6,142 research outputs found

    Exploring Herbal Remedies for Anti-Leishmanial Activity: A Comprehensive Review

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    - Leishmaniasis remains a serious neglected illness worldwide, posing significant challenges in its treatment due to the side effects of existing medications and the rising cases of parasite resistance resulting from indiscriminate treatment. To address this issue, exploring complementary remedies using natural products presents a promising option by combining the empirical knowledge of local populations with scientific research on the medicinal properties of plants. Several studies have investigated herbal treatments for leishmaniasis; however, more research is needed to identify safe and non-toxic remedies. To consolidate the latest findings, researchers from around the globe have compiled a comprehensive article on herbal and organic medicines used to treat leishmaniasis. While many medicinal plants have not been extensively studied, promising candidates have undergone prospective clinical trials. Recent articles have explored the active constituents of these medicinal plants, such as quinones, phenolic compounds, lignans, tannins, terpenes, and oxylipins, shedding light on their potential therapeutic benefits. Pharmacognosy views medicinal plants as valuable sources for developing novel medications and supporting traditional therapies, offering a practical approach to managing various illnesses. In summary, harnessing the power of natural goods and integrating traditional knowledge with scientific research provides a viable and desirable strategy to combat leishmaniasis, promoting safer and more effective treatment options in the future

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by Lallemantia royleana leaf Extract: Their Bio-Pharmaceutical and catalytic properties

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    The study of the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesis based-green methods become more interesting recently due to their low-cost preparation, eco-friendly and non-toxic precursors. The present study approved the ability of the Lallemantia royleana (Benth. in Wall.) Benth. leaf extract for the synthesis of AgNPs for the first time. The synthesized AgNPs were physico-chemical characterized using ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanin, tannin contents, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and cytotoxic activities of L. royleana leaf extract and the synthesized AgNPs were investigated. The biocatalytic activity of prepared AgNPs was assessed on methylene blue as a pollutant organic dye. The TEM examination showed that the synthesized AgNPs were predominantly spherical with some mixed shapes and crystalline with average size 34.47 ± 1.6 nm, and showed a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak at 425 nm. The zeta potential value was −24.1 mV indicating the stability of produced AgNPs. The new prepared AgNPs have lower total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanin, tannin contents than L. royleana leaf extract. In addition, the new prepared AgNPs demonstrated the higher DPPH radical scavenging activity (87 %) and the ABTS radical scavenging activity (77 %) at the maximum prepared concentration of 250 μg mL−1 as compared to the L. royleana leaf extract (62 % and 58 %, respectively). The produced AgNPs also exhibited the higher antimicrobial activity against both the Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and the Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri) bacteria and the Candida strains (Candida glabrata and Candida albicans) as compared to the L. royleana leaf extract. The resulting AgNPs indicated a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect on human red-blood cell (RBC) membrane stabilization assay and had more activity (72 %) compared to the L. royleana leaf extract (61 %) at 250 µg mL−1. The prepared AgNPs showed promising in vitro anti-arthritic activity evaluated by 73 % compared to 58 % in case of L. royleana leaf extract. The new produced AgNPs showed the higher cytotoxic effect against the human hepatoma (Hep-G2) and the human breast (MCF-7) cancer cells compared to the L. royleana leaf extract with 79.3 % and 77.2 % at 250 µg/mL, respectively. The obtained results revealed also that the green synthesized AgNPs were capable to catalyze MB dye. Therefore, the obtained results provide a promising route of the green synthesis of AgNPs using L. royleana leaf extract with considerable biopharmaceuticals and catalytic applications

    Tracking Perfluoroalkyl Substances From Wastewater Influent to its Accumulation in Vegetables and Forage Grass

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    Per and poly-fluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) are a class of chemicals that are persistent in the environment. PFAS was found in wastewater, which can be used after wastewater treatment for irrigation water, and in the biosolids that can be mixed with soils to provide nutrients and generally improve soil quality. This study found when wastewater was used it increases the level of PFAS in vegetables and forage grass. PFAS concentrations were tracked from the influent of the wastewater treatment plant to the effluent, to the irrigation water, to the soil, and finally into the vegetable and forage grass grown on this treated wastewater and biosolids. Similar to other studies, some PFAS compounds were found to increase in concentration after wastewater treatment but dropped in concentration as it mixed with surface water. Similar levels of PFAS were found in rainwater and treated wastewater irrigation spigots. The level of PFAS measured in vegetables even grown in background soils without exposure to treated wastewater or biosolids were high enough that their consumption would exceed the safe exposure levels for Perfluorooctanoic acid and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid. This is suspected to be because of the PFAS concentrations that these background soils are exposed to rainwater. The use of biosolids in soil was also found to increase the level of PFAS in forage grass when compared to forage grass grown without the use of biosolids so the use of biosolids on home gardens using treated wastewater for irrigation is not recommended. Physical properties of PFAS are strongly correlated with the accumulation in various media, but to tease that out of data a linear mixed effect model had to be used

