14,385 research outputs found

    De Zaragoza a Murcia y Damasco: perspectivas ampliadas sobre los Banu Hud (ss. XI-XIII)

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    Tesis Doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Departamento de Historia Antigua, Historia Medieval, Paleografía y Diplomática. Fecha de Lectura: 08-04-2022Esta tesis tiene embargado el acceso al texto completo hasta el 08-10-2023Este trabajo es un estudio monográfico y diacrónico del linaje andalusí de los Banū Hūd, cuya historia se extiende a lo largo de tres siglos (XI y XIII) y diversas zonas geográficas, comenzando por la Marca Superior de al-Andalus. Se trata de una narración de conjunto que agrupa las distintas etapas de la historia de este linaje y en la que se presta atención a cómo se reflejaron en las fuentes las formulaciones que sus distintos miembros activos en el campo político y religioso pudieron elaborar en terrenos como los de la genealogía, la legitimidad, el mundo del conocimiento y las doctrinas religiosas. El objetivo último de este estudio se basa en presentar cómo se fueron tejiendo una serie de visiones complejas en torno a los Banū Hūd, cómo se generaron y transmitieron las narrativas en torno a las dinastías hūdíes que controlaron importantes territorios de al-Andalus en diferentes períodos de la historia. Además, se presta especial atención a la transmisión de la memoria de este linaje desde el siglo XI hasta épocas muy posteriores, como el siglo XVIThis work is a diachronic case study focused on an Andalusi lineage: the Banū Hūd, whose history extends throughout three centuries (11th-13th) and different geographical areas, starting with the Upper Border of al-Andalus. The analysis tries to cluster different periods of this lineage’s history, paying attention to the way in which the narrative sources reflect the family members’ political and religious formulations in fields as genealogy, legitimacy or religious doctrines. The main purpose of this study is to understand how diverse and complex visions surrounding the Banū Hūd were created. How the narratives regarding this lineage were generated and transmitted. In addition, specific attention is paid to the transmission of the Hūdid memory from the 11th century to later ager, such as the 16th centur

    Enzymatic alternatives to permanent hair straightening methods

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    Permanent hair straightening is a highly popular treatment, especially among African hair types. However, current methods rely on the use of harsh chemicals, such as sodium hydroxide or formaldehyde, and are associated with a range of health concerns, including hair breakage, loss and severe scalp disorders. Permanent hair straightening treatments usually involve a disulfide bond-breaking step which allows the opening of the hair structure, followed by mechanical hair straightening and crosslinking, which helps to set the new hair morphology. In recent years, the cosmetic sector has seen the development of a considerable range of biotechnologically-derived active agents, which offer biocompatibility, versatile activity and good performance. This project explores the feasibility of incorporating enzymes, which exhibit relevant disulfide bond-reducing and crosslinking activities in nature, into milder permanent hair straightening treatments. The thioredoxin system from Bacillus subtilis was identified as a potential alternative for breaking disulfide bonds in keratins. The enzymes thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductases were expressed and purified in E. coli. Thioredoxin activity was initially assessed on KeratecTM IFP, a solubilised wool keratin substrate bearing a mix of cystine and sulfonated thiol motifs, associated with easier enzymatic keratin penetration than insoluble counterparts. Reduced thioredoxin was regenerated either by DTT or thioredoxin reductase and NADPH, as electron donors. The reduction of S-sulfocysteine and disulfide bonds in soluble keratin by thioredoxin was observed both by Ellman’s and NADPH assays, which monitor free thiols and NADPH consumption, respectively. However, disulfide bond reducing activity was not observed using solid human hair keratin, despite attempts to improve substrate availability through treatment with keratinase from Bacillus licheniformis and swelling agents, such as urea. Enzymatic keratin crosslinking was then studied using laccase from Trametes versicolor, tyrosinase from mushroom and microbial transglutaminase, all well characterised crosslinking enzymes with activity on proteins and currently used in a range of industries (eg. food, textile). Soluble keratin crosslinking by laccase was observed using size-exclusion chromatography (SEM) and sodium dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE), both in the presence and absence of vanillin and acetosyringone mediators. However, a lack of significant enzymatic crosslinking was noted for solid hair keratin, where no change in tensile strength was observed upon treatment with laccase. Overall, novel enzymatic reducing and crosslinking modifications were successfully carried out on solubilised keratin. However, challenges remain regarding solid hair keratin, associated with poor substrate availability and enzyme penetration

