20,369 research outputs found

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to compare foraging sea turtle density and distribution of sea turtles in two contrasting habitats in the Chagos Archipelago

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    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) facilitate observation of elusive species or remote locations, and are increasingly used to survey marine habitats. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are a conservation tool used to protect marine species, and regular population assessments can establish if MPAs are effectively facilitating the recovery of endangered species. Sea turtles in the Western Indian Ocean have been historically exploited through trade and by-catch causing a reduction in numbers. Here, UAVs were utilised to assess the population density and distribution of green (Chelonia mydas) and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) turtles between ocean and lagoon environments in the Chagos Archipelago. Analysis protocols were developed to process UAV imagery, including carapace-measurement techniques, and certainty-classing turtle observations (Definite, Probable or Possible). Along 20 km of coastline, 5.13 km2 was surveyed across 11 days between July 2019 – February 2021 resulting in a high-certainty estimate of 381 turtles and a low-certainty estimate of 660. Species and life-stage identification implicate Chagos as developmental habitat for immature hawksbill turtles: 78.47% (n = 299/381) of identified definite turtles were immature, of which 66.55% (n = 199/299) were hawksbill. Diego Garcia Ocean Site 1, West sites and Turtle Cove were significant turtle hotspots (high-certainty results: 257.19 individuals/km2, 146.15 individuals/km2, and 135.08 individuals/km2, respectively), while Marina sites were least-dense (0 - 4.87 individuals/km2). Results for low-certainty data were comparable: 325.27 individuals/km2 in Diego Garcia Site 1, followed by 309.27 and 292.67 individuals/km2 in Turtle Cove. Population density decreased significantly with increasing distance from the shore, and decreased with increasing distance from Turtle Cove. Green turtles were smaller (50.33 ± 17.65 cm straight-carapace length, SCL) than hawksbill turtles (53.16 ± 11.17 cm SCL). This study highlights the Chagos Archipelago as developmental habitat for immature turtles, and demonstrates the applicability of UAVs for in-situ population monitoring to infer conservation status of marine megafauna

    TOWARDS AN UNDERSTANDING OF EFFORTFUL FUNDRAISING EXPERIENCES: USING INTERPRETATIVE PHENOMENOLOGICAL ANALYSIS IN FUNDRAISING RESEARCH

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    Physical-activity oriented community fundraising has experienced an exponential growth in popularity over the past 15 years. The aim of this study was to explore the value of effortful fundraising experiences, from the point of view of participants, and explore the impact that these experiences have on people’s lives. This study used an IPA approach to interview 23 individuals, recognising the role of participants as proxy (nonprofessional) fundraisers for charitable organisations, and the unique organisation donor dynamic that this creates. It also bought together relevant psychological theory related to physical activity fundraising experiences (through a narrative literature review) and used primary interview data to substantiate these. Effortful fundraising experiences are examined in detail to understand their significance to participants, and how such experiences influence their connection with a charity or cause. This was done with an idiographic focus at first, before examining convergences and divergences across the sample. This study found that effortful fundraising experiences can have a profound positive impact upon community fundraisers in both the short and the long term. Additionally, it found that these experiences can be opportunities for charitable organisations to create lasting meaningful relationships with participants, and foster mutually beneficial lifetime relationships with them. Further research is needed to test specific psychological theory in this context, including self-esteem theory, self determination theory, and the martyrdom effect (among others)

    Duration of untreated illness and bipolar disorder: time for a new definition? Results from a cross-sectional study

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    Background: We primarily aimed to explore the associations between duration of untreated illness (DUI), treatment response, and functioning in a cohort of patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Methods: 261 participants with BD were recruited. DUI was defined as months from the first affective episode to the start of a mood-stabilizer. The functioning assessment short test (FAST) scores and treatment response scores for lithium, valproate, or lamotrigine according to the Alda Scale Total Score (TS) were compared between patients with short (<24 months) or long DUI. Differences in FAST scores among good (GR; TS≥7), poor (PR; TS=2-6), or non-responders (NR; TS<2) to each mood-stabilizer were analyzed. Linear regression was computed using the FAST global score as the dependent variable. Results: DUI and FAST scores showed no statistically significant correlation. Patients with a longer DUI showed poorer response to lithium (Z=-3.196; p<0.001), but not to valproate or lamotrigine. Response to lithium (β=-1.814; p<0.001), number of hospitalizations (β=0.237; p<0.001), and illness duration (β=0.160; p=0.028) were associated with FAST total scores. GR to lithium was associated with better global functioning compared to PR or NR [H=27.631; p<0.001]. Limitations: The retrospective design could expose our data to a recall bias. Also, only few patients were on valproate or lamotrigine treatment. Conclusions: Poor functioning in BD could be the result of multiple affective relapses, rather than a direct effect of DUI. A timely diagnosis with subsequent effective prophylactic treatment, such as lithium, may prevent poor functional outcomes in real-world patients with BD