    Efficacy and safety of Lianhua Qingwen granule in the treatment of non-influenza viral pneumonia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical study

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    ObjectiveTo observe the effectiveness and safety of Lianhua Qingwen granule in the treatment of non-influenza viral pneumonia.MethodsThis study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were clinically diagnosed with viral pneumonia (negative for influenza virus) were randomly divided into the Lianhua Qingwen granule trial group and placebo control group. Patients in the trial group was given Lianhua Qingwen granule, 2 bags at a time, 3 times a day, and the controls were given placebo, with a treatment course of 7 days. Patients’ clinical symptoms and signs, and treatment-associated adverse events were observed. Subjects should be included in the full analysis set (FAS) as long as they were all given the medication and had an effectiveness test performed after randomization. Subjects should be included in the Per Protocol Set (PPS),a subset of the total analysis set, which should contain those with strong compliance, no protocol violations, and complete baseline values for the primary indicators.ResultsA total of 169 subjects were enrolled in 12 subcenters, including 151 (76 in the trial group and 75 in the control group) in the FAS and 140 (68 in the trial group and 72 in the control group) in the PPS. After 7 days of treatment, the clinical symptom relief rates were 82.98% (FAS) and 87.12% (PPS) in the trial group, and 75.11% (FAS) and 76.02% (PPS) in the control group, respectively. The clinical symptom relief rates in the trial group were significantly higher than those in the control group (p < 0.001). Significant improvements in single symptoms of cough and expectoration in the trial group were observed compared with the control group (p < 0.05). There were no statistical differences in fever, sputum color change, chest pain, muscle pain, dyspnea, chills, and thirst between the two groups (p > 0.05).SafetyThere were no significant differences in body weight, vital signs, blood routine, urine routine, stool routine, and blood biochemical indicators (CK, AST, ALT, Cr, and Bun) between the two groups before and after treatment (p > 0.05). During treatment, there were no significant differences in the incidence of adverse events and serious adverse events between the two groups (p > 0.05).ConclusionLianhua Qingwen granules improved the clinical symptoms of patients with non-influenza virus pneumonia, especially ameliorating cough and expectoration. Lianhua Qingwen granules were associated with good safety

    The impacts of Crassula helmsii on Northwest European freshwater macroinvertebrates

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    Crassula helmsii (New Zealand pygmyweed) is an Australasian aquatic plant which has invaded European freshwaters since the 1950s, provoking widespread concern amongst conservationists. The ecological impacts of C. helmsii invasion remain unclear, however, particularly with respect to macroinvertebrates. The main aim of this thesis is therefore to determine how Crassula helmsii impacts recipient macroinvertebrate assemblages in small lentic waterbodies across its invasive range. To this end, I surveyed small lentic waterbodies across the UK, Belgium and the Netherlands, including invaded and ecologically similar uninvaded sites in each region, assessing the impacts of C. helmsii invasion on macroinvertebrates using a suite of taxonomic and functional diversity metrics. I found that Crassula helmsii invasion was associated with slightly elevated macroinvertebrate taxon richness, but that alien taxa were more abundant in C. helmsii sites. Additionally, assemblage composition apparently shifted following invasion, particularly with respect to taxa and traits associated with detritivory. An additional aim of the thesis is to determine the mechanisms underpinning C. helmsii’s impacts on macroinvertebrate assemblages. To achieve this, I conducted mesocosm experiments investigating the preference of four herbivore and detritivore species for C. helmsii versus native macrophytes, as well as a field experiment to investigate the colonisation and breakdown of C. helmsii litter in nature. Macroinvertebrate consumers exhibited divergent preferences for C. helmsii vs. native macrophyte tissues, possibly associated with interspecific differences in feeding mode and tolerance to phenolic defences. In the field, Crassula helmsii litter was colonised by a comparable macroinvertebrate assemblage to the native macrophyte Callitriche stagnalis, but decomposed at a slower rate, indicating resistance to mechanical and/or microbial breakdown. By the end of the trial, C. helmsii detritus hosted more abundant macroinvertebrates. The recalcitrance of C. helmsii detritus, along with its year-round abundance, is likely to drive impacts on macroinvertebrate detritivores that were observed in field surveys. This thesis also aimed to contextualise C. helmsii’s impacts by summarising the global ecological consequences of alien aquatic macrophyte invasions. To achieve this, I conducted a meta-analysis, finding overall negative effects of alien macrophytes on the diversity of native biota, but a significant positive effect of submerged alien macrophytes on macroinvertebrates, congruent with the elevated macroinvertebrate taxon richness observed amongst C. helmsii in my field surveys. In summary, Crassula helmsii appears to have limited, and not wholly negative, impacts on recipient NW European macroinvertebrate assemblages associated with dense vegetation in shallow waters. The palatability of C. helmsii varies between consumers but is not clearly different to that of native macrophytes. Impacts of C. helmsii on macroinvertebrates appear likely to be driven (in part) by the palatability, abundance and recalcitrance of C. helmsii detritus

