45,662 research outputs found

    Higher Fluorosis Severity Makes Enamel Less Resistant to Demineralization

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    Fluorotic teeth could either be more resistant or more susceptible to the caries process than sound ones due to their higher enamel fluoride concentration and higher porosity (subsurface hypomineralization), respectively; however, there is no consensus on this subject. In this study, a total of 49 human unerupted third molars presenting Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF) fluorosis scores 0‚Äď4 were used. Two enamel slabs were obtained from each tooth. The rest of the tooth crown was powdered, and the enamel was separated from the dentine. In purified powdered enamel, the calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphate (P i ), and fluoride (F) concentrations were determined. The F concentration gradient throughout the enamel and in the enamel, volume was determined in one slab. The other enamel slab was isolated with acid-resistant varnish, subjecting the exposed enamel surface half to a pH-cycling model to evaluate its demineralization resistance and to calculate the demineralization area. The nonexposed surface was used to determine the natural hypomin eralization area found in fluorotic enamel and normalize the demineralization data. The hypomineralization and demineralization areas were assessed by cross-sectional microhardness. For statistical analyses, the data for TF1 and 2, and for TF3 and 4 were pooled. Concentrations of powered enamel Ca and Pi were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among groups TF0, TF1‚Äď2 and TF3‚Äď4, but a higher F concentration was found in fluorotic enamel (p < 0.05). Highly fluorotic teeth (TF3‚Äď4) presented a greater hypomineralization subsurface area and demonstrated lower demineralization resistance than sound enamel (p < 0.05). The findings suggest that a higher severity of fluorosis makes enamel less resistant to the caries process due to its greater subsurface mineral area exposed to demineralization and deeper acid diffusion through the enamel.Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnolog√≠a e Innovaci√≥n [CO] Colciencias1308-569-34427Modelo de caracterizaci√≥n ambiental, epidemol√≥gica, cl√≠nico-histol√≥gica e inorg√°nica de la fluorosis dental en ni√Īosn

    Dise√Īo de una cartilla informativa sobre fluorosis dental y uso del fluoruro dirigida a la poblaci√≥n general

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    Introducci√≥n: la fluorosis es una alteraci√≥n dental producida como consecuencia de ingesta de fluoruro durante de formaci√≥n de los dientes, que ha aumentado en Colombia desde la fluorizaci√≥n sist√©mica de la sal como medida preventiva de caries. Teniendo en cuenta el desconocimiento de la poblaci√≥n con respecto a la fluorosis por falta de material educativo que brinde informaci√≥n concreta y entendible, surge la idea de elaborar una cartilla ilustrativa con medidas preventivas para disminuir los factores de riesgo de la fluorosis. Objetivo: Elaborar y dise√Īar una cartilla informativa sobre el uso del fluoruro sist√©mico y t√≥pico, dirigida a la poblaci√≥n con mayor riesgo de desarrollar fluorosis dental. Metodolog√≠a: Se realiz√≥ una b√ļsqueda de evidencia cient√≠fica aplicando criterios de selecci√≥n. Con la informaci√≥n encontrada se redact√≥ el contenido con vocabulario b√°sico. Se realiz√≥ una validaci√≥n a 11 personas ajenas al tema. Se tomaron fotograf√≠as intraorales a 4 participantes que presentaban fluorosis. Se cont√≥ con la ayuda de un dise√Īador gr√°fico que utiliz√≥ el software Illustrator para la edici√≥n. Resultados: de la revisi√≥n bibliogr√°fica se seleccionaron 52 documentos.Se obtuvo un formato inicial de 2 hojas que se utiliz√≥ para el ejercicio de la validaci√≥n. Se escogieron las fotos que mejor representaban las diferentes severidades de fluorosis. Finalmente, se imprimi√≥ una cartilla informativa e ilustrativa sobre el uso de fluoruro t√≥pico y sist√©mico Conclusi√≥n: es necesario brindar elementos did√°cticos a la poblaci√≥n que permitan incentivar el mejoramiento de la salud oral.Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnolog√≠a e Innovaci√≥n [CO] Colciencias1308-569-34427Modelo de caracterizaci√≥n ambiental, epidemol√≥gica, cl√≠nico-histol√≥gica e inorg√°nica de la fluorosis dental en ni√Īosn

