15,323 research outputs found

    Differences in enteric methane emissions across four dairy production systems in the urbanizing environment of an Indian megacity

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    Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are rapidly urbanizing, leading to a high demand for high-quality animal products. Production increase is seen as a key to meeting this demand and reducing the global environmental impact of low-yielding dairy production system (DPS) often found in LMICs. Therefore, the present study assesses the relationship between enteric methane emissions and different dairy production strategies, taking DPS in the rural–urban interface of Bengaluru, an Indian megacity, as a case study. Twenty-eight dairy farms, evenly distributed across four DPS, were monitored for 1 year (eight visits at 6-week intervals). Following IPCC 2006 guidelines and a Tier 2 approach, enteric methane emissions from dairy cattle were calculated as carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2 eq). Dairy producers in ExtDPS, an extensive DPS found throughout the rural–urban interface of Bengaluru, fed their dairy cattle a high-quality diet, partly based on organic wastes from markets or neighbors, achieving 9.4 kg energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow and day. Dairy producers in Semi-ADPS, a semi-intensive and rural DPS, fed an average quality diet and achieved the lowest milk production (7.9 kg ECM cow−1 day−1; p < 0.05). Dairy producers in Semi-BDPS, another semi-intensive and rural DPS, relied on average quality but more abundant feedstuffs and achieved a production of 10.0 kg ECM cow−1 day−1. A similar milk yield (10.1 kg ECM cow−1 day−1) was achieved by IntDPS, an intensive and rural DPS. The intensity of enteric methane emissions was the highest in Semi-BDPS (1.38 kg CO2-eq kg−1 ECM; p < 0.05), lowest in ExtDPS (0.79 kg CO2-eq kg−1 ECM; p < 0.05), and intermediate in semi-ADPS and IntDPS. The results highlight the close relationship between the intensity of enteric methane emissions and the intensification strategies chosen by dairy producers based on locally available resources. They also underline the importance of region- and system-specific environmental assessments of production systems in LMICs

    Hematološki parametri i proizvodne osobine novog romanov × hissar križne pasmine ovce prilagođene europskoj stepskoj klimi

