22,130 research outputs found

    Personality Dimensions and Attributional Styles in Individuals with and without Gender Dysphoria

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    This research investigates personality dimensions and attributional styles among individuals with and without gender dysphoria in relationship to gender, educational level, and ethnicity. Participants were 60 men and women with and without gender dysphoria. A demographic sheet and two inventories were used. Results showed that patients with gender dysphoria had significantly higher neuroticism and lower agreeableness compared with individuals without gender dysphoria. No significance differences in extraversion, openness to experience, and conscientiousness (based on the “big five” personality model) were found between those with and without gender dysphoria. Also, individuals without gender dysphoria had higher positive attributional styles compared to patients with gender dysphoria. Finally, there were significant effects for gender and ethnicity on personality dimensions, but not for gender, ethnicity, or the ethnicity by gender interaction on the attributional styles

    Phenomenology of emotions with special reference to dysphoria

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    Dysphoria is a complex phenomenon which must be defi ned in the framework of different forms of affections. It belongs to the broader field of emotions, which are characterized by some essential features: i.e. movement, passiveness, tran-sitoriness, and reference to the others. All these four essential features of emotion are specifi cally altered in depression, whose phenomenology is presented in a clinical case. In discussing dysphoria, a first distinction is made between par-ticular and global affections. The fi rst type encompasses emotions and feelings, while the second one includes humor, mood and temper. Dysphoria belongs to one of these global affective states: the humor, which has to do with the spatial dimension of existence. In dysphoria the patient experiences the world as oppressive and invasive of his/her intimacy; the others are lived as persons demanding answers or actions he/she is not able to fulfill. Finally, the phenomenology of dysphoria is analyzed through the four essential features described above and examples are given

    Bartleby’s Consensual Dysphoria

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    The 2011 Occupy Wall Street protest movement adopted what on first blush appears to be a peculiar literary mascot: Bartleby the scrivener, one of the two protagonists of the Story of Wall Street penned by Herman Melville in the middle of the nineteenth-century. But this empathic identity of interests between twenty-first-century street protesters pushing back against the dominance of the .01% and a pathetic, melancholic, cadaverous, anorexic, apparently suicidal, and fictional mid-nineteenth-century legal scrivener is decidedly odd. In this paper, I ask and try to answer this question: what did the OWS protesters recognize in Bartleby that sparked their empathic identification? More broadly, what is it, in Bartleby and in his recalcitrance, that is recognizably and deeply human? Ultimately, I argue that Bartleby the man can be understood to suffer from an extreme case of what I call “consensual dysphoria,” a disorienting and disabling consciousness of a radical disjuncture between one’s felt subjective pleasures and pains, and the transactions and states of the world to which one gives one’s free or voluntary consent. Consensual dysphoria, as I will describe it, is an affliction felt by individuals, but it is not a psychological malady. It is, rather, a political malady felt by individuals in liberal states, and brought on by the powers of political rhetoric and influence. I claim that consensual dysphoria has been an acutely felt part of the consciousness of both the classical legal thought of the mid-nineteenth-century and the liberal legalist thought of our own time. Melville’s Bartleby had that condition in extremis, and the twenty-first-century protesters suffer from it as well. That commonality, I suggest, lays the groundwork for the otherwise inexplicable empathic bond between them. The first part of this paper discusses some of the scholarly literature on Bartleby, with an eye toward elucidating why it is that so few scholars have felt the need to understand Bartleby’s political malady – or more generally, to understand his humanity. The second part discusses the jurisprudential background and content of the story, expanding where need be on Brook Thomas’s similarly motivated account from the 1980s. The third and fourth parts introduce the idea of “consensual dysphoria” as an individualized, psychic manifestation of some of the discomforts attendant to liberal and neoliberal markets and state organization, and makes the case that this is the essence of Bartleby’s affliction. I conclude with some observations about the OWS movement informed by some aspects of this analysis

    Somatic, but not cognitive-affective, symptoms are associated with reduced heart rate variability in individuals with dysphoria

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    Background: Somatic, but not cognitive-affective, symptoms of depression have been associated with reduced heart rate variability (HRV), and with poor prognosis in cardiovascular patients. However, factors concomitant with cardiovascular diseases may confound the relationship between somatic symptoms of depression and reduced HRV. Therefore, this study examined whether reduced HRV was differentially associated with cognitive-affective and somatic symptoms of depression in medically healthy individuals with and without dysphoria. Methods: Self-reported cognitive-affective and somatic symptoms as measured with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) questionnaire and time and frequency domain parameters of HRV were collected in 62 medically healthy individuals, of whom 25 with and 37 without dysphoria. Results: Somatic, but not cognitive-affective, symptoms of depression were inversely associated with standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) (beta = -0.476, p .24). Conclusions: By showing that the relationship between somatic depressive symptoms and reduced HRV extends to medically healthy individuals with dysphoria, the present findings suggest that this association is independent of factors concomitant with cardiovascular diseases. The present study also suggests that individuals with somatic rather than cognitive-affective subsets of depressive symptoms may be at greater risk for developing cardiovascular diseases

