91 research outputs found

    Sociodemographic, nutritional and health status factors associated with adherence to Mediterranean diet in an agricultural Moroccan adult's population

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    Background. Numerous studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) on many chronic diseases, including chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the adherence of a rural population to the Mediterranean diet, to identify the sociodemographic and lifestyle determinants and to analyze the association between adherence to MD and CKD. Material and Methods. In a cross-sectional study, data on sociodemographic, lifestyle factors, clinical, biochemical parameters and diet were collected on a sample of 154 subjects. Adherence to MD was assessed according to a simplified MD score based on the daily frequency of intake of eight food groups (vegetables, legumes, fruits, cereal or potatoes, fish, red meat, dairy products and MUFA/SFA), using the sex specific sample medians as cut-offs. A value of 0 or 1 was assigned to consumption of each component according to its presumed detrimental or beneficial effect on health. Results. According to the simplified MD score, the study data show that high adherence (44.2%) to MD was characterized by intakes high in vegetables, fruits, fish, cereals, olive oil, and low in meat and moderate in dairy. Furthermore, several factors such as age, marital status, education level, and hypertension status were associated with the adherence to MD in the study population. The majority of subjects with CKD have poor adherence to the MD compared to non-CKD with a statistically insignificant difference. Conclusions. In Morocco, maintaining the traditional MD pattern play crucial role for public health. More research is needed in this area to precisely measure this association

    Cross sectional study of vitamin B12 supplementation in Slovak and Czech vegans

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    Background. The number of vegans in the world is growing and in Slovakia and the Czech Republic they make up 1% of the population. Vegan diet excludes all foods of animal origin and vegans who do not use vitamin B12 supplements are at risk of the vitamin B12 deficiency. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine what proportion of Czech and Slovak vegans use vitamin B12 supplements regularly, irregularly or not at all and what is their supplemental cobalamin intake. Materials and methods. The research involved 1337 self-identified vegans from Slovakia and the Czech Republic who were interviewed using the CAWI (Computer-Assisted Web Interview) method. Participants were recruited by posts in veganism-themed social media groups. Results. Out of 1337 vegans 55.5% supplemented cobalamin regularly, 32.54% irregularly and 11.97% were not supplementing. Rate of not supplementing individuals was 5.04% higher in Slovaks than in Czechs. Short-term vegans had a significantly higher rate of not supplementing individuals (17.99%) compared to medium-term (8.37%) and long-term vegans (7.50%). Mean weekly cobalamin intake from supplements was 2938.34±2566.60 μg in regularly supplementing vegans compared to 1630.31±1949.27 μg in irregularly supplementing vegans, particularly due to the lower weekly supplementation frequency among irregularly (2.93) compared to regularly supplementing vegans (5.27). Conclusions. The rate of supplementation in Slovak and particularly Czech vegans was higher than in other countries. The number of not supplementing individuals was significantly higher among short-term vegans, indicating that there is still a need for education on the importance of adequate and regular cobalamin supplementation, especially in new vegans. Our results support the hypothesis that the reason for higher rate of cobalamin deficiency in irregularly compared to regularly supplementing vegans is the lower cobalamin intake caused by lower supplementation frequency

    Objective Branch Selection with Multi Criteria Decision Making in Internal Audit Planning

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    In recent years, expectations from internal audit have changed with globalization, diversification of risks, technological innovations and developments, international standards and legal regulations. Within the framework of both legal regulations and international internal audit standards, it has emerged that internal audit activities should integrate a risk-based perspective into internal audit processes rather than the traditional perspective. While this situation affects all internal audit units operating in different sectors, it has affected the internal audit units of banks, which are mandatory units for banks in Turkey, relatively more. The first stage of the risk-based perspective in internal audit is the planning of the areas to be audited through the risk assessments carried out objectively by the internal audit units. However, there are some difficulties as there is no method for objective risk assessment in practice. For this purpose, in this study, an application has been proposed on how a bank's internal audit unit can objectively prioritize the branches that should be audited, based on an imaginary example. In the proposed application, criteria for the branches to be prioritized in the annual internal audit plan were defined and scored, their weights were calculated with the standard deviation method, and the prioritization rankings for the branches were carried out using the ARAS method

    Energy expenditure during training and official league match in professional female soccer players - a pilot study