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    The study presented some haematological parameters and production characteristics of novel crossbred Romanov × Hissar and purebred Romanov sheep. A number of biochemical and haematological tests were performed to assess the level of adaptation of F1 crossbred progeny to local rearing conditions and evaluate its potential economic benefits for industrial production. The newly created crossbreed demonstrated significant increase in carcass production characteristics, with pre-slaughter weight increased by 29.2%, slaughter weight - by 39.7%, cooled carcass weight - by 40.5% and total yield ‒ by 8.2% compared to Romanov purebreed. The meat quality was also increased: fat content remained at the same level (6.6-6.8%), carcasses of F1 crossbreed lambs had higher relative weight of muscle tissue (78.8% vs. 73.3%), increased content of the 1st grade meat (94.6% vs. 91.6%), and higher caloric value of the meat (by 8.7%) compared to the parent purebreeds. An increased erythrocyte (by 3.1%) and leukocyte (by 6.45%) count was noted in the F1 rams. Haemoglobin level in F1 lambs was increased by 4.2%. Protein metabolism parameters were improved: blood serum total protein level ‒ by 11.2%, albumin ‒ by 11.4%, globulin ‒ by 10.4%, suggesting intensified protein metabolism in F1 lambs; this was also evidenced by the increased activities of aspartate transaminase (by 3.9%) and alanine transaminase (by 16.6%) in F1 lambs over Romanov purebred animals. Blood serum of crossbred lambs had higher bactericidal (by 1.92%), lysozyme (by 3.53%), and phagocytic activity. The increased haematological and biochemical parameters and enhanced antibacterial properties of serum indicate the enhanced metabolic activity in F1 crossbreed sheep and underlay the improved meat production parameters. Obtained results demonstrate increased adaptation of the novel crossbred to industrial rearing conditions and local microclimate of steppe zone of Ukraine, which is undergoing gradual aridization.U studiju su predstavljeni neki hematološki parametri i proizvodne karakteristike nove križne pasmine romanov × hissar i čistokrvne romanov ovce. Obavljen je niz biokemijskih i hematoloških testiranja u svrhu procjene razine prilagodbe F1 potomaka križane pasmine lokalnim uvjetima uzgoja i procjene potencijalne ekonomske koristi za stočarsku proizvodnju. Novostvorena križana pasmina pokazala je znatno povećanje proizvodnih karakteristika trupla, s masom prije klanja većom za 29,2 %, masom za vrijeme klanja za 39,7 %, masom ohlađenog trupla za 40,5 % i ukupnim prinosom većim za 8,2 % u usporedbi s čistokrvnom romanov ovcom. Povećala se i kvaliteta mesa; udio masnoća ostao je na istoj razini (6,6-6,8 %), trupla F1 janjadi križane pasmine imala su veću relativnu masu mišićnog tkiva (78,8 % u usporedbi sa 73,3 %), povećani udio mesa 1. razreda (94,6 % u usporedbi s 91,6 %) i veću kalorijsku vrijednost mesa (za 8,7 %) u usporedbi s čistokrvnim roditeljima. Povećani broj eritrocita (za 3,1 %) i leukocita (za 6,45 %) uočen je kod F1 ovnova. Razina hemoglobina u F1 janjadi bila je povećana za 4,2 %. Parametri metabolizma bjelančevina bili su poboljšani, tako se poboljšala i ukupna razina bjelančevina u krvnom serumu za 11,2 %, albumina za 11,4 %, globulina za 10,4 %, što ukazuje na intenzivniji metabolizam bjelančevina u F1 janjadi, a na to je ukazala i povećana aktivnost aspartat aminotransferaze (za 3,9 %) i alanin aminotransferaze (za 16,6 %) u F1 janjadi u usporedbi s čistokrvnim romanov ovcama. Krvni serum janjadi križane pasmine imao je i veću baktericidnu (za 1,92 %) aktivnost, aktivnost lizozima (za 3,53 %) i fagocitnu aktivnost. Pojačani hematološki i biokemijski parametri i poboljšana antibakterijska svojstva seruma ukazuju na veću metaboličku aktivnost u F1 križane pasmine ovaca i podupiru bolje parametre proizvodnje mesa. Dobiveni rezultati ukazuju na veću prilagodljivost nove križane pasmine uvjetima stočarskog uzgoja i lokalnoj mikroklimi stepske zone u Ukrajini, a koja se postupno isušuje

    A Study on the Innovation Capabilities of Transnational Entrepreneurs

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    This research presents the following research questions. First, what kind of "Japanese entrepreneur image" can bring out Japan's predominance in the global society? In Japan, there are only a few innovators who break away from conventional methods, by possessing innovative ideas that create new values, mobilizing the necessary resources, and building new mechanisms while adapting to change. Especially, there are notably few innovators who can play an active role globally. Second, what is the entrepreneurial education system? In order to understand a useful system for creating globally active innovators from Japan, first of all, it is necessary to grasp the specific innovation capabilities required of Japanese people. Therefore, this paper examines how Japanese entrepreneurs active in foreign markets were able to build a predominance in overseas markets and bring about innovation, even though they were small in scale and how it was possible to grow the local organizations (enterprises) sustainably. In order to shed light on these matters, the study conducts a case study by looking at the case of Company K, which was founded by a Japanese transnational entrepreneur who immigrated to the United States. From the analysis of the case study, this paper attempts to clarify the actual facts from the quest for business opportunities of transnational entrepreneurs to market development, and from the bankruptcy crisis to the growth of the company organization. Using the clarification of these facts as a key, the causes that enable transnational entrepreneurs to create innovation overseas and to survive their organizations in foreign markets are being examined. In addition to presenting an image of an innovator unique to the Japanese, who can play an active role in the global society, the innovation capabilities required for entrepreneurship education in Japan are also suggested