    Modelo de caracterizaci√≥n ambiental, epidemiol√≥gica, cl√≠nico-histol√≥gica e inorg√°nica de la fluorosis dental en ni√Īos

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    El principal objetivo del presente estudio fue establecer un perfil de an√°lisis integral de la fluorosis dental desde varios aspectos. Por una parte, se describi√≥ la fluorosis y la caries dental, dos patolog√≠as altamente prevalentes en nuestro pa√≠s, desde sus caracter√≠sticas visuales, esteromicrosc√≥picas y microsc√≥picas en dentici√≥n primaria y permanente, profundizando en su diagn√≥stico diferencial. Por otra parte, se determin√≥ la concentraci√≥n de fl√ļor en el esmalte fluor√≥tico, observ√°ndose que hay mayor concentraci√≥n de fluoruro en la superficie que en el interior del esmalte. Adicionalmente, se encontr√≥ asociaci√≥n entre la concentraci√≥n de este elemento y la severidad de fluorosis. Cuando se evaluaron las concentraciones de calcio y fosfato inorg√°nico no se hallaron diferencias entre los diferentes estadios de severidad de la enfermedad. Otra secci√≥n del proyecto realiz√≥ una caracterizaci√≥n geol√≥gica e identificaci√≥n de los principales afluentes de los acueductos de los cuatro municipios centinela (El Agrado, Altamira, Pitalito y Rivera) del departamento del Huila y la evaluaci√≥n del contenido de fluoruro en agua y suelo de los municipios, encontrando concentraciones menores a 1 ppm. Finalmente, se valor√≥ epidemiol√≥gicamente estado nutricional, fluorosis y caries dental en poblaci√≥n infantil con dentici√≥n primaria y permanente, en los cuatro municipios mencionados, evidenci√°ndose alta prevalencia de ambas patolog√≠as, con menores proporciones de fluorosis en El Agrado y mayores en Pitalito. M√°s de 40% de pre-escolares y escolares se encontraron fuera del rango de peso adecuado para la talla. Tambi√©n se analiz√≥ la concentraci√≥n de fluoruro en la sal de cocina obtenida de hogares de ni√Īos de estos cuatro municipios, arrojando resultados de concentraci√≥n de fl√ļor dentro del rango establecido por el INVIMA e, incluso menores (promedios entre 158.92 y 171.85 ppm), ), con diferencias significativas estad√≠sticamente entre las concentraciones halladas en las sales de Pitalito y Altamira, siendo mayor en el este √ļltimo municipio. Se incluy√≥ en la valoraci√≥n epidemiol√≥gica, una encuesta a padres/ni√Īos sobre aspectos de pr√°cticas, sociales y de calidad de vida relacionados con salud oral, resalt√°ndose que casi la mitad de los padres no hab√≠an recibido orientaci√≥n sobre el uso de crema dental en sus ni√Īos, que un mayor n√ļmero de padres de ni√Īos sin presencia de fluorosis estaban preocupados por la apariencia de los dientes de sus ni√Īos y, que la mayor√≠a de los ni√Īos percibe sus dientes como de apariencia agradable. Estos resultados en conjunto permiten una caracterizaci√≥n cl√≠nico-histol√≥gica e inorg√°nica de la fluorosis dental en dentici√≥n primaria y permanente y una caracterizaci√≥n ambiental y epidemiol√≥gica de fluorosis dental en ni√Īos en dentici√≥n primaria y permanente, en cuatro municipios centinela del departamento del Huila, esclareciendo aspectos etiopatol√≥gicos y diagn√≥sticos de la fluorosis dental, as√≠ como favoreciendo la orientaci√≥n a autoridades en salud sobre aspectos en la toma de decisiones de vigilancia epidemiol√≥gica y, a la academia, en futuras investigaciones relacionadas.Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnolog√≠a e Innovaci√≥n [CO] Colciencias1308-569-34427Modelo de caracterizaci√≥n ambiental, epidemol√≥gica, cl√≠nico-histol√≥gica e inorg√°nica de la fluorosis dental en ni√Īoss

