46,081 research outputs found

    Hot-spot analysis for drug discovery targeting protein-protein interactions

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    Introduction: Protein-protein interactions are important for biological processes and pathological situations, and are attractive targets for drug discovery. However, rational drug design targeting protein-protein interactions is still highly challenging. Hot-spot residues are seen as the best option to target such interactions, but their identification requires detailed structural and energetic characterization, which is only available for a tiny fraction of protein interactions. Areas covered: In this review, the authors cover a variety of computational methods that have been reported for the energetic analysis of protein-protein interfaces in search of hot-spots, and the structural modeling of protein-protein complexes by docking. This can help to rationalize the discovery of small-molecule inhibitors of protein-protein interfaces of therapeutic interest. Computational analysis and docking can help to locate the interface, molecular dynamics can be used to find suitable cavities, and hot-spot predictions can focus the search for inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. Expert opinion: A major difficulty for applying rational drug design methods to protein-protein interactions is that in the majority of cases the complex structure is not available. Fortunately, computational docking can complement experimental data. An interesting aspect to explore in the future is the integration of these strategies for targeting PPIs with large-scale mutational analysis.This work has been funded by grants BIO2016-79930-R and SEV-2015-0493 from the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness, and grant EFA086/15 from EU Interreg V POCTEFA. M Rosell is supported by an FPI fellowship from the Severo Ochoa program. The authors are grateful for the support of the the Joint BSC-CRG-IRB Programme in Computational Biology.Peer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft

    DockPro: A VR-Based Tool for Protein-Protein Docking Problem

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    Proteins are large molecules that are vital for all living organisms and they are essential components of many industrial products. The process of binding a protein to another is called protein-protein docking. Many automated algorithms have been proposed to find docking configurations that might yield promising protein-protein complexes. However, these automated methods are likely to come up with false positives and have high computational costs. Consequently, Virtual Reality has been used to take advantage of user's experience on the problem; and proposed applications can be further improved. Haptic devices have been used for molecular docking problems; but they are inappropriate for protein-protein docking due to their workspace limitations. Instead of haptic rendering of forces, we provide a novel visual feedback for simulating physicochemical forces of proteins. We propose an interactive 3D application, DockPro, which enables domain experts to come up with dockings of protein-protein couples by using magnetic trackers and gloves in front of a large display

    A Novel Scoring Based Distributed Protein Docking Application to Improve Enrichment

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    Molecular docking is a computational technique which predicts the binding energy and the preferred binding mode of a ligand to a protein target. Virtual screening is a tool which uses docking to investigate large chemical libraries to identify ligands that bind favorably to a protein target. We have developed a novel scoring based distributed protein docking application to improve enrichment in virtual screening. The application addresses the issue of time and cost of screening in contrast to conventional systematic parallel virtual screening methods in two ways. Firstly, it automates the process of creating and launching multiple independent dockings on a high performance computing cluster. Secondly, it uses a N˙ aive Bayes scoring function to calculate binding energy of un-docked ligands to identify and preferentially dock (Autodock predicted) better binders. The application was tested on four proteins using a library of 10,573 ligands. In all the experiments, (i). 200 of the 1000 best binders are identified after docking only 14% of the chemical library, (ii). 9 or 10 best-binders are identified after docking only 19% of the chemical library, and (iii). no significant enrichment is observed after docking 70% of the chemical library. The results show significant increase in enrichment of potential drug leads in early rounds of virtual screening

    Computational structure‐based drug design: Predicting target flexibility

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    The role of molecular modeling in drug design has experienced a significant revamp in the last decade. The increase in computational resources and molecular models, along with software developments, is finally introducing a competitive advantage in early phases of drug discovery. Medium and small companies with strong focus on computational chemistry are being created, some of them having introduced important leads in drug design pipelines. An important source for this success is the extraordinary development of faster and more efficient techniques for describing flexibility in three‐dimensional structural molecular modeling. At different levels, from docking techniques to atomistic molecular dynamics, conformational sampling between receptor and drug results in improved predictions, such as screening enrichment, discovery of transient cavities, etc. In this review article we perform an extensive analysis of these modeling techniques, dividing them into high and low throughput, and emphasizing in their application to drug design studies. We finalize the review with a section describing our Monte Carlo method, PELE, recently highlighted as an outstanding advance in an international blind competition and industrial benchmarks.We acknowledge the BSC-CRG-IRB Joint Research Program in Computational Biology. This work was supported by a grant from the Spanish Government CTQ2016-79138-R.J.I. acknowledges support from SVP-2014-068797, awarded by the Spanish Government.Peer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft

    Evolutionary Multi-Objective Design of SARS-CoV-2 Protease Inhibitor Candidates

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    Computational drug design based on artificial intelligence is an emerging research area. At the time of writing this paper, the world suffers from an outbreak of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. A promising way to stop the virus replication is via protease inhibition. We propose an evolutionary multi-objective algorithm (EMOA) to design potential protease inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2's main protease. Based on the SELFIES representation the EMOA maximizes the binding of candidate ligands to the protein using the docking tool QuickVina 2, while at the same time taking into account further objectives like drug-likeliness or the fulfillment of filter constraints. The experimental part analyzes the evolutionary process and discusses the inhibitor candidates.Comment: 15 pages, 7 figures, submitted to PPSN 202

    Virtual screening for NS5B inhibitors of Hepatitis C virus

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    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is a serious cause of chronic liver disease worldwide with more than 170 million infected individuals at a risk of developing significant morbidity and mortality. To date there is no effective drug for the treatment or vaccine to prevent this infection. The present study aims to discover novel inhibitors which target an allosteric binding site of RNA dependent RNA polymerase enzyme of HCV. A structure based virtual screening of Zinc database by computational docking and the post docking analysis of energy calculations and interactions followed by ADMET studies were conducted. Our study revealed 10 compounds which has more potential than the existing inhibitor to be considered as lead compounds.
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    Protein Docking by the Underestimation of Free Energy Funnels in the Space of Encounter Complexes

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    Similarly to protein folding, the association of two proteins is driven by a free energy funnel, determined by favorable interactions in some neighborhood of the native state. We describe a docking method based on stochastic global minimization of funnel-shaped energy functions in the space of rigid body motions (SE(3)) while accounting for flexibility of the interface side chains. The method, called semi-definite programming-based underestimation (SDU), employs a general quadratic function to underestimate a set of local energy minima and uses the resulting underestimator to bias further sampling. While SDU effectively minimizes functions with funnel-shaped basins, its application to docking in the rotational and translational space SE(3) is not straightforward due to the geometry of that space. We introduce a strategy that uses separate independent variables for side-chain optimization, center-to-center distance of the two proteins, and five angular descriptors of the relative orientations of the molecules. The removal of the center-to-center distance turns out to vastly improve the efficiency of the search, because the five-dimensional space now exhibits a well-behaved energy surface suitable for underestimation. This algorithm explores the free energy surface spanned by encounter complexes that correspond to local free energy minima and shows similarity to the model of macromolecular association that proceeds through a series of collisions. Results for standard protein docking benchmarks establish that in this space the free energy landscape is a funnel in a reasonably broad neighborhood of the native state and that the SDU strategy can generate docking predictions with less than 5 ïżœ ligand interface Ca root-mean-square deviation while achieving an approximately 20-fold efficiency gain compared to Monte Carlo methods
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