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    Background. The most important component of a well-balanced diet is the proper energetic value. However, adequate estimation of the body’s energy needs is difficult for professional athletes, including soccer players. There is little research showing energy expenditure during training and lack of studies on the energy expenditure of professional female soccer players during a match. Objective. The aim of our study was to estimate energy expenditure during training and official league match in female soccer players and comparing it. Material and methods. Seven Polish professionally practicing soccer females (23.4±6,6 years old; 63.5±7.8 kg; 168.5±5.8 cm; 46±4.4 kg fat-free mass) participated in the study. The participants had their height and body mass measured. Energy expenditure during activities was measured by means of a SenseWear Pro3 Armband device. Body composition was assessed with Akern BIA 101 Anniversary Sport Edition device. Results. Statistically higher energy expenditure was achieved in the study group during the match hour (452±55 kcal/hour) compared to the training hour (353±28 kcal/ hour) as well as in the case of energy expenditure per hour of activity per kg of fat-free mass (match: 9.94±1.75 kcal/kg fat-free mass/hour; training: 7.71±0.8 kcal/kg fat-free mass/hour). During one hour of training, more time was spent on sedentary, light, and moderate activities, but the difference was statistically significant only for light activities. More time during the match hour than during the training hour was spent on vigorous and very vigorous activities. Conclusions. In conclusion, the energy expenditure of the players during the match was greater than in the case of the planned intensive training, which was caused by the timeshare of more intense physical activities and going a longer distance during match

    Benzene health risk assessment for neurological disorders of gas station employees in Rayong Province, Thailand

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    Background. The main job of employees working in the area of fuel service stations is to provide refueling services to customers. Therefore, operators at petrol stations may be exposed to chemicals for long periods, potentially affecting their health in nervous system. Objectives. This study aims to assess the risk of benzene exposure to the nervous system in gas station operators. Data were collected from 100 fuel service personnel working at fuel dispensers and 100 employees working outside fuel dispensers, accounting to 200 cases. Material and methods. Data were collected using interview questionnaires. Urine samples were used for the analysis of t,t-muconic acid. Results. The results showed that t,t-muconic acid concentration is 431.23 ± 233.69 μg/g.cr (449.28 ± 213.32 μg/g.cr at fuel dispensers vs 413.18 ± 252.20 μg/g.cr outside fuel dispensers). The risk characterization results showed that most of the risks were at level 1 (low risk), as observed in 108 people (54.0%). The results of the analysis of the relationship between t,t-muconic acid concentrations classified by 3 levels of percentile and neurological disorders of the study group, the results showed that there was a statistically significant relationship (p-value <0.05). Conclusion. Therefore, the benzene neurotoxic risk assessment model could be utilized in field practice

    Factors influencing cooking method, frequency, and duration of meal preparation in Moroccan households

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    Background. The construction of the consumer’s identity is dependent on how they prepare their meals. Objective. Study the cooking methods, frequency, and duration of meal preparation in Moroccan households as well as the associated factors. Materials and methods. This work is a part of a study with a validated conceptual and methodological framework that was conducted in 507 households in the region of Rabat-Salé-Kenitra in Morocco. The characteristics of the population and data on the cooking methods, frequency, and duration of meal preparation were collected by a survey. Associations between variables were studied by univariate logistic regression with a significance level of p<0.05. Results. The majority of the population was aged between 35 and 65 years (76%) and lived in urban areas (70%). The univariate analysis showed that the urban area was a factor that hindered stewing (p=0.009), while the work status (p=0.04) and the marital status “Married” (p=0.04) were favorable factors; the household size (p=0.02) is a factor favoring steaming method; urban area (p=0.04), work status (p 0.03), nuclear family type (p<0.001), and household size (p=0.02) are factors hindering the use of oven cooking; urban area (p=0.02) and higher education level (p=0.04) are factors favoring the use of fried food, age category [20-34] years (p=0.04), higher education level (p=0.01) and work status (p=0.01) were factors that favored the use of grilling; nuclear family type, (p=0.04) and household size (p=0.03) were factors that hindered the preparation of breakfast; urban area (p=0.03) and Arab ethnicity (p=0.04) are factors hindering snack preparation; urban area (p<0.001) is a factor favoring dinner preparation; household size (p=0.01) and use of stewing at least four times a week (p=0.002) are factors hindering meal preparation time, while use of baking (p=0.01) is a favoring factor. Conclusion. The study results point towards the implementation of a nutritional education strategy based on combining habits, preferences, and good cooking practices

    Selected personal resources and nutritional behaviours of Polish handball players