    Substrate-specificity of the DNA-protein crosslink repair protease SPRTN

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    Freelance subtitlers in a subtitle production network in the OTT industry in Thailand: a longitudinal study

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    The present study sets out to investigate a subtitle production network in the over-the-top (OTT) industry in Thailand through the perspective of freelance subtitlers. A qualitative longitudinal research design was adopted to gain insights into (1) the way the work practices of freelance subtitlers are influenced by both human and non-human actors in the network, (2) the evolution of the network, and (3) how the freelance subtitlers’ perception of quality is influenced by changes occurring in the network. Eleven subtitlers were interviewed every six months over a period of two years, contributing to over 60 hours of interview data. The data analysis was informed by selected concepts from Actor-Network Theory (ANT) (Law 1992, 2009; Latour 1996, 2005; Mol 2010), and complemented by the three-dimensional quality model proposed by Abdallah (2016, 2017). Reflexive thematic analysis (Braun and Clarke 2019a, 2020b) was used to generate themes and sub-themes which address the research questions and tell compelling stories about the actor-network. It was found that from July 2017 to September 2019, the subtitle production network, which was sustained by complex interrelationships between actors, underwent a number of changes. The changes affected the work practices of freelance subtitlers in a more negative than positive way, demonstrating their precarious position in an industry that has widely adopted the vendor model (Moorkens 2017). Moreover, as perceived by the research participants, under increasingly undesirable working conditions, it became more challenging to maintain a quality process and to produce quality subtitles. Finally, translation technology and tools, including machine translation, were found to be key non-human actors that catalyse the changes in the network under study

    AIUCD 2022 - Proceedings

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    L’undicesima edizione del Convegno Nazionale dell’AIUCD-Associazione di Informatica Umanistica ha per titolo Culture digitali. Intersezioni: filosofia, arti, media. Nel titolo è presente, in maniera esplicita, la richiesta di una riflessione, metodologica e teorica, sull’interrelazione tra tecnologie digitali, scienze dell’informazione, discipline filosofiche, mondo delle arti e cultural studies

    Responsibility Without Blame: Philosophical Reflections on Clinical Practice

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    This thesis is about the ethics of how mental health professionals interact with their patients. Specifically, I am concerned with how patients are held responsible but are not blamed when they engage in antisocial conduct. Whilst most clinicians accept this practice as commonplace, clinical responsibility without blame poses a challenge to popular philosophical ideas concerning the nature of responsibility, blameworthiness, and blame. In particular, it does not align well with the Strawsonian ideal that to be morally responsible for an action is to be blameworthy. My analysis provides a critique of the existing theories that seek to explain how we can bring this clinical practice into alignment with our broader philosophical commitments. Also included is my own explanation of the practice. I argue that patients are blameworthy for their actions insofar as they are responsible for them, thus upholding the Strawsonian ideal. Further, the reason why mental health professionals must refrain from blaming their patients is because they have a professional obligation to do so. Therefore, clinical responsibility without blame should not be thought as being prompted by contradictory facts about a patient’s moral status. Rather, it is best thought of as a practice that is born from the role that mental health professionals occupy within society

    Irresistible Revolution: Black, Trans, and Disabled World-Making through Activist Portraiture

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    This practice-based dissertation project engages large-scale portraiture to confront and resist the fungibility of Blackness. The project comprises a selection of twenty drawings and an exegesis in which I analyze my aesthetic process in order to shed light on theoretical problems and gaps in Trans, Disability, Black studies and activisms. This collection of writing also discusses and presents activist struggle, white supremacy in the arts, abolitionist organizing and speculative futures. These theoretical explorations are supported by reflections on the collaborative creation process and the ways in which the portraits have been received. To this end, I have included interviews I conducted with the portrait subjects and through textual analysis of ways in which the portraits have been taken up in art and activist contexts. I argue that studying and supporting Black disabled activist practice can inform ways forward for disability arts in the Canadian milieu

    Exploring selective autophagy cargo and machinery using proximity proteomics

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