291,609 research outputs found

    Family history of prostate and colorectal cancer and risk of colorectal cancer in the Women's health initiative.

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    BackgroundEvidence suggests that risk of colorectal and prostate cancer is increased among those with a family history of the same disease, particularly among first-degree relatives. However, the aggregation of colorectal and prostate cancer within families has not been well investigated.MethodsAnalyses were conducted among participants of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational cohort, free of cancer at the baseline examination. Subjects were followed for colorectal cancer through August 31st, 2009. A Cox-proportional hazards regression modeling approach was used to estimate risk of colorectal cancer associated with a family history of prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and both cancers among first-degree relatives of all participants and stratified by race (African American vs. White).ResultsOf 75,999 eligible participants, there were 1122 colorectal cancer cases diagnosed over the study period. A family history of prostate cancer alone was not associated with an increase in colorectal cancer risk after adjustment for confounders (aHR =0.94; 95% CI =0.76, 1.15). Separate analysis examining the joint impact, a family history of both colorectal and prostate cancer was associated with an almost 50% increase in colorectal cancer risk (aHR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.10), but similar to those with a family history of colorectal cancer only (95% CI = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.11, 1.54).ConclusionsOur findings suggest risk of colorectal cancer is increased similarly among women with colorectal cancer only and among those with both colorectal and prostate cancer diagnosed among first-degree family members. Future studies are needed to determine the relative contribution of genes and shared environment to the risk of both cancers

    The global, regional, and national burden of colorectal cancer and its attributable risk factors in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

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    BACKGROUND: Data about the global, regional, and country-specific variations in the levels and trends of colorectal cancer are required to understand the impact of this disease and the trends in its burden to help policy makers allocate resources. Here we provide a status report on the incidence, mortality, and disability caused by colorectal cancer in 195 countries and territories between 1990 and 2017. METHODS: Vital registration, sample vital registration, verbal autopsy, and cancer registry data were used to generate incidence, death, and disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) estimates of colorectal cancer at the global, regional, and national levels. We also determined the association between development levels and colorectal cancer age-standardised DALY rates, and calculated DALYs attributable to risk factors that had evidence of causation with colorectal cancer. All of the estimates are reported as counts and age-standardised rates per 100 000 person-years, with some estimates also presented by sex and 5-year age groups. FINDINGS: In 2017, there were 1·8 million (95% UI 1·8-1·9) incident cases of colorectal cancer globally, with an age-standardised incidence rate of 23·2 (22·7-23·7) per 100 000 person-years that increased by 9·5% (4·5-13·5) between 1990 and 2017. Globally, colorectal cancer accounted for 896 000 (876 300-915 700) deaths in 2017, with an age-standardised death rate of 11·5 (11·3-11·8) per 100 000 person-years, which decreased between 1990 and 2017 (-13·5% [-18·4 to -10·0]). Colorectal cancer was also responsible for 19·0 million (18·5-19·5) DALYs globally in 2017, with an age-standardised rate of 235·7 (229·7-242·0) DALYs per 100 000 person-years, which decreased between 1990 and 2017 (-14·5% [-20·4 to -10·3]). Slovakia, the Netherlands, and New Zealand had the highest age-standardised incidence rates in 2017. Greenland, Hungary, and Slovakia had the highest age-standardised death rates in 2017. Numbers of incident cases and deaths were higher among males than females up to the ages of 80-84 years, with the highest rates observed in the oldest age group (≥95 years) for both sexes in 2017. There was a non-linear association between the Socio-demographic Index and the Healthcare Access and Quality Index and age-standardised DALY rates. In 2017, the three largest contributors to DALYs at the global level, for both sexes, were diet low in calcium (20·5% [12·9-28·9]), alcohol use (15·2% [12·1-18·3]), and diet low in milk (14·3% [5·1-24·8]). INTERPRETATION: There is substantial global variation in the burden of colorectal cancer. Although the overall colorectal cancer age-standardised death rate has been decreasing at the global level, the increasing age-standardised incidence rate in most countries poses a major public health challenge across the world. The results of this study could be useful for policy makers to carry out cost-effective interventions and to reduce exposure to modifiable risk factors, particularly in countries with high incidence or increasing burden. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

    Mouse models of colorectal cancer.

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    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world. Many mouse models have been developed to evaluate features of colorectal cancer in humans. These can be grouped into genetically-engineered, chemically-induced, and inoculated models. However, none recapitulates all of the characteristics of human colorectal cancer. It is critical to use a specific mouse model to address a particular research question. Here, we review commonly used mouse models for human colorectal cancer

    Atrial fibrillation and survival in colorectal cancer

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    BACKGROUND: Survival in colorectal cancer may correlate with the degree of systemic inflammatory response to the tumour. Atrial fibrillation may be regarded as an inflammatory complication. We aimed to determine if atrial fibrillation is a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective colorectal cancer patient database was cross-referenced with the hospital clinical-coding database to identify patients who had underwent colorectal cancer surgery and were in atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. RESULTS: A total of 175 patients underwent surgery for colorectal cancer over a two-year period. Of these, 13 patients had atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Atrial fibrillation correlated with worse two-year survival (p = 0.04; log-rank test). However, in a Cox regression analysis, atrial fibrillation was not significantly associated with survival. CONCLUSION: The presence or development of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer is associated with worse overall survival, however it was not found to be an independent factor in multivariate analysis