    Defining dangerous dogs

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    This article examines historical connections between social class, masculinity, and dog breeds in British culture. It gives an account of the nineteenth and twentieth century origins of the pit bull terrier and Staffordshire bull terrier, and the dogs’ links to masculine identity, working class culture and practices. It examines the introduction of the Dangerous Dogs Act 1991, UK legislation intended to protect the public from dangerous dogs. Through an examination of the discursive framing of pit bulls, this article argues that there are historical continuities that connect social class with specific dog types, and these associations have informed legislative decision-making. Analysing media and political discourses, this article establishes how the relationship between class identity and breed shaped the public and political debate on dangerous dogs and impacts the material reality of dogs’ lives

    The Silent Animals. Loving and Staging Animals in Jean Baudrillard’s Thought

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    In this paper, George P. Pefanis discusses the presence of animals on stage from the perspective of French philosopher Jean Baudrillard. Baudrillard examines animality in relation to reason and the division between humans and non-humans. He presents four broad categories based on their relationship to humans. This article analyses the Baudrillardian concept of ‘somatisation’, which includes both the corporeality and physical vulnerability of animals, as well as certain psychic traits. The article explores the sentimentality projected onto animals and the implied superiority of humans in such sentimentality. Additionally, it enquires how the principles of ‘love for animals’ can be integrated into a performance featuring animals on stage from an ethical and ontological perspective. To support this discussion, the paper examines two examples of performances: ‘Embracing Animal’ by American artist Kathy High and ‘The Other’ by American artist Rachel Rosenthal.In this paper, George P. Pefanis discusses the presence of animals on stage from the perspective of French philosopher Jean Baudrillard. Baudrillard examines animality in relation to reason and the division between humans and non-humans. He presents four broad categories based on their relationship to humans. This article analyses the Baudrillardian concept of ‘somatisation’, which includes both the corporeality and physical vulnerability of animals, as well as certain psychic traits. The article explores the sentimentality projected onto animals and the implied superiority of humans in such sentimentality. Additionally, it enquires how the principles of ‘love for animals’ can be integrated into a performance featuring animals on stage from an ethical and ontological perspective. To support this discussion, the paper examines two examples of performances: ‘Embracing Animal’ by American artist Kathy High and ‘The Other’ by American artist Rachel Rosenthal

    Propuesta de mejora de la productividad y sostenibilidad de una dehesa en Olivenza, Extremadura

