence of the single selenocysteine residue in TRXR-1.Instituto de Salud Carlos III PI15/00895 PI16/01898European Regional Development Fund/FEDERNetherlands Organization for Scientific Research 711.014.005Sociedad Española de Oncología MédicaMinisterio de Economía y Competitividad BFU2007-67123 BFU2015-64408-PEuropean Social Fund BFU2015-64408-

    The Morphogenesis Of Evolutionary Developmental Biology

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    The early studies of evolutionary developmental biology (Evo-Devo) come from several sources. Tributaries flowing into Evo-Devo came from such disciplines as embryology, developmental genetics, evolutionary biology, ecology, paleontology, systematics, medical embryology and mathematical modeling. This essay will trace one of the major pathways, that from evolutionary embryology to Evo-Devo and it will show the interactions of this pathway with two other sources of Evo-Devo: ecological developmental biology and medical developmental biology. Together, these three fields are forming a more inclusive evolutionary developmental biology that is revitalizing and providing answers to old and important questions involving the formation of biodiversity on Earth. The phenotype of Evo-Devo is limited by internal constraints on what could be known given the methods and equipment of the time and it has been framed by external factors that include both academic and global politics

    Role of the Melanocortin System in Gonadal Steroidogenesis of Zebrafish

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    In teleost, as in other vertebrates, stress affects reproduction. A key component of the stress response is the pituitary secretion of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which binds to the melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) in the adrenal glands and activates cortisol biosynthesis. In zebrafish, Mc2r was identified in male and female gonads, while ACTH has been shown to have a physiological role in modulating reproductive activity. In this study, the hypothesis that other melanocortins may also affect how the zebrafish gonadal function is explored, specifically steroid biosynthesis, given the presence of members of the melanocortin signaling system in zebrafish gonads. Using cell culture, expression analysis, and cellular localization of gene expression, our new observations demonstrated that melanocortin receptors, accessory proteins, antagonists, and agonists are expressed in both the ovary and testis of zebrafish (n = 4 each sex). Moreover, melanocortin peptides modulate both basal and gonadotropin-stimulated steroid release from zebrafish gonads (n = 15 for males and n = 50 for females). In situ hybridization in ovaries (n = 3) of zebrafish showed mc1r and mc4r in follicular cells and adjacent to cortical alveoli in the ooplasm of previtellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes. In zebrafish testes (n = 3), mc4r and mc1r were detected exclusively in germ cells, specifically in spermatogonia and spermatocytes. Our results suggest that melanocortins are, directly or indirectly, involved in the endocrine control of vitellogenesis in females, through modulation of estradiol synthesis via autocrine or paracrine actions in zebrafish ovaries. Adult zebrafish testes were sensitive to low doses of ACTH, eliciting testosterone production, which indicates a potential role of this peptide as a paracrine regulator of testicular function.publishedVersio

    Stem cells and the origin of gliomas: A historical reappraisal with molecular advancements.

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    The biology of both normal and tumor development clearly possesses overlapping and parallel features. Oncogenes and tumor suppressors are relevant not only in tumor biology, but also in physiological developmental regulators of growth and differentiation. Conversely, genes identified as regulators of developmental biology are relevant to tumor biology. This is particularly relevant in the context of brain tumors, where recent evidence is mounting that the origin of brain tumors, specifically gliomas, may represent dysfunctional developmental neurobiology. Neural stem cells are increasingly being investigated as the cell type that originally undergoes malignant transformation - the cell of origin - and the evidence for this is discussed

    Developmental Systems Theory as a Process Theory

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    Griffiths and Russell D. Gray (1994, 1997, 2001) have argued that the fundamental unit of analysis in developmental systems theory should be a process – the life cycle – and not a set of developmental resources and interactions between those resources. The key concepts of developmental systems theory, epigenesis and developmental dynamics, both also suggest a process view of the units of development. This chapter explores in more depth the features of developmental systems theory that favour treating processes as fundamental in biology and examines the continuity between developmental systems theory and ideas about process in the work of several major figures in early 20th century biology, most notable C.H Waddington

    Developmental biology of wood formation

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    The wood-forming vascular cambium is responsible for the production of a large part of the biomass on this planet. Yet, there is only limited knowledge on how cell proliferation and differentiation in the cambial meristem are regulated. In this thesis the wood-forming tissues of aspen were used as a model system to identify and characterize molecular factors related to cambial meristem activity. An important regulator of cambial meristem activity is the plant hormone auxin. As polar transport is crucial for the delivery of auxin to the cambial zone, we identified homologues of known regulators of polar auxin transport and described their regulation by environmental and developmental factors. Translating changes in auxin concentration into changes in gene expression involves members of the Aux/IAA gene family. Aspen homologues of Aux/IAA genes were cloned and found to be expressed in a highly tissue-specific fashion, which is further influenced by developmental events and changes in the environment. A major response of trees to environmental changes is the suspension of meristematic growth during winter dormancy. A comparison of gene expression in active and dormant cambia revealed dramatic changes in the transcriptome including the expression of many cold and stress related genes during winter. During the process of wood formation, cells originating in the vascular cambium go through an elaborate process of cell division, cell expansion, secondary wall formation and programmed cell death. Large-scale analysis of gene expression was used to create transcriptional maps of the differentiation process. This extensive dataset allowed us to confirm the proposed functions of various genes involved in wood formation, assign other known genes to specific stages along the developmental gradient and identify a large number of novel potential regulators of wood formation. The data further suggest that the cambial meristem shares regulatory mechanisms with other meristems in addition to its own, specific factors

    Conceptual Breakthroughs In Developmental Biology

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    Mathematical models in Developmental Biology

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    We will introduce some of the mathematical modeling tools that have been introduced in the field of Developmental Biology, focusing in specific problems in embryogenesis. The use of multiscale models based on a combination of ordinary and partial differential equations is a well established research paradigm in this area by now. After reviewing some of the past and present contributions, we will discuss both their merits and shortcomings in the light of recent experimental results.Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Andalucía Tech

    Development of supermale and all-male Atlantic salmon to research the vgll3 allele - puberty link

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    Farmed Atlantic salmon are one of the most economically significant global aquaculture products. Early sexual maturation of farmed males represents a significant challenge to this industry and has been linked with the vgll3 genotype. However, tools to aid research of this topic, such as all-male and clonal fish, are still lacking. The present 6-year study examined if all-male production is possible in Atlantic salmon, a species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes (males being XY, females XX), and if all-male fish can be applied to further explore the vgll3 contribution on the likelihood of early maturation.publishedVersio

    Editorial, Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology

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    It is a pleasure to introduce this special edition of Cell and Development Biology dedicated to the field and application of Biosensors. This edition comprises seven reviews covering the most active research areas where we believe some of the most prominent advances in the field are likely to emerge in the near to medium term. In line with scope of this journal, some emphasis is given towards techniques applicable to Cell Biology
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