555,091 research outputs found

    Patterns of Participation and Motivation in Folding@home: The Contribution of Hardware Enthusiasts and Overclockers

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    Folding@home is a distributed computing project in which participants run protein folding simulations on their computers. Participants complete work units and are awarded points for their contribution. An investigation into motivations to participate and patterns of participation revealed the significant contribution of a sub-community composed of individuals who custom-build computers to maximise their processing power. These individuals, known as “overclockers” or “hardware enthusiasts,” use distributed computing projects such as Folding@home to benchmark their modified computers and to compete with one another to see who can process the greatest number of project work units. Many are initially drawn to the project to learn about computer hardware from other overclockers and to compete for points. However, once they learn more about the scientific outputs of Folding@home, some participants become more motivated by the desire to contribute to scientific research. Overclockers form numerous online communities where members collaborate and help each other maximise their computing output. They invest heavily in their computers and process the majority of Folding@home’s simulations, thus providing an invaluable (and free) resource

    Early computing and data processing in Malta

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    Malta has been a heavy user of computers only since the 1980s, following the availability of the personal computer. Before that date, the diffusion of computers in Malta was slow. This paper describes the supply and application of computers from the late 1960s until the early 1980s. The state of computing and the slow take-up of computers is analysed and explained. The paper concludes with an explanation for 'fake off' in the 1980s.peer-reviewe

    LaRC local area networks to support distributed computing

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    The Langley Research Center's (LaRC) Local Area Network (LAN) effort is discussed. LaRC initiated the development of a LAN to support a growing distributed computing environment at the Center. The purpose of the network is to provide an improved capability (over inteactive and RJE terminal access) for sharing multivendor computer resources. Specifically, the network will provide a data highway for the transfer of files between mainframe computers, minicomputers, work stations, and personal computers. An important influence on the overall network design was the vital need of LaRC researchers to efficiently utilize the large CDC mainframe computers in the central scientific computing facility. Although there was a steady migration from a centralized to a distributed computing environment at LaRC in recent years, the work load on the central resources increased. Major emphasis in the network design was on communication with the central resources within the distributed environment. The network to be implemented will allow researchers to utilize the central resources, distributed minicomputers, work stations, and personal computers to obtain the proper level of computing power to efficiently perform their jobs

    DNA Computation Based Approach for Enhanced Computing Power

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    DNA computing is a discipline that aims at harnessing individual molecules at the nano-scopic level for computational purposes. Computation with DNA molecules possesses an inherent interest for researchers in computers and biology. Given its vast parallelism and high-density storage, DNA computing approaches are employed to solve many problems. DNA has also been explored as an excellent material and a fundamental building block for building large-scale nanostructures, constructing individual nano-mechanical devices, and performing computations. Molecular-scale autonomous programmable computers are demonstrated allowing both input and output information to be in molecular form. This paper presents a review of recent advancements in DNA computing and presents major achievements and challenges for researchers in the coming future

    Quantum Computing with Very Noisy Devices

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    In theory, quantum computers can efficiently simulate quantum physics, factor large numbers and estimate integrals, thus solving otherwise intractable computational problems. In practice, quantum computers must operate with noisy devices called ``gates'' that tend to destroy the fragile quantum states needed for computation. The goal of fault-tolerant quantum computing is to compute accurately even when gates have a high probability of error each time they are used. Here we give evidence that accurate quantum computing is possible with error probabilities above 3% per gate, which is significantly higher than what was previously thought possible. However, the resources required for computing at such high error probabilities are excessive. Fortunately, they decrease rapidly with decreasing error probabilities. If we had quantum resources comparable to the considerable resources available in today's digital computers, we could implement non-trivial quantum computations at error probabilities as high as 1% per gate.Comment: 47 page

    Machine Understanding of Human Behavior

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    A widely accepted prediction is that computing will move to the background, weaving itself into the fabric of our everyday living spaces and projecting the human user into the foreground. If this prediction is to come true, then next generation computing, which we will call human computing, should be about anticipatory user interfaces that should be human-centered, built for humans based on human models. They should transcend the traditional keyboard and mouse to include natural, human-like interactive functions including understanding and emulating certain human behaviors such as affective and social signaling. This article discusses a number of components of human behavior, how they might be integrated into computers, and how far we are from realizing the front end of human computing, that is, how far are we from enabling computers to understand human behavior
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