312,396 research outputs found

    Identifikasi Molekuler Bean Common Mosaic Virus Yang Berasosiasi Dengan Penyakit Mosaik Kuning Kacang Panjang

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    Molecular identification of bean common mosaic virus associated with yellow mosaic disease on yard long bean. Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) has been reported as one of the causal agents of yellow mosaic disease on yard long bean in West Java and Central Java. Infected plants showed mosaic, yellowing, and mixture of yellow mosaic. The research was conducted to identify the diversity of BCMV associated with yellow mosaic disease based on coat protein (CP) gene sequences. Symptomatic leaf samples were collected from yard long bean growing areas in several districts in West Java (Bogor, Cirebon, Subang, and Indramayu), and several districts in Central Java (Tegal, Klaten, Solo, Yogjakarta, Sleman, and Magelang). Molecular detection using RT-PCR method was carried out by using specific primer to BCMV which will amplify the CP gene. DNA fragment, + 860 bp in size, was successfully amplified from 8 out of 13 leaf samples, i.e samples from three villages in Bogor District (Cangkurawok, Bubulak, Bojong), and five samples from District of Cirebon, Subang, Solo, Sleman, and Tegal. Sequence analysis of those DNA fragment showed that 4 isolates (Bogor-Cangkurawok, Subang, Solo and Sleman) had the highest homology to BCMV-BlC from Taiwan, whereas 2 isolates (Cirebon and Tegal) had the highest homology to BCMVNL1 from England. Further, phyllogenetic analysis revealed that those of 4 isolates were closely related to BCMV-BlC from Taiwan based on nucleotide as well as amino acid sequences; while those other 2 isolates were closely related to BCMV-NL1 from England based on nucleotide sequences but closely related to BCMV-BlC Y from China based on amino acid sequences. Phyllogenetic analysis showed that those of 6 BCMV isolates separated in two different clusters; 4 isolates (Bogor- Cangkurawok, Subang, Solo, and Sleman) in cluster 1 together with BCMV-BlC from Taiwan, while other 2 isolates (Cirebon and Tegal) in cluster 2 together with BCMV-NL1

    Common bean mosaic

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    COMMON bean mosaic is a widespread disease which attacks both dwarf and pole bean varieties. The disease is caused by an infective principle or virus which spreads throughout the sap of affected plants, and causes both delayed maturity and drastic reduction in yield

    An effective virus-based gene silencing method for functional genomics studies in common bean

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    BACKGROUND: Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a crop of economic and nutritious importance in many parts of the world. The lack of genomic resources have impeded the advancement of common bean genomics and thereby crop improvement. Although concerted efforts from the "Phaseomics" consortium have resulted in the development of several genomic resources, functional studies have continued to lag due to the recalcitrance of this crop for genetic transformation. RESULTS: Here we describe the use of a bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)-based vector for silencing of endogenous genes in common bean as well as for protein expression. This BPMV-based vector was originally developed for use in soybean. It has been successfully employed for both protein expression and gene silencing in this species. We tested this vector for applications in common bean by targeting common bean genes encoding nodulin 22 and stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase for silencing. Our results indicate that the BPMV vector can indeed be employed for reverse genetics studies of diverse biological processes in common bean. We also used the BPMV-based vector for expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in common bean and demonstrate stable GFP expression in all common bean tissues where BPMV was detected. CONCLUSIONS: The availability of this vector is an important advance for the common bean research community not only because it provides a rapid means for functional studies in common bean, but also because it does so without generating genetically modified plants. Here we describe the detailed methodology and provide essential guidelines for the use of this vector for both gene silencing and protein expression in common bean. The entire VIGS procedure can be completed in 4-5 weeks

    Paleolinguistics brings more light on the earliest history of the traditional Eurasian pulse crops

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    Traditional pulse crops such as pea, lentil, field bean, bitter vetch, chickpea and common vetch originate from Middle East, Mediterranean and Central Asia^1^. They were a part of human diets in hunter-gatherers communities^2^ and are one of the most ancient cultivated crops^3,4^. Europe has always been rich in languages^5^, with individual families still preserving common vocabularies related to agriculture^6,7^. The evidence on the early pulse history witnessed by the attested roots in diverse Eurasian proto-languages remains insufficiently clarified and its potential for supporting archaeobotanical findings is still non-assessed. Here we show that the paleolinguistic research may contribute to archaeobotany in understanding the role traditional Eurasian pulse crops had in the everyday life of ancient Europeans. It was found that the Proto-Indo-European language^8,9^ had the largest number of roots directly related to pulses, such as *arnk(')- (a leguminous plant), *bhabh- (field bean), *erəgw[h]- (a kernel of leguminous plant; pea), *ghArs- (a leguminous plant), *kek-, *k'ik'- (pea) and *lent- (lentil)^10,11,12^, numerous words subsequently related to pulses^13,14^ and borrowings from one branch to another^15^, confirming their essential place in the nutrition of Proto-Indo-Europeans^16,17,18^. It was also determined that pea was the most important among Proto-Uralic people^19,20,21^, while pea and lentil were the most significant in the agriculture of Proto-Altaic people^22,23,24^. Pea and bean were most common among Caucasians^25,26^, Basques^27,28^ and their hypothetical common forefathers^29^ and bean and lentil among the Afro-Asiatic ancestors of modern Maltese^30^. Our results demonstrate that pulses were common among the ancestors of present European nations and that paleolinguistics and its lexicological and etymological analysis may be useful in better understanding the earliest days of traditional Eurasian crops. We believe our results could be a basis for advanced multidisciplinary approach to the pulse crop domestication, involving plant scientists, archaeobotanists and linguists, and for reconstructing even earlier periods of pulse history