    Dysphoria detection using EEG signals

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    Dysphoria is a state faced when one experienced disappointment. If it is not handled properly, dysphoria may trigger acute stress, anxiety and depression. Typically, the individual who experienced dysphoria are in-denial because dysphoria is always being associated with negative connotations such as incompetency to handle pressure, weak personality and lack of will power. To date, there is no accurate instrument to measure dysphoria except using questionnaire by psychologists, such as: Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and Nepean Dysphoria Scale (NDS-24). Participants may suppress or exaggerate their answers resulting in misdiagnosis. In this work, a theoretical Dysphoria Model of Affect (DMoA) is developed for dysphoria detection. Based on the hypothesis that dysphoria is related to negative emotion, the input from brain signal is captured using electroencephalogram (EEG) device to detect negative emotions. The results from analyzing the EEG signals were compared with DASS and NDS questionnaires for correlation analysis. It is observed that the proposed DMoA approach can identify negative emotions ranging from 55% to 77% accuracy. In addition, the NDS questionnaire seems to provide better distinction for dysphoria as compared to DASS and is similar to the result yielded by DMoA in detecting dysphoria. Thus, DMoA approach can be used as an alternative for early dysphoria detection to assist early intervention in identifying the patients’ mental states. Subsequently, DMoA approach can be implemented as another possible solution for early detection of dysphoria thus providing an enhancement to the present NDS instruments providing psychologists and psychiatrists with a quantitative tool for better analysis of the patients’ state

    Mental time travel in dysphoria: Differences in the content and subjective experience of past and future episodes

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    Previous research has shown that depressed individuals demonstrate a number of biases in their ability to retrieve past events and simulate future events. The current study investigated the content and phenomenological experience of past and future events in dysphoric and non-dysphoric individuals. Results indicated that dysphoric, compared with non-dysphoric, individuals reported fewer positive events across both temporal directions. Furthermore, phenomenological characteristics ratings suggested that dysphoric individuals saw future, but not past, events as less vivid, coherent, sensorially detailed, bodily experienced, emotionally intense and important with respect to their life story and identity. These findings are discussed with reference to theories regarding the functions of ‘mental time travel’, in particular how the muted subjective experience of future episodes in depression may impair future planning, problem-solving and self regulation

    Feeling happy when feeling down : the effectiveness of positive mental imagery in dysphoria

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    Background and objectives Mental imagery can evoke strong emotional responses, but imagery perspective can influence the response, with observer perspective reducing emotionality. This is important provided that positive imagery can be an effective mood repairing strategy in healthy individuals. However, (sub-clinical) depressed individuals tend to spontaneously adopt an observer perspective. We investigated whether positive imagery would result in a similar emotional response in dysphoric and non-dysphoric individuals when instructed and trained to use field perspective imagery. Additionally, we compared the emotional response in dysphoric individuals who received instructions to dysphoric individuals who received no instructions on processing mode during positive memory recall. Methods Dysphoric and non-dysphoric individuals completed a mood induction procedure imagining positive or neutral memories. They received instructions and practice in the use of field perspective imagery. An additional control group of dysphoric individuals recalled positive memories without receiving instructions on processing mode. Results Dysphoric and non-dysphoric individuals who received instructions on field perspective imagery reported similar use of field and observer perspective imagery, and a similar positive emotional response. Dysphoric individuals who did not receive specific instructions, as compared to those who did, reported greater use of observer perspective and lower levels of positive affect afterwards. Limitations A dysphoric sample limits generalization to clinically depressed individuals, although these individuals are at risk for developing depression. However, mental imagery used in relapse prevention is likely targeting sub-clinical populations. Conclusions Providing practice in field perspective imagery could potentially improve the effectiveness of positive memory recall as a mood repair strategy in (sub-clinically) depressed individuals, and may therefore have important therapeutic benefits.</p

    Health Risks, Past Usage, and Intention to Use Weight Loss Products in Normal Weight Women with High and Low Body Dysphoria

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    Objective: There are many health risks involved with the use of weight loss products by normal weight women. The mass media may compound this problem through the promotion of weight loss products and a thin body size. This study tested women\u27s perceptions of different weight loss product ads to determine if body dysphoria (i.e., an over concern with body size and shape in normal weight people) was associated with risk beliefs, past behaviors, and intention toward using weight loss products. Method: Normal weight women (age range = 18-41 yr), who were classified as either high (n=45) or low (n=43) on a measure of body dysphoria, rated different weight loss products according to their perception of health risks, past behavior, and their intention to consume the products. These products were a dietary fat substitute (olestra), a prescription obesity medication (sibutramine), and an over-the-counter appetite suppressant (phenylpropanolamine). Results: High body dysphoric women reported higher intentions to use the products as well as increased prior use of two of the three weight loss products. High body dysphoric women did not believe that these weight loss products were harmless. They recognized potential health risks associated with using such products, but nonetheless, expressed intention to use these weight loss products at a higher frequency. Also, several variables related to body image were found to effectively discriminate normal weight women at risk for abusing weight loss products. Discussion: This study found that women who do not need to lose weight but have significant body image concerns were willing to use potentially harmful weight loss products despite the knowledge that such products might pose significant health risks. Techniques utilized by advertising regulatory agencies such as warning labels did not have a strong deterrent effect for stated intentions to use the products. Implications of these findings for public health policy issues were discussed

    Moving Beyond Mismatch

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    In this peer commentary on Maura Priest's "Transgender Children and the Right to Transition: Medical Ethics When Parents Mean Well but Cause Harm", I argue against the "mismatch" model of trans identity. On this model, which is prevalent in institutional and medical contexts, to be trans is to have one's gender identity "mismatch" with one's sexed body
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