    Diachronic study of the floristic diversity of the Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania, Algeria

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    This study aimed to provide knowledge on the mural flora of the Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania. Through floristic surveys, we complied a catalog listing168 vascular plants belonging to 141 genera and 58 families. Asteraceae and Poaceae were the most dominant families, constituting 24.81% of the species. Dominant characteristics of this flora included therophytes (41.07%) and Mediterranean floristic elements (67.26%). To update the floristic list of the Mausoleum, we compared our data with 3 old lists from 1867, 1928 and 1985. The diachronic analysis reveals the persistance of 35 taxa representing 16.27% of 215 taxa listed since the first inventory, and the emergence of 30 new taxa (13.95%). The diversity of this wall flora is associated with changes in the landscape around the Mausoleum as well as its conservation status

    Plastome reconstruction to understand the hybrid origin of the invasive Kalanchoe ×houghtonii D.B. Ward (Crassulaceae)

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    Póster presentado en el III Simposio Anual de Botánica Española celebrado en el Institut Botànic de Barcelona, Barcelona, 25-26 de noviembre de 2022Invasive alien species (IAS) are one of the main causes of extinction of native species, and their spread is currently favoured by climate change and globalisation. Directly related to globalisation, one of the key biological factors leading to invasiveness in plants is hybridisation. This process can decrease the deleterious effects of a population bottleneck and/or confer an increased adaptative capacity. We are approaching the study of invasiveness through the study of the hybrids Kalanchoe ×houghtonii whose parental species are Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Kalanchoe tubiflora, both from Madagascar. These taxa are causing increasing damage to the native flora of the coastal areas of the Mediterranean region by the displacement of native species. Although the first known hybrids were artificially created by year 1939 in California, it is also possible that hybridisation has occurred naturally. According to our cytogenetic results, there are two cytotypes naturally occurring in the Mediterranean area, a triploid (2n = 3x = 51) and a tetraploid (2n = 4x = 68), the latter reporting an invasive behaviour. To better understand the hybridization history and the invasive behaviour of Kalanchoe ×houghtonii, we aim to study the plastome sequences of the hybrids and parental species, from different locations in the Mediterranean region. Specifically, we aim to answer the following questions: (1) which species is the maternal plastome donor of the hybrids? (2) what is the genomic diversity among hybrid plastome sequences? and (3) could we infer single or multiple origins of the invasive hybrid

    Actividad antioxidante y antimicrobiana de especies aromáticas de la flora salvadoreña, Piper standleyi Trel. y Zanthoxylum culantrilo Kunth, colectadas en la Laguna Verde, Apaneca, Ahuchapán