    A morte de Ana Bolena, rainha de Inglaterra

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    Em 19 de Maio de 1536 a rainha Ana Bolena, 2ª mulher de Henrique VIII, foi decapitada na Torre de Londres, acusada de traição, adultério, incesto e feitiçaria. Dois dias antes tinham sido supliciados cinco cortesãos igualmente condenados por traição ao rei, entre os quais o irmão da rainha. Estes trágicos acontecimentos culminavam um tumultuoso processo político e diplomático iniciado em 1527, quando Henrique VIII solicitou à Santa Sé a declaração de nulidade do seu casamento com Catarina de Aragão, decisão que precipitou a ruptura com Roma e conduziu à fundação de uma nova Igreja da qual o chefe supremo era o próprio monarca. Estes acontecimentos foram testemunhados por um português em Londres. Do conjunto de cartas que se sabe ter enviado a um nobre em Portugal, uma delas, que aqui publicamos, relata circunstanciadamente a morte de Ana Bolena, testemunho inédito, e um dos mais completos testemunhos coevos, de um momento-chave da história de Inglaterra

    Silks, satins and damask fabrics in the House of the Count of Benavente (C. 1533)

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    [ES] Las pautas de consumo de las familias castellanas cambiaron a medida que se consolidaron dos procesos descritos por la historiografía reciente. Por una parte, el aumento del capital disponible. Por otra, la llegada al reino de productos de lujo procedentes de los principales centros manufactureros de la época. El efecto que esta transformación tuvo en la sociedad es múltiple. Con esta comunicación intentaremos mostrar la magnitud de esta intensificación en las economías nobiliarias, tomando como ejemplo la casa condal de Benavente a principios del siglo XVI.[EN] The consumption patterns of Castilian families changed in the 16th century as two processes described by recent historiography were consolidated. On the one hand, the increase in available capital. On the other, the arrival to the kingdom of luxury products from the main manufacturing centers of the time. The effect of this transformation on society is manifold. With this paper, we will try to show the magnitude of this intensification in the nobiliary economies, taking as an example the house of Benavente in the early 16th century

    Mundos del hispanismo

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    This volume collects works by Hispanists from different origins: from researchers whose mother tongue is Spanish and who carry out their work in the Hispanic world, whether peninsular or American, to those who work in regions where Spanish is a minority language and/or or who have acquired Spanish as a second language. This joyous diversity finds its expression in the works that make up this volume, highlighting one of the central objectives of the AIH: the academic and plural dialogue between the Hispanicisms of the world, an enriching and vivifying dialogue that knows no borders. Doing so for the first time outside of Europe and America takes on a very special significance, by inserting this multiplicity of perspectives into the present and much-needed dialogue between our peoples and regions. The printed book exclusively includes the opening speeches and plenary presentations, which were given by Myrna Solotorevsky, Patrizia Botta, Angela Schrott, Juan Diego Vila, Manuel Rivero Rodríguez and James Valender. The other papers are in open acces

    The So-called “Generation of Independance” in Mauritania through Five of its Poets

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    Los acontecimientos históricos importantes tienen a veces como consecuencia el surgimiento de una concienciación colectiva que se puede convertir en un movimiento político, social, cultural o literario. La proclamación de la independencia de varios países árabes supuso el nacimiento de tendencias literarias como fue el caso de Mauritania en los años sesenta cuando, tras la obtención de su independencia, surgió un movimiento poético llamado Ŷīl al-istiqlāl (Generación de la Independencia). Los poetas que fueron testigos del nacimiento y de los primeros años de vida del nuevo Estado se concienciaron de la necesidad de renovar la poesía para iniciar la nahḍa literaria mauritana. En este artículo, vamos a esbozar las principales características del grupo de poetas llamado Ŷīl al-istiqlāl a través de las biografías y muestras de poemas de cinco poetas pudiendo así observar las diferencias de estilos que existen en el seno de esta Generación.Important historical events sometimes result in the emergence of a collective awareness that can turn into a political, social, cultural or literary movement . The proclamation of independence in several Arab countries led to the birth of literary trends. This was the case in Mauritania in the 1960s when, after gaining its independence, a poetic movement called Ŷīl al-istiqlāl (Generation of Independence) emerged. The poets who witnessed the birth and early years of the new state became aware of the need to renew poetry in order to initiate the Mauritanian literary nahḍa. In this article we outline the main characteristics of the group of poets known as Ŷīl al-istiqlāl through the biographies and sample poems of five poets, and also discuss the stylistic differences that can be observed within this Generation