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    La producción ganadera de vacas nodrizas tiene un gran impacto ambiental, social y económico en España. Su estrecha relación con los factores edafoclimáticos acentúa la importancia de mantener este sistema productivo y desarrollar herramientas que permitan mantener la sostenibilidad y rentabilidad de la producción. En este trabajo se ha realizado una búsqueda y síntesis de información acerca de la relación existente entre el suelo, la cubierta vegetal y los animales. Además se han recopilado las herramientas para establecer un sistema productivo sostenible y rentable. Entre estas herramientas encontramos la selección de razas adaptadas al medio, combinadas con cruces industriales. Para la mejora de la producción el pastoreo rotacional del sistema “Pastoreo Racional Voisin” y del “Manejo Holístico”. Además el uso de inseminación artificial a tiempo fijo. Por otro lado, para la mejora del suelo y pasto encontramos la reforestación, la fertilización con Superfosfato y la siembra con una mezcla de semillas pratenses. Se decidió implementar una carga ganadera de 0.74 UGM/ha con un cruce industrial de hembras de la raza Avileña Negra-Ibérica junto con machos de la raza Limusín, con una relación macho/hembra de 1/25. Se estimó una fertilización del 85% con una producción de terneros de 5-6 meses de edad y un peso vivo (PV) medio entre 174.5 y 194.5 kg. Para manejar al ganado se utilizó el sistema de pastoreo rotacional con las bases del Manejo Holístico. Se decidió que las hembras serían inseminadas por monta natural en enero y febrero, para obtener una paridera en octubre y noviembre. Se creó un rebaño con las vacas nodrizas, terneros y novillas, mientras que los toros permanecieron apartados durante los meses de no cubrición. La tasa de reposición de las hembras se consideró del 21% y de los machos del 25%. Los animales de reposición serían comprados a explotaciones de selección. Como herramientas complementarias para desarrollar la actividad se compraron bebederos tanque transportables, bebederos convencionales y una manga de manejo móvil. Para mejorar la producción de pastos (estimada en un 50% sobre la actual) se llevó a cabo una reforestación de 35 ha para establecer una densidad arbórea de 20 árboles/ha. Con el establecimiento de este sistema productivo se estima unos ingresos anuales de 66494.91 € y unos costes anuales de 58703.76 €. La inversión inicial será de 19424.08 €, con un Valor Actual Neto (VAN) de 37720.02 € y una Tasa Interna de Retorno (TIR) del 30%. Por tanto la implementación de este proyecto fue rentable. ABSTRACT Suckler cow production has a great environmental, social and economic impact in Spain. Its close relationship with soil and climatic factors accentuates the importance of maintaining this production system and developing tools to maintain the sustainability and profitability of production. In this work, a search for and synthesis of information on the relationship between soil, vegetation cover and animals has been carried out. In addition, tools have been compiled to establish a sustainable and profitable production system. These tools include the selection of breeds adapted to the environment, combined with industrial crossbreeding. For the improvement of production the rotational grazing of the "Voisin Rational Grazing" system and "Holistic Management". In addition, the use of fixed-time artificial insemination. On the other hand, for soil and pasture improvement we found reforestation, fertilisation with superphosphate and sowing with a mixture of grass seeds. It was decided to implement a stocking rate of 0.74 LU/ha with an industrial crossbreeding of Avileña Negra-Ibérica females with Limusín males, with a male/female ratio of 1/25. A fertilisation rate of 85% was estimated with a calf production of 5-6 months old and an average live weight (LW) between 174.5 and 194.5 kg. The rotational grazing system was used to manage the cattle on the basis of Holistic Management. It was decided that the females would be inseminated by natural mating in January and February, in order to obtain a calving in October and November. A herd was created with suckler cows, calves and heifers, while bulls were kept apart during the non-calving months. The replacement rate for females was considered to be 21% and for males 25%. The replacement animals would be purchased from selection farms. As complementary tools to develop the activity, transportable tank drinkers, conventional drinkers and a mobile handling chute were purchased. In order to improve pasture production (estimated at 50% of the current production), a 35 ha reforestation was carried out to establish a tree density of 20 trees/ha. With the establishment of this production system, annual income is estimated at 66494.91 € and annual costs at 58703.76 €. The initial investment will be 19424.08 €, with a Net Present Value (NPV) of 37720.02 € and an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 30%. Therefore the implementation of this project was profitable

    Past, present and future of the Tsigai sheep. Win or lose?

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    This overview highlights the significance of conserving the Tsigai sheep, an old native transboundary breed, and emphasizes the importance of conducting a longitudinal assessment of its population status. The analysis of the FAO statistical database and the national sheep yearbooks over a 15-year period reveals fluctuations in the population size of Tsigai sheep in the Republic of Serbia. Several factors, including bio-geographic, agro-economic, sociocultural and others, have influenced Tsigai sheep management. The observed population dynamics show a low point in 2009 with 1788 evidenced individuals, followed by a fluctuating increase, reaching its peak in 2023 with 5865 evidenced individuals in Serbia. It's noted that the breed has an endangered status if the total population size falls below 10,000 breeding ewes according to national and international regulations. Although the population has stabilized in recent years, this breed in the Republic of Serbia is still categorized as endangered and vulnerable. Challenges to the population include uncontrolled crossbreeding with more productive breeds like Ille de France, Würtemberg and Suffolk. Economic and demographic reasons, contributing to this with erosion of the population, being a significant concern. Despite economic factors, the importance of conserving Tsigai sheep is underscored by cultural, historical and heritage considerations. Long-term supportive measures are deemed essential not only for economic reasons but primarily to ensure the survival of the breed, reflecting its cultural, historical and heritage valueProgramme and abstract