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    Background. Diet, as one of the factors influencing exercise capacity depends, among others, on individual conditions. Objective. The aim of the study was to analyse the nutritional behaviours of Polish handball players depending on their level of generalised self-efficacy as well as disposable optimism and satisfaction with life. Material and methods. The study was carried out among a group of 142 men, aged 20-34, professionally training handball, using the author’s original nutritional behaviour questionnaire and the Generalised Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), the Life Orientation Scale (LOT-R) and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Statistical analysis of the results was conducted by estimating Spearman’s signed rank correlation coefficients, assuming the significance level of p <0.05. Results. To the highest degree, the handball players fulfilled recommendations regarding the regular consumption of at least 3 meals a day, adequate fluid supplementation in conditions of physical exercise and eating the most caloric meal before or after main training sessions. Along with the increase in sense of efficacy (GSES), the scale of reducing sweet and salty snacks increased (p<0.05). Increasing optimism was conducive to proper hydration (p<0.05) and avoidance of sweet and salty snacks (p<0.05). With the increase in sense of satisfaction with life, the implementation of recommendations regarding the consumption of dairy products and vegetable fats, as well as adequate fluid supplementation in conditions of physical exercise, increased (p<0.05). Conclusion. In the studied group of handball players, a limited scale of implementing qualitative nutritional recommendations for athletes was demonstrated. Moreover, positive correlations were noted between the analysed personal resources and some rational nutritional behaviours of the athletes, especially in terms of avoiding non-recommended products and correct fluid replenishment

    Folic acid - importance for human health and its role in COVID-19 therapy

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    Folic acid (folacin, B9) is a vitamin that performs many very important functions in the human body, and its inadequate level - deficiency as well as excess, may contribute to an increased risk of developing many disease processes. The aim of this study was to analyze the available scientific literature on folic acid and its impact on human health. A systematic review of the studies, published until November 2022, was made on the basis of searching bibliographic databases such as: PubMed, Elsevier and Google Scholar. The following keywords and combinations were used: folic acid, folate, folic acid supplementation, folate deficiency. Folic acid, thanks to its high biological activity, has a direct and indirect effect on the metabolism of the human body cells. It plays a very important role, among others in the prevention of neural tube defects and megaloblastic anemia, the proper functioning of the nervous system, as well as reducing the risk of developing certain cancers. Currently, the important role of folic acid in maintaining the proper functioning of the immune system is also emphasized, which is of particular importance both in the prevention and in the situation of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection. The effects of deficiency and excess of vitamin B9 may turn out to be dangerous to health and even life. There is a need for nutritional and health education of the society regarding the importance of folic acid for human health, due to the presence of large deficiencies in the population, which is particularly important for some social groups, such as, for example, women of procreation age, pregnant or breastfeeding, people with a nutrient malabsorption, and people who smoke or abuse alcohol

    In Memoriam: Professor Stanislaw Kafel (1927-2023)

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    Professor Stanisław Kafel passed away on March 23, 2023 in Warsaw, Poland. He was a distinguished employee of the Institute of Food and Nutrition (IŻŻ) in Warsaw, incorporated in 2020 into the structures of the National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. As an outstanding expert in meat hygiene, Professor Stanislaw Kafel, has also worked for the Food Agriculture Organisation(FAO) in Rome and the World Health Organisation (WHO) in Geneva

    Benefits of sea buckthorn juice consumption in women of productive age with hypercholesterolemia

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    Background. Sea buckthorn contains almost 200 nutrients and bioactive substances, including phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, vitamins, proteins, amino acids, minerals, alkaloids, chlorophyll derivatives, amines, organic acids, fatty acids and phytosterols. Human and animal studies suggest that sea buckthorn may have a variety of beneficial effects: cardioprotective, antiatherogenic, antioxidant, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antibacterial, antiviral and antiinflammatory. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of regular consumption of 100% sea buckthorn juice on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in women of productive age with hypercholesterolemia. Material and Methods. A clinical study involved 19 women with a mean age of 54.06 ±2.97 years who consumed 50 mL of sea buckthorn juice daily for 8 weeks. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters in blood serum were monitored before the start of sea buckthorn consumption and after 8 weeks of consumption. Body composition was determined using an multifrequency analyzer InBody720. Routine biochemical analyzes were performed by standard methods in an accredited laboratory of the University Hospital by automatic biochemical analyzer BioMajesty JCA-BM6010/C. Statistical comparison between individual measurements was performed using a paired t-test, using Statistica Cz version 10 (TIBCO Software, Inc., Palo Alto, CA, USA). Results. We observed significant decrease of body weight, body mass index (P0.05). After the intervention, we observed decrease of orosomucoid, immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M (P<0.001) and C-reactive protein (P<0.01). Conclusions. The obtained results support the hypothesis that the daily consumption of sea buckthorn juice for eight weeks could contribute to the beneficial effects of reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as the reduction of body and visceral fat, LDL-C, CRP and the increase of HDL-C
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