670,812 research outputs found

    DNA content of a functioning chicken kinetochore

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    © The Author(s) 2014. In order to understand the three-dimensional structure of the functional kinetochore in vertebrates, we require a complete list and stoichiometry for the protein components of the kinetochore, which can be provided by genetic and proteomic experiments. We also need to know how the chromatin-containing CENP-A, which makes up the structural foundation for the kinetochore, is folded, and how much of that DNA is involved in assembling the kinetochore. In this MS, we demonstrate that functioning metaphase kinetochores in chicken DT40 cells contain roughly 50 kb of DNA, an amount that corresponds extremely closely to the length of chromosomal DNA associated with CENP-A in ChIP-seq experiments. Thus, during kinetochore assembly, CENP-A chromatin is compacted into the inner kinetochore plate without including significant amounts of flanking pericentromeric heterochromatin. © 2014 The Author(s).Wellcome Trust [grant number 073915]; Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology (core grant numbers 077707 and 092076); Darwin Trust of Edinburg

    Quantitative studies of nucleic acid in the cell by microspectrophotometry III. Nucleic acid contents in the cancer cells

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    1. The DNA contents in mature lymphocytes of the mouse, rat and man are kept almost constant. 2. The variety in the DNA contents in tumor cells is attributed to the rapid DNA synthesis taking place at the interphase, though the degenerating cells and the cells in abnormal mitosis can not be discarded as the source of the variety in DNA content. 3. The RNA content in AH-130 (ascites hepatoma) is less than that in normal liver cells.</p

    Bounds for DNA codes with constant GC-content

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    We derive theoretical upper and lower bounds on the maximum size of DNA codes of length n with constant GC-content w and minimum Hamming distance d, both with and without the additional constraint that the minimum Hamming distance between any codeword and the reverse-complement of any codeword be at least d. We also explicitly construct codes that are larger than the best previously-published codes for many choices of the parameters n, d and w.Comment: 13 pages, no figures; a few references added and typos correcte

    Improved Lower Bounds for Constant GC-Content DNA Codes

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    The design of large libraries of oligonucleotides having constant GC-content and satisfying Hamming distance constraints between oligonucleotides and their Watson-Crick complements is important in reducing hybridization errors in DNA computing, DNA microarray technologies, and molecular bar coding. Various techniques have been studied for the construction of such oligonucleotide libraries, ranging from algorithmic constructions via stochastic local search to theoretical constructions via coding theory. We introduce a new stochastic local search method which yields improvements up to more than one third of the benchmark lower bounds of Gaborit and King (2005) for n-mer oligonucleotide libraries when n <= 14. We also found several optimal libraries by computing maximum cliques on certain graphs.Comment: 4 page

    Nuclear DNA and protein content evaluation in Taxus plant cell cultures using multiparameter flow cytometry

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    Plant cell cultures of Taxus provide the most reliable production methods for the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel. In order to comprehend the inherent culture heterogeneity and production variability in cell cultures, it is essential that the cellular metabolism is studied at the genomic level. Genomic stability in plant cell cultures is crucial as it affects cell growth and division, metabolite accumulation and protein synthesis. A rapid and efficient method to prepare nuclei suspensions from aggregated cell cultures of Taxus was employed. Methods were subsequently developed to simultaneously stain them for DNA and protein content using Propidium Iodide and Fluorescein Isothiocyanate respectively. Flow cytometry was used to analyze and quantify the DNA content and genome size of Taxus using known reference species as standards. Furthermore, their genomic stability was evaluated by correlating DNA content and genome size with cell size and complexity, protein content, and elicitation effects using multiparameter flow cytometry. These techniques to evaluate and correlate various culture characteristics can be very useful in designing superior bio processes for enhanced production.&#xd;&#xa;&#xd;&#xa;&#xd;&#xa

    Quantification of Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum by real-time PCR system and zearalenone assessment in maize

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    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin produced by some species of Fusarium, especially by Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum. ZEA induces hyperoestrogenic responses in mammals and can result in reproductive disorders in farm animals. In the present study, a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay has been successfully developed for the detection and quantification of Fusarium graminearum based on primers targeting the gene PKS13 involved in ZEA biosynthesis. A standard curve was developed by plotting the logarithm of known concentrations of F. graminearum DNA against the cycle threshold (Ct) value. The developed real time PCR system was also used to analyze the occurrence of zearalenone producing F. graminearum strains on maize. In this context, DNA extractions were performed from thirty-two maize samples, and subjected to real time PCR. Maize samples also were analyzed for zearalenone content by HPLC. F. graminearum DNA content (pg DNA/ mg of maize) was then plotted against ZEA content (ppb) in maize samples. The regression curve showed a positive and good correlation (R2=0.760) allowing for the estimation of the potential risk from ZEA contamination. Consequently, this work offers a quick alternative to conventional methods of ZEA quantification and mycological detection and quantification of F. graminearum in maize

    Ambiguous Dependence Of Minimal Plant Generation Time On Nuclear DNA Content

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    AMBIGUOUS DEPENDENCE OF MINIMAL PLANT GENERATION TIME ON NUCLEAR DNA CONTENT Victor B. Ivanov The minimum generation time (MGT) of plant development was suggested to depend on nuclear DNA content, which varies in plants over wide limits1. In ephemeral species with the shortest MGT, the average C values were significantly lower than in annual species, whereas the average C values in annual species were lower than those in perennial plants. However, nobody has paid attention to the ratio of annual to perennial species number as a function of C values. Here I show that with increasing C the ratio of annual to perennial species increases to C values equal to 7-8 pg (monocots) and 6-7 pg (eudicots) and then decreases and that the fraction of annuals is abundant not at the lowest, but at some higher C levels. Hence, C value increase exerts an ambiguous effect on MGT. The C value is not the only factor, which determines the duration of the plant development. Nevertheless, the nuclear DNA content exerts a pronounced effect on MGT together with other diverse factors affecting the rate of plant development, especially at higher C values
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