482,174 research outputs found

    The Corporate Income Tax System: Overview and Options for Reform

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    The corporate income tax system has been a focus of many recent debates about tax reform and the economy. Many economists and policy makers argue that reform of the corporate income tax system is needed, although a variety of rationales on why and how have been offered. Some argue that a simpler system with lower tax rates is necessary to encourage domestic investment, employment, and economic growth. Others argue that reform is needed to close loopholes and restrict access to tax havens, both of which are seen by some to allow corporations to avoid taxes too easily. A number of others have advocated for corporate tax reform on the basis that the current system puts American corporations at a disadvantage when compared with foreign competitors. Many believe it is a combination of these arguments that justify reforming the corporate tax system. This report presents information and research on the corporate tax to help policy makers understand and evaluate arguments presented in the tax reform debate. Many of the topics and ideas discussed here are analyzed in greater detail in the other CRS reports and academic research referenced throughout. This report first reviews the structure of the corporate income tax. Data on which companies pay the corporate tax, corporate tax revenue, and how the U.S. system compares to the rest of the world are then presented and analyzed. Next, the economic effects of the corporate tax are reviewed—including a discussion of the purpose of the corporate tax, who bears the burden of the tax, and how to evaluate alternative corporate tax systems. The report then reviews broad reform options and concludes with a comparison of specific proposals that have been offered

    Effective profit taxation and the elasticity of the corporate income tax base: Evidence from German corporate tax return data

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    We estimate the elasticity of corporate taxable income with respect to the effective corporate tax rate on the basis of a pseudo-panel constructed from corporate tax return micro data for the period 1998-2001, a period which saw the introduction of a major corporate tax reform in Germany. Endogeneity of the effective tax rate is controlled for by an instrumental variable approach. Our instrument for the observed effective corporate tax rate is the counterfactual effective tax rate a corporation would face in a particular period had there be no endogenous change of corporate profits. This counterfactual is obtained from a detailed microsimulation model of the corporate sector based on tax return micro data. We find a statistically significant and relatively large point estimate of the average tax base elasticity, which implies that a reduction of the statutory corporate tax rate would reduce corporate tax receipts less tha n proportionally due to income shifting activities. We also find some statistically weak evidence for the hypothesis that the tax base elasticity is higher for corporations that may benefit from various forms of tax shields. --corporate income taxation,tax base elasticity,micro simulation

    Corporate Income Tax Rate Database - Canada and the Provinces, 1960-2005

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    This database includes rates for several elements of the corporate income tax set by the federal government (the basic rate, the corporate surtax, federal tax abatement and the manufacturing and processing profits tax credit) as well as corporate income tax rates by province for the years 1960-2005.database, corporate tax, corporate income tax, provincial, province, Canada, time series, Agribusiness, Demand and Price Analysis, Industrial Organization,

    Corporate tax policy and incorporation in the EU.

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    In Europe, declining corporate tax rates have come along with rising tax-to-GDP ratios. This paper explores to what extent income shifting from the personal to the corporate tax base can explain these diverging developments. We exploit a panel of European data on legal form of business to analyze income shifting via incorporation. The results suggest that the effect is significant and large. It implies that the revenue effects of lower corporate tax rates possibly induced by tax competition - will partly show up in lower personal tax revenues rather than lower corporate tax revenues. Simulations suggest that between 12% and 21% of corporate tax revenue can be attributed to income shifting. Income shifting is found to have raised the corporate tax-to-GDP ratio by some 0.25%-points since the early 1990s.European Union; Corporate tax; Personal tax; Incorporation; Income shifting

    Effective Profit Taxation and the Elasticity of the Corporate Income Tax Base: Evidence from German Corporate Tax Return Data

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    We estimate the elasticity of corporate taxable income with respect to the effective corporate tax rate on the basis of a pseudo-panel constructed from corporate tax return micro data for the period 1998-2001, a period which saw the introduction of a major corporate tax reform in Germany. Endogeneity of the effective tax rate is controlled for by an instrumental variable approach. Our instrument for the observed effective corporate tax rate is the counterfactual effective tax rate a corporation would face in a particular period had there be no endogenous change of corporate profits. This counterfactual is obtained from a detailed microsimulation model of the corporate sector based on tax return micro data. We find a statistically significant and relatively large point estimate of the average tax base elasticity, which implies that a reduction of the statutory corporate tax rate would reduce corporate tax receipts less than proportionally due to income shifting activities. We also find some statistically weak evidence for the hypothesis that the tax base elasticity is higher for corporations that may benefit from various forms of tax shields.corporate income taxation, tax base elasticity, micro simulation

    Corporate tax competition and public capital stock

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    This paper argues that the governmental decisions on corporate tax and public capital stock are not independent. In order to explain this relationship, we have built a general equilibrium model of corporate tax competition where governments supply public capital and compete for corporate profits. When international tax competition drives the statutory tax rate down from 50% to 30%, public capital stock goes down by 10% of GDP. To confirm this relation, we estimate two policy functions for 18 OECD countries. We find that corporate tax rate and public investment are endogenous and that a decline of 20% in the corporate tax rate, driven by competition, reduces public investment by 0.5% to 0.9% of GDP. We also find evidence that there is international competition in both policy tools and that tax competition increases with the degree of openness of the economy

    Corporate tax policy, entrepreneurship and incorporation in the EU

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    In Europe, declining corporate tax rates have come along with rising tax-to-GDP ratios. This paper explores to what extent income shifting from the personal to the corporate tax base can explain these diverging developments. A panel of European data on firm births and legal form of business was used to analyze income shifting via increased entrepreneurship and incorporation. The results suggest that lower corporate taxes exert an ambiguous effect on entrepreneurship. The effect on incorporation is significant and large. It implies that the revenue effects of lower corporate tax rates - possibly induced by tax competition -- partly show up in lower personal tax revenues rather than lower corporate tax revenues. Simulations suggest that between 10% and 17% of corporate tax revenue can be attributed to income shifting. Income shifting is found to have raised the corporate tax-to-GDP ratio by some 0.2%-points since the early 1990s.Corporate tax, Personal tax, Entrepreneurship, Incorporation, Income shifting, de Mooij, Nicodème

    Corporate Tax Policy, Entrepreneurship and Incorporation in the EU

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    In Europe, declining corporate tax rates have come along with rising tax-to-GDP ratios. This paper explores to what extent income shifting from the personal to the corporate tax base can explain these diverging developments. We exploit a panel of European data on firm births and legal form of business to analyze income shifting via increased entrepreneurship and incorporation. The results suggest that lower corporate taxes exert an ambiguous effect on entrepreneurship. The effect on incorporation is significant and large. It implies that the revenue effects of lower corporate tax rates – possibly induced by tax competition -- partly show up in lower personal tax revenues rather than lower corporate tax revenues. Simulations suggest that between 10% and 17% of corporate tax revenue can be attributed to income shifting. Income shifting is found to have raised the corporate tax-to-GDP ratio by some 0.2%-points since the early 1990s.corporate tax, personal tax, entrepreneurship, incorporation, income shifting
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