    Soil fertility and drought interact to determine large variations in wood production for a hyperdominant Amazonian tree species

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    Introduction: The productivity of the Amazon Rainforest is related to climate and soil fertility. However, the degrees to which these interactions influence multiannual to decadal variations in tree diameter growth are still poorly explored. Methods: To fill this gap, we used radiocarbon measurements to evaluate the variation in tree growth rates over the past decades in an important hyperdominant species, Eschweilera coriacea (Lecythidaceae), from six sites in the Brazilian Amazon that span a range of soil properties and climate. Results: Using linear mixed-effects models, we show that temporal variations in mean annual diameter increment evaluated over a specific time period reflect interactions between soil fertility and the drought index (SPEI-Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index). Discussion: Our results indicate that the growth response of trees to drought is strongly dependent on soil conditions, a facet of forest productivity that is still underexplored, and which has great potential for improving predictions of future tropical tree growth in the face of projected climate change

    A Teologia em Aristóteles

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    AVALIAÇÃO DA CAPACIDADE DE AUTOCICATRIZAÇÃO DE ARGAMASSAS ESPECIAIS CONTENDO ADIÇÕES POZOLÂNICAS E AGENTES BIOLÓGICOS INCORPORADOS EM CASCA DE ARROZ

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    Dissertação apresentada ao Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Civil da Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana, como parte integrante dos requisitos para obtenção do título de Mestre em Engenharia Civil.A autocicatrização se apresenta como uma solução tecnológica inovadora e sustentável em compósitos cimentícios, bem como frente aos processos de fissuração. Ainda que a autocicatrização autógena ocorra naturalmente, uma maneira de aprimorar este processo é adicionando ao proporcionamento materiais minerais, fibras poliméricas ou biomateriais que contribuam para a autocicatrização autônoma de fissuras da matriz cimentícia ao longo do tempo. Neste cenário, a proposta desta pesquisa é avaliar o potencial de autocicatrização de argamassas especiais com e sem a incorporação de agentes biológicos, aditivo autocicatrizante e casca de arroz (CA) in natura, para aplicações em reparos superficiais, proteção mecânica em lajes, enchimento, dentre outros. Foi produzida uma argamassa de referência (MREF) com relação a/c de 0,40, cimento Portland CPV-ARI (400 kg/m³), sílica ativa (10%), cinza volante (25%), areia natural quartzosa, aditivo superplastificante (0,7% em massa de aglomerante) e fibra de polipropileno (1,4 kg/m³). A partir deste, foram proporcionadas quatros misturas, sendo uma com a incorporação de bactérias Bacillus subtilis AP91 (MB) e outra com aditivo mineral autocicatrizante (MMAD) disponível no mercado. Duas argamassas foram produzidas bactérias Bacillus subtilis AP91 incorporadas à casca de arroz (CA), nos teores de 1% (MBRH1) e 5% (MBRH5) em substituição à areia natural, em volume. O potencial de autocicatrização e o desempenho das argamassas em estudo foram avaliados ao longo do tempo por meio de inspeção visual, ensaios físicos (ultrassom), mecânicos (ensaio de resistência à tração na flexão e à compressão e análise microscópica de imagem (microscopia óptica), em amostras previamente fissuradas e não fissuradas. Observou-se que os agentes autocicatrizantes, tanto biológicos quanto minerais, possuem atuação positiva na matriz à base de cimento, promovendo o fechamento parcial de fissuras com abertura inferior a 0,25 mm. Ainda, as argamassas com CA obtiveram grande incremento de resistências mecânicas ao longo do tempo, obtendo aos 120 dias resultados semelhantes às demais, sem bio-agregados. O potencial de autocicatrização por agentes biológicos é promissor, ambientalmente correto, sendo necessários estudos complementares que envolvem variáveis de cura, nutrientes, bem como avanços na metodologia de incorporação das bactérias à casca de arroz e matriz cimentícia para que seja possível torná-las práticas na construção

    IBN ʿARABĪ: IL LIBRO DELLA REGOLA STABILITA IN MODO INEQUIVOCABILE SULLE CONDIZIONI CHE SONO INDISPENSABILI PER LA GENTE DELLA VIA DI ALLAH

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    Abstract: Some preliminary considerations about the work, the content and the edition.Resumen: Algunas consideraciones preliminares sobre la obra, el contenido y la edición de la misma. Abstract: Some preliminary considerations on the work, its content and edition
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