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    Se realizaron 2 viajes de bioprospección en La Laguna Verde de Apaneca en Ahuachapán, se identificaron, con la ayuda de un profesional botánico del Museo de Historia Natural de El Salvador, 35 especies vegetales pertenecientes a 27 familias botánicas, 10 poseen propiedades aromáticas interesantes, se seleccionaron 2 especies vegetales fuentes de aceite esencial, Piper standleyi (Hojas) y Zanthoxylum culantrilo (Hojas), para llevar a cabo la extracción y cuantificación por medio del método de hidrodestilación con el aparato Clevenger para determinar la actividad antioxidante utilizando el método DPPH y la actividad antimicrobiana por el método Kirby-Bauer; por otro lado, se utilizó el aceite esencial proveniente de las hojas de Citrus x aurantifolia, para estandarizar dichos métodos. La investigación experimental fue llevada a cabo durante los meses de marzo a octubre del 2022 en el Laboratorio de Investigación en Productos Naturales ubicado en la Facultad de Química y Farmacia de la Universidad de El Salvador y en el Laboratorio de Microbiología del Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Salud (CENSALUD). Los rendimientos (% v/m) de aceites esenciales de las hojas obtenidos por medio del aparato Clevenger fueron de 0.03% para Piper standleyi y de 0.07 % para Zanthoxylum culantrilo. En la determinación de actividad antioxidante, la especie Zanthoxylum culantrilo, exhibió mayor actividad con un IC50 de 45.37±1.01 mg/mL y Piper standleyi, presentó un IC50 de 182.50±1.95 mg/mL, exhibiendo así, una menor actividad antioxidante. En cuanto a la actividad antimicrobiana, los aceites fueron ensayados frente a 3 bacterias Gram (-): Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli y una bacteria Gram (+): Staphylococcus aureus, a concentraciones desde 25 µg/mL hasta 10,000 µg/mL, así, solo el aceite esencial de Piper standleyi presentó halos de inhibición <15mm de diámetro frente a S. aureus, que considera como baja actividad antimicrobiana a las concentraciones ensayadas

    From grasses to succulents - development and function of distinct stomatal subsidiary cells.

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    Stomata are breathing pores on leaves that balance photosynthetic carbon dioxide uptake and water vapor loss. Stomatal morphology and complexity are rather diverse when considering stomatal subsidiary cells (SCs). Subsidiary cells are adjacent to the central guard cells (GCs) and are morphologically distinct from other epidermal cells. Yet, how various SCs develop and whether and how they support stomatal gas exchange physiology outside of the grass family is largely unknown. Here, we discuss the development, ontogeny, and putative function of paracytic vs anisocytic SCs, which can be found in grasses and Crassulaceae succulents, respectively. First, we highlight recent advances in understanding how grasses form stomatal SCs. We then summarize novel insights into stomatal development in SC-less Arabidopsis to speculate on how this stomatal program might be rewired to enable anisocytic SC formation. Finally, we discuss the functional relevance of paracytic SCs in grasses and the putative roles of anisocytic SCs in succulents

    La invasora Kalanchoe tubiflora ha ampliado su nicho ecológico durante su conquista del planeta

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    Póster presentado en el V Congreso Ecuatoriano de Mastozoología, III Congreso Nacional de Manejo de Vida Silvestre y I Congreso Ecuatoriano de Centros de Rescate, Zoológicos, Acuarios y Afines, efectuados entre el 19 y 21 de octubre de 2022, en la ciudad Samborondón, GuayasUno de los temas de estudio más interesantes y a la vez menos conocidos de las invasiones biológicas es si el nicho ecológico de una especie se ha conservado o, alternativamente, ha divergido durante su proceso de invasión (es decir, si aparece en ambientes ecológicos diferentes de aquellos donde vive en su área nativa). Kalanchoe tubiflora (Crassulaceae) es una planta bienal o perenne nativa del centro-sur de Madagascar, donde se encuentra en prados abiertos o sobre areniscas y rocas. Naturalizada en las zonas cálidas y templadas de todos los continentes (excepto la Antártida), está considerada como invasora en varias regiones del planeta, como por ejemplo Australia, Estados Unidos, Cuba y China. Previamente al análisis se ha procedido a una recopilación de registros de presencia a nivel mundial de la especie. La procedencia de los datos ha sido variada e incluye publicaciones científicas, herbarios, bases de datos online, portales de ciencia ciudadana (p. ej. iNaturalist) y observaciones personales de los propios autores del trabajo. Para determinar posibles cambios de nicho en K. tubiflora se han usado modelos de distribución de especies [en el espacio geográfico (G)] y análisis comparativos de nicho [en el espacio ambiental (E)]. En el espacio-G, se ha utilizado modelización de nicho mediante el logaritmo de máxima entropía (implementado en MaxEnt) y proyectando los modelos obtenidos en el área nativa sobre las áreas invadidas, y viceversa. En el espacio-E se han usado distintas aproximaciones que evalúan posibles diferencias de nicho entre el área nativa y las áreas invadidas, como por ejemplo el PCA-env en el que las áreas climáticas del background se utilizan para realizar un análisis de componentes principales. Los resultados indican que el nicho climático se ha expandido considerablemente respecto a las condiciones ambientales en su área nativa (Madagascar) durante su proceso de colonización (especialmente en lo referente a las variables relacionadas con la temperatura), lo que podría haber contribuido a que haya colonizado los cinco continentes.N
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