    Geochemical characterization of fluoride and its relationship with the prevalence of enamel fluorosis in children in four municipalities of the department of Huila (Colombia)

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    Fluoride is an element that affects teeth and bone formation in animals and humans. Though the use of fluoride is an evidence-based caries preventive measure, excessive ingestion can impair tooth development, mainly the mineralization of tooth enamel, leading to a condition known as enamel fluorosis. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the prevalence of enamel 2 fluorosis in children and the geochemical characterization of fluoride in four sentinel municipalities of the department of Huila, Colombia (Pitalito, Altamira, El Agrado and Rivera). The concentration of fluoride in drinking water, table salt, rocks and active sediment was evaluated by means of an ion selective electrode. Geochemical analyses were performed using X-Ray fluorescence. These revealed fluoride concentrations under 15 mg/kg in soil, rocks, and active sediment samples, not indicative of a significant delivery to the watersheds studied. The concentration of fluoride in table salt was found to be under the inferior limit (180-220 őľg/g) established by the Colombian regulations. Likewise, exposure doses for fluoride water intake did not exceed the recommended total dose for all ages from 6 months. Although the evidence does not point out at rocks, soils, fluoride-bearing minerals, fluoridated salt and water, the hypothesis of these elements as responsible of the prevalence of enamel fluorosis cannot be discarded since, aqueducts might have been undergone significant changes overtime.Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnolog√≠a e Innovaci√≥n [CO] Colciencias1308-569-34427Modelo de caracterizaci√≥n ambiental, epidemol√≥gica, cl√≠nico-histol√≥gica e inorg√°nica de la fluorosis dental en ni√Īosn

    Estrategias para el suministro de fl√ļor en programas de salud p√ļblica

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    La fluorosis dental y la caries dental son patolog√≠as relevantes en Colombia. En 2015, el IV Estudio Nacional de Salud Bucal (ENSAB IV), arroj√≥ una prevalencia (Dean) de fluorosis de 8,4% y 65,1% para los 5 y 12 a√Īos y de experiencia de caries (ceo/COP) de 52,3% y 41,9%, respectivamente. La probabilidad de coexistencia de fluorosis y caries dental es alta en nuestro pa√≠s. La fluorosis esquel√©tica es menos conocida y requiere de atenci√≥n, principalmente en sitios de fluorosis end√©mica.Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnolog√≠a e Innovaci√≥n [CO] Colciencias1308-569-34427Modelo de caracterizaci√≥n ambiental, epidemol√≥gica, cl√≠nico-histol√≥gica e inorg√°nica de la fluorosis dental en ni√Īosn

    Differential diagnosis between caries and fluorosis: reproducibility among examiners on visual diagnosis and histologic confirmation

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    ANTECEDENTES. Dadas las altas prevalencias de fluorosis y de caries dental en Colombia y la similitud de su apariencia cl√≠nica‚Äö en el marco de un proyecto macro de descripci√≥n de la fluorosis dental‚Äö se requieren examinadores capacitados en su detecci√≥n‚Äö diagn√≥stico diferencial y apariencia histol√≥gica. OBJETIVO. Evaluar la reproducibilidad de 4 examinadores entrenados en el diagn√≥stico diferencial de lesiones iniciales de caries (ICDAS) y fluorosis (TFI) leve/moderada y confirmar sus diagn√≥sticos con est√©reo-microscop√≠a (EM) y microscop√≠a de luz polarizada (MLP).Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnolog√≠a e Innovaci√≥n [CO] Colciencias1308-569-34427Modelo de caracterizaci√≥n ambiental, epidemol√≥gica, cl√≠nico-histol√≥gica e inorg√°nica de la fluorosis dental en ni√Īosn

    Cartilla para odontólogos Diagnóstico diferencial entre fluorosis dental y caries

