1,147,583 research outputs found

    Colombia Firm Energy Market

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    A firm energy market for Colombia is presented. Firm energy—the ability to provide energy in a dry period—is the product needed for reliability in Colombia’s hydro-dominated electricity market. The firm energy market coordinates investment in new resources to assure that sufficient firm energy is available in dry periods. Load procures in an annual auction enough firm energy to cover its needs. The firm energy product includes both a financial call option and the physical capability to supply firm energy. The call option protects load from high spot prices and improves the performance of the spot market during scarcity. The market provides strong performance incentives through the spot energy price. Market power is addressed directly: existing resources cannot impact the firm energy price. Since load is hedged from high spot prices, the market can rely on high prices to balance supply and demand during dry periods, rather than rationing.Auctions

    Comments Concerning Proposed United States-Andean Free Trade Agreement

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    Vogt presents two cases of US multinational corporations that benefit from violence against unionists in Colombia. He argues that a trade agreement with Colombia would normalize the violence instead of fight against it

    Energy and Sustainability 2015

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    The 6th International Conference on Energy and Sustainability was held in Medellin, Colombia, organised by the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (UPB), Colombia and the Wessex Institute (WIT), UK

    Labor Rights Comments to United States Trade Representatives Regarding Colombia Free Trade Agreement

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    Comments submitted to the United States Trade Representative following a request for comments concerning the Free Trade Agreement with the Republic of Colombia. They describe labor rights violations in Colombia and the role of the Colombian government in the repression of labor rights. The document urges the US government to support labor rights by requiring preconditions to be met by Colombia before entering into a trade agreement

    The multicolored Asian lady beetle : Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) ; a not so new invasive insect in Colombia and South America

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    The first reports of the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Colombia appeared in 2011. However, based on museum insect specimens, the introduction of H. axyridis in Colombia occurred in 1989 or earlier, making it the second oldest record of the species in South America after the deliberate releases of the species in Argentina in 1986. Currently in Colombia, H. axyridis is well established and is here recorded from the States of Antioquia, Caldas, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Nariño, Tolima and Valle del Cauca.Los primeros reportes de la mariquita multicolor asiática Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) aparecieron en el 2011. Sin embargo, con base en colecciones de insectos en museos, la introducción de H. axyridis en Colombia ocurrió en 1989 o antes, haciendo que este sea el segundo registro más antiguo de esta especie en Sur América, después de las liberaciones intencionales de la especie en Argentina en 1986. Actualmente en Colombia, H. axyridis está bien establecida y aquí se reporta en los departamentos de Antioquia, Caldas, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Nariño, Tolima y el Valle del Cauca

    Revision of the Anastrepha benjamini species group and the A. pallidipennis complex (Diptera: Tephritidae)

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    The shape of the facial carina in Altastreplia is discussed. Although taxonomically useful, the protrudent form probably occurs by convergence in different species groups. Two species groups in which the carina is usually produced are revised. The belljamini species group includes: belljamini Lima (from southeastern Brazil), gigantea Stone (from Panama), magna, n. sp. (from Colombia and Venezuela), and superj1ua Stone (from Panama). Host data for this group are limited to only one record of benjamilli from a species of Pouteria (Sapotaceae). The pallidipennis complex, which is included in the pseudoparallela species group, is recognized to include: amnis Stone (from southern Brazil and possibly Trinidad), curitis Stone (from Colombia, Peru, and northern Brazil), pallida, n. sp. (from Panama), pallidipennis Greene (from Colombia and Venezuela), and vele::i, n. sp. (from Colombia). These species breed in fruit of Passij10ra (Passifloraceae) (P. ambigua Hems., ligularis Juss., Idtida H.B.K., quadrallgularis L., and seemannii Griseb.). The relationships of these Anastrepliaspecies are discussed, and diagnoses and ill ustrations are provided to permit their identification. A neotype is designated for A. consobrina (Loew), and the identity of this species is clarified.Se discute la forma de la carina de la cara en Anastreplia. Aunque esta caracteristica es util taxonomicamente, probablemente la forma producida ocurre por convergencia en varios grupos de especies. Se revisan dos grupos de especies que normalmente tiene una carina producida. EI grupo benjamini incluye: benjamini Lima (del sureste de Brasil), gigantea Stone (de Panama), magna, sp. n. (de Colombia y Venezuela), y superj1ua Stone (de Panama). Datos de huespedes del grupo belljamini incluyen solo un registro de benjamini en una especie de Pouteria (Sapotaceae). EI complejo pallidipennis, que es una parte del grupo pseudoparallela incluye: amnis Stone (del sur de Brasil y tal vez de Trinidad), curitis Stone (de Colombia, Peru, y el norte de Brasil), pallida, sp. n. (de Panama), pallidipennis Greene (de Colombia y Venezuela), y velezi, sp. n. (de Colombia). Estas cinco especies se alimentan de frutos de Passij10ra (passifloraceae) (P. ambiguaHemsJ., ligularisJuss., nitida H.B.K., quadrangularis L., y seemannii Griseb.). Se discuten las relaciones de estas Anastrepila especies y se proveen diagnoses e ilustraciones para su identificacci6n. Se designa un neotipo de A. consobrina (Loew) , y se establece la identidad de esta especie

    The War on Illegal Drug Production and Trafficking: An Economic Evaluation of Plan Colombia.

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    This paper provides a thorough economic evaluation of the anti-drug policies implemented in Colombia between 2000 and 2006 under the so-called Plan Colombia. The paper develops a game theory model of the war against illegal drugs in producer countries. We explicitly model illegal drug markets, which allows us to account for the feedback effects between policies and market outcomes that are potentially important when evaluating large scale policy interventions such as Plan Colombia. We use available data for the war on cocaine production and trafficking as well as outcomes from the cocaine markets to calibrate the parameters of the model. Using the results from the calibration we estimate important measures of the costs, effectiveness, and efficiency of the war on drugs in Colombia. Finally we carry out simulations in order to assess the impact of increases in the U.S. budget allocated to Plan Colombia, and find that a three-fold increase in the U.S. budget allocated to the war on drugs in Colombia would decrease the amount of cocaine that succesfully reaches consumer countries by about 17%.Hard drugs, conflict, war on drugs, Plan Colombia

    Legislative Alert: US-Colombia Free Trade Agreement Labor Action Plan

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    [Excerpt] As the debate about the US-Colombia FTA comes to a head, advocates of the agreement have been making claims both about the remarkable progress in labor conditions in Colombia as well as the position of the AFL-CIO with respect to the adequacy of the Labor Action Plan (LAP)