    Effect of row arrangement of common bean with maize intercropping on yield and economic benefit of component crops under Gimbo and Guraferda, Kaffa and Bench maji zones, south Ethiopia

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    The yield advantage obtained due to intercropping is attributed to a better use of resources by crops grown in combinations, as compared to sole stands. Field experiment conducted at Gimbo and Guraferda during 2017 and 2018 cropping seasons in order to determine the appropriate intercropping row arrangement on maize-common bean yield and economic advantages of the cropping system. Maize variety BH-540 and common bean variety Hawassa dume were used as test crop. The experiment used four treatments (sole maize, sole common bean, 1:1 maize-common bean and 1:2 maize-common bean intercropping) arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Grain yield of the component crops were significantly varied by locations. The highest maize yield was recorded at Guraferda than Gimbo; whereas, common bean yielded better at Guraferda than at Gimbo. The combined mean grain yield of maize and common bean was significantly (p<0.05) higher for sole stands than intercropping. The highest yield of 6545.7 and 5570.6 kg ha-1 was obtained from sole maize at Guraferda and Gimbo locations, respectively. On the other hand, the highest yield of 3407.2 and 2638.0 kg ha-1 was obtained from growing sole common bean at Gimbo and Guraferda locations, respectively. The yield obtained from 1:1 maize-common bean intercropping was statistically same with sole maize yield at Guraferda. The highest LER of 1.62 and 1.52 with MAI of 15,268.05 and 13.695.90 ETB ha-1 obtained from 1:1 maize-common bean intercropping at Guraferda and Gimbo locations, respectively. Generally, growing 1:1 maize-common bean intercropping found to be more productive and economically profitable than others. Hence, a one row common bean intercropped between the two rows of maize can be recommended in the lowlands of Gimbo and Guraferda areas

    Reaction of Tepary Beans to Eight Virulent Races of the Rust Pathogen that Overcomes All Known Common Bean Rust Resistance Genes

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    Bean rust, caused by Uromyces appendiculatus, is a major disease of common and snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) worldwide (Stavely, 1984). Although host resistance is an important component of rust management (Mmbaga et al., 1996), populations of the rust pathogen comprise an extensive and shifting virulence diversity that could render susceptible all known rust resistance genes in common bean. Conversely, it has been suggested that certain tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) accessions are broadly resistant to bean rust (Miklas & Stavely, 1998). The objectives of this study were to verify if tepary beans are resistant to eight races of the bean rust pathogen, which overcome all known rust resistance genes in common bean. Then, to select the resistant genotypes to cross with common beans without embryo rescue

    Challenges and opportunities in common bean production and marketing in Botswana: Prospects and farmer’s perspectives

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    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most consumed legume crop in the world, and one of the most consumed legume crops in Botswana. This study aims to identify constraints and opportunities in common beans production in order to enhance common bean production in the country. A survey was conducted among 287 farmers in two districts of Southern and Chobe with farmers selected by multi-stage sampling technique. The majority of farmers were female (66.1%), a few farmers planted common bean (11.5%). Slightly more than a quarter (27.8%) of farmers were above the age of 65 years. Constraints to production included pests and diseases, damage by animals, lack of labour, drought, and lack of seeds. Seven percent of farmers assumed that common bean was a drought tolerant crop and 33% of farmers said common bean taste better than other pulses. However, only 21% preferred to grow it. More farmers (13.2%) grew common bean in the Southern district than farmers in the Chobe district (7.0%). Farmers who grew common bean bought their seeds from Agro dealers (76%) with an average amount of 6kg of seed purchased at a time at an average price of $1.11 kg-1. Common bean was planted on 7% of the arable land that was planted. Most of the farmers (87%) were not trained in common bean production and received little or no assistance from extension officers resulting in little knowledge by farmers about the production of common beans. Strategies to create awareness are needed to facilitate access and mobilise farmers to adopt common beans to improve their livelihoods. This is particularly encouraged in agro-ecological zones such as Chobe with high yield producing potential. Development of seed systems and release of varieties tested in Botswana agro-ecological zones, would increase the production of common bean to improve food security and nutrition, and reduce import bill in Botswana.&nbsp