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    La prevalencia de fluorosis dental (Dean) en Colombia en 2015 fue de 8.4% y 65.1% para los 5 y 12 a√Īos1 y la experiencia de caries (ceo/COP) de 52.3% y 41.9%, respectivamente. La probabilidad de coexistencia de fluorosis y caries dental es alta en nuestro pa√≠s2. La fluorosis y la caries dental tienen etiolog√≠as diferentes; sin embargo, la fluorosis leve a moderada y las lesiones iniciales de caries comparten caracter√≠sticas cl√≠nicas que pueden dificultar el diagn√≥stico2. Por otro lado, aunque el fluoruro es la medida con mayor evidencia para la prevenci√≥n y control de la caries dental3, existen mitos alrededor de su uso en pacientes menores de 6 a√Īos y en pacientes con fluorosis dental. Esta cartilla tiene como objetivo orientar al odont√≥logo cl√≠nico en el diagn√≥stico diferencial entre caries y fluorosis dental y, resolver dudas frecuentes con respecto al uso de fluoruro en menores de 6 a√Īos y en pacientes con fluorosis dental, con recomendaciones basadas en la evidencia.Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnolog√≠a e Innovaci√≥n [CO] Colciencias1308-569-34427Modelo de caracterizaci√≥n ambiental, epidemol√≥gica, cl√≠nico-histol√≥gica e inorg√°nica de la fluorosis dental en ni√Īosn

    Sa√ļde oral infantil na ilha do Pico - A√ßores

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    Disserta√ß√£o para obten√ß√£o do grau de Mestre no Instituto Universit√°rio Egas MonizObjetivos: Descrever a preval√™ncia de c√°rie dent√°ria, segundo o √≠ndice de cpod/CPOD, e a preval√™ncia de maloclus√£o, relacionando estas vari√°veis com a faixa et√°ria, g√©nero e tipo de denti√ß√£o da popula√ß√£o. Materiais e M√©todos: Estudo epidemiol√≥gico e descritivo, com uma amostra de 82 crian√ßas, com idades compreendidas entre os tr√™s e os doze anos, de ambos os g√©neros que frequentam o ‚ÄúInfant√°rio Arco-√ćris‚ÄĚ e ‚ÄúCACCO- Centro de Apoio √† Crian√ßa e Centro Ocupacional‚ÄĚ, da Santa Casa da Miseric√≥rdia do Concelho das Lajes e Madalena do Pico, respetivamente. A recolha de dados foi realizada a partir do exame cl√≠nico, com recurso a kits de observa√ß√£o e luvas descart√°veis, em ambiente escolar. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos a an√°lise estat√≠stica descritiva e inferencial. Resultados: A amostra √© totalmente homog√©nea quanto ao g√©nero, existindo 50% de crian√ßas do g√©nero feminino e 50% do g√©nero masculino, sendo que a maioria pertencia √† faixa et√°ria dos 7 anos (20,7%) e apresentava denti√ß√£o mista (58,5%). O √≠ndice de cpod/CPOD registado nesta popula√ß√£o foi de 1,18, verificando-se diferen√ßas significativas entre a preval√™ncia de c√°rie dent√°ria e a faixa et√°ria (p=0,004). Registou-se uma maior preval√™ncia da classe I canina, tando √† direita (79,3%) como √† esquerda (78%) para os dois tipos de denti√ß√£o. O degrau vertical registou tamb√©m a maior percentagem tanto √† direita (46,3%) como √† esquerda (43,9%) e, por √ļltimo, a maioria das crian√ßas n√£o apresentou caracter√≠sticas de maloclus√£o (56,1%). Conclus√Ķes: Verificou-se baixa preval√™ncia de c√°rie dent√°ria. A classe I canina e o degrau vertical foram as caracter√≠sticas mais prevalentes na amostra. A maioria das crian√ßas n√£o apresentavam quaisquer caracter√≠sticas de maloclus√£o. Houve diferen√ßas significativas do √≠ndice de cpod/CPOD em fun√ß√£o da faixa et√°ria.Objectives: The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of the dental caries, by the cpod/CPOD index and the prevalence of malocclusion relating with the age group, the gender and the type of dentition of the population sampled. Materials and Methods: A epidemiological and descriptive study with a sample composed by 82 children, aged between three and twelve years old, of both genders, who attended ‚ÄúInfant√°rio Arco-√ćris‚ÄĚ and ‚ÄúCACCO- Centro de Apoio √† Crian√ßa e Centro Ocupacional‚ÄĚ, that belongs to Santa Casa da Miseric√≥rdia of Lajes and Madalena do Pico, respectively. All children underwent a clinical examination using observation kits, in their schools. Data was analyzed statistically. Results: The sample had total homogeneous distribution regarding gender, with 50% of the children of female gender and 50% of male gender, in which most were 7 years old (20,7%) and had mixed dentition (58,5%). The cpod/CPOD index in this population sampled is 1,18 with significant differences between the prevalence of dental caries and the age group (p=0,004). Higher prevalence was registered in canine relationship class I, both on the right (79,3%) and on the left (78%). The vertical step also registered the higher prevalence, both on the right (46,3%) and on the left (43,9%). Finally, most children didn‚Äôt have malocclusion characteristics (56,1%). Conclusions: Low prevalence of dental caries was verified. The higher prevalence was registered in canine relationship class I and vertical molar relationship. Most children didn‚Äôt have malocclusion characteristics. Significant differences between the prevalence of dental caries and the age group were verified

    Xerostomia de diversas etiologias : uma revis√£o da literatura

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    Disserta√ß√£o para obten√ß√£o do grau de Mestre no Instituto Universit√°rio Egas MonizO termo xerostomia corresponde a um sintoma definido como perce√ß√£o, pelo indiv√≠duo, de sensa√ß√£o de boca seca. Sendo subjetiva, esta sensa√ß√£o n√£o corresponde, necessariamente, a uma diminui√ß√£o objetiva da quantidade de saliva (hipossialia). Assim, a xerostomia pode ser classificada como xerostomia prim√°ria, como resultado de um anormal funcionamento das gl√Ęndulas salivares, ou como xerostomia sintom√°tica (pseudo-xerostomia), em que o individuo tem a sensa√ß√£o de secura oral, mesmo que num contexto de adequada secre√ß√£o salivar, ainda que com altera√ß√Ķes qualitativas e/ou quantitativas dos seus constituintes. A xerostomia apresenta uma preval√™ncia elevada na popula√ß√£o. H√° mais de 400 medicamentos que causam xerostomia, para al√©m de estar, tamb√©m, associada a diversas patologias, principalmente cr√≥nicas e de elevada preval√™ncia. Quando n√£o tratada, a xerostomia pode comprometer significativamente a qualidade de vida dos doentes. Com esta disserta√ß√£o, atrav√©s de uma revis√£o da literatura, pretende-se apresentar a etiopatogenese, manifesta√ß√Ķes cl√≠nicas, diagn√≥stico e tratamento da xerostomia, √† luz do conhecimento atual.The term xerostomia refers to a symptom defined as the perception, by the individual, of the feeling of dry mouth. Being subjective, this feeling does not, necessarily, correspond to an objective decrease of saliva (hypossialia). Therefore, xerostomia may be classified as primary xerostomia, as a result of an abnormal function of the salivary glands, or as symptomatic xerostomia (pseudo-xerostomia), in which case the individual has the feeling of oral dryness, even in a context of adequate salivary secretion, although with either qualitative and/or quantitative alterations of its components. Xerostomia has a high prevalence in the general population. Over 400 drugs are known to cause xerostomia and it is also associated with several pathologies, most of them chronic and highly prevalent. When gone untreated, xerostomia may significantly compromise patients` quality of life. With this dissertation, through a literature review, it is intended to present the etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of xerostomia, in light of current knowledge

    Nutritional status and nutritional support in the rehabilitation complex for children with cerebral palsy

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    Patients with cerebral palsy are at risk for nutritional deficiency. Problems with food intake and impaired nutrient assimilation in infantile cerebral palsy have been repeatedly reported in the works of researchers from various countries over the past 50 years. Revealing in more than half of children with cerebral palsy, nutritional disorders are manifested in them in the form of weight deficit of varying degrees, slowing growth rates, osteopenia (more than 70%), obesity is diagnosed somewhat less often (10-15%)
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