    Downregulation of plasma MiR-142-3p and MiR-26a-5p in patients with colorectal carcinoma

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    Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and cancer- related death worldwide. Identification of new specific biomarkers could be helpful to detection of this malignancy. Altered plasma microRNA expression has been identified in many cancers, including colorectal cancer. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to identify the circulating microRNAs with the most expression changes in colorectal cancer patients compared with neoplasm free healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: MicroRNA expression profiling was performed on plasma samples of 37 colorectal cancer patients and 8 normal subjects using microRNA microarray. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to validate the two selected altered microR NAs. Plasma samples from 61 colorectal cancer patients and 24 normal subjects were used in our validation study. Results: In profiling study we found a panel of six plasma microRNAs with significant downregulation. MicroRNA-142-3p and microRNA-26a-5p were selected and validated by polymerase chain reaction. Our results demonstrated that expression levels of plasma microRNA-142-3p and microRNA-26a-5p were significantly downregulated in patients with colorectal cancer when compared to control group. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that downregulation of plasma microRNA-142-3p and microRNA-26a-5p might serve as novel noninvasive biomarkers in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer, although more studies are needed to highlight the theoretical strengths. © 2015, Iranian Journal of Cancer Prevention

    Colorectal Cancer Screening Behaviors among American Indians in the Midwest

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    Colorectal cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer among American Indians and is also the second leading cause of cancer death. We used a community-based participatory approach to conduct a mixed methods study to examine colorectal cancer screening behaviors. Here we report on the screening behaviors of our focus group participants (n=153). There were significant gender differences in the colorectal cancer screening rates for FOBT and colonoscopy. Although over 80% of participants reported having health insurance, only 35% of males over 50 years old and 57% of females reported ever having a colonoscopy. More research is needed to identify the causes of gender differences in colorectal cancer screening rates among American Indians. The results of the current study provide new information on the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening among American Indians living in the Midwestern (Kansas and Missouri) portion of the country

    BH3 mimetic ABT-737 sensitizes colorectal cancer cells to ixazomib through MCL-1 downregulation and autophagy inhibition.

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    The proteasome inhibitor MLN9708 is an orally administered drug that is hydrolyzed into its active form, MLN2238 (ixazomib). Compared with Bortezomib, MLN2238 has a shorter proteasome dissociation half-life and a lower incidence and severity of peripheral neuropathy, which makes it an attractive candidate for colorectal cancer treatment. In the present study, we observed that MLN2238 induced autophagy, as evidenced by conversion of the autophagosomal marker LC3 from LC3I to LC3II, in colorectal cancer cell lines. Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein, was markedly elevated after treating a colorectal cancer cell line with MLN2238. We proved that inhibiting Mcl-1 expression enhances MLN2238 induced apoptosis and negatively regulates autophagy. Co-administration of BH3 mimetic ABT-737 with MLN2238 synergistically kills colorectal cancer cells through MCL-1 neutralization and autophagy inhibition. Furthermore, the synergistic killing effect of the combination therapy is correlated with P53 status in colorectal cancer. These data highlight that the combination of ABT-737 with MLN9708 is a promising therapeutic strategy for human colorectal cancer

    [Prognosis of colorectal cancer and socio-economic inequalities].

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    It is well established that socio-economic status is a major prognostic factor for many cancers, including colorectal cancer. The aims of this review are (i) to report epidemiological data showing how socio-economic status influences colorectal cancer survival, (ii) to attempt to describe the mechanisms underlying these survival inequalities, and (iii) to assess their impact on survival of colorectal cancer

    Increased prevalence of colorectal adenomas in women with breast cancer

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    Background: The frequency of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas was investigated in a large cohort of women with breast cancer in comparison with matched controls, since data on the occurrence of second tumors in women with breast cancer is controversial. Design: In a cohort study, 188 consecutive women (median age 57 years) with primary breast cancer and 376 age-matched women who served as controls were examined by total colonoscopy. Breast cancer patients and controls were compared for the frequency of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. Results: Women with breast cancer showed a higher risk of colorectal adenomas than controls (14.9 vs. 9.3%, p = 0.047, OR 1.7, 95% Cl 1.0-2.9). This increased prevalence resulted primarily from an increased prevalence in the age group 65-85 (31 vs. 10%, p = 0.004, OR 3.8, 95% Cl 1.6-9.3). Colorectal carcinomas were found infrequently in both groups (2 in each group). Women with breast cancer receiving anti-estrogen therapy showed a trend towards a lower risk of adenomas compared to women without anti-estrogen therapy (3.7 vs. 17.2%, p = 0.053, OR 0.16, 95% Cl 0.0-1.1). Conclusions: Women with breast cancer above the age of 65 years have an increased risk of colorectal adenomas compared to women without breast cancer. Women with a diagnosis of breast cancer should especially be encouraged to participate in colorectal cancer-screening programs which, in most countries, call for screening of all average-risk individuals over the age of 50 years