    Determinants of technical efficiency in beef cattle production in Kenya

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    The stochastic metafrontier method is applied to estimate technical efficiency levels in beef cattle production in Kenya. Subsequently, a Tobit model is used to assess factors that might influence efficiency. Results show that the average efficiency level is 0.69, suggesting that there is considerable scope to improve beef production in Kenya. Considering the importance of the livestock enterprise to rural livelihoods and its potential role in poverty reduction, there is need for appropriate development strategies for enhanced efficiency. In particular, livestock development policies should focus on provision of technology-related services. For instance, promoting use of controlled cattle crossbreeding methods would enhance productivity gains. Effective institutional support is also necessary in order to improve efficiency, including improved access to market contracts, better farm management skills and off-farm income opportunities.</p

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids as contaminants

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    Pirolizidinski alkaloidi su tvari koje prirodno nalazimo u nekim biljnim vrstama (pretežito vrste porodica Boraginaceae, Compositae/Asteraceae, Leguminosae/Fabaceae, Apocynaceae, Ranunculaceae, Scrophulariaceae), a produkt su njihovog sekundarnog metabolizma i primarno im služe kao obrana od biljojeda. Njihova akutna toksičnost, genotoksičnost i potencijalni karcinogeni učinak na ljude poznati su već jako dugo vremena, a najčešće je toksičnim učinkom u najvećoj mjeri pogođena jetra. Nove spoznaje sve više ukazuju na to da biljke koje prirodno ne sadrže pirolizidinske alkaloide uslijed rasta na istom staništu kao i biljke koje ih sadrže, slučajne kontaminacije ili posljedičnog križanja vrsta, postaju biljke u kojima je moguće naći određeni sadržaj pirolizidinskih alkaloida. Time se povećava sveukupna moguća izloženost pirolizidinskim alkaloidima i to iz više različitih izvora te raste mogućnost ispoljavanja štetnih učinaka po zdravlje, osobito kod redovitih potrošača. Kako bi se ograničila izloženost pirolizidinskim alkaloidma, Komisija Europske unije je donijela odluku da se dozvoljeni sadržaj pirolizidinskih alkaloida dodatno ograniči u proizvodima poput čajeva, biljnih infuzija, biljnih dodatka prehrani, pripravaka na bazi peludi i začinima te provedba te odluke kreće od 1. srpnja 2022. Iako o pirolizidinskim alkaloidima već puno toga znamo, svakodnevno dolazimo do novih spoznaja. Važno je naglasiti da je znanje moć koja nam omogućava da u svjetlu novih spoznaja poduzmemo mjere koje su u našoj moći kako bi se osigurala sigurnost i zdravlje opće populacije u čemu značajnu ulogu ima i sam farmaceut.Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are compounds that naturally occur in some herbal species (mostly species of plant families Boraginaceae, Compositae/Asteraceae, Leguminosae/Fabaceae, Apocynaceae, Ranunculaceae, Scrophulariaceae) and they are products of secondary metabolism that plants have developed as defense mechanism against insect herbivores. The acute toxicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenic potential for humans caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been known for a very long time and usually liver is the most affected by its toxic effects. Recently, it has been shown that a lot of plants that naturally do not contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids are starting to show otherwise. Certain content of pyrrolizidine alkaloids has been found in plants due to the same habitat, contamination or crossbreeding of species. By this appearance, rate of possible exposure to pyrrolizidine alkaloids significantly increases and it is spread to more various sources what presents potential health hazard, especially in regular consumers. In order to restrict pyrrolizidine alkaloid exposure, The European Commission has brought the decision to additionally limit content of pyrrolizidine alkaloids that is allowed in products like tea, herbal infusions, herbal supplements, pollen based products and spices which will be implemented on 1. July 2022. Even though we know a lot about pyrrolizidine alkaloids, regularly we come to the new insights. It is important to emphasize the fact that knowledge is power which allows us to implement measures due to the new insights to ensure safety and preserve health of population in which significant role